State University of Santa Elena Peninsula
La Libertad, Ecuador
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PubMed | University of the Basque Country, Stanford University, State University of Santa Elena Peninsula, G.I. Tarha. Deparment of Historical science and 2 more.
Type: Historical Article | Journal: American journal of physical anthropology | Year: 2016

The Canary Islands are considered one of the first places where Atlantic slave plantations with labourers of African origin were established, during the 15th century AD. In Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), a unique cemetery dated to the 15th and 17th centuries was discovered adjacent to an ancient sugar plantation with funerary practices that could be related to enslaved people. In this article, we investigate the origin and possible birthplace of each individual buried in this cemetery, as well as the identity and social status of these people.The sample consists of 14 individuals radiocarbon dated to the 15th and 17th centuries AD. We have employed several methods, including the analysis of ancient human DNA, stable isotopes, and skeletal markers of physical activity.1) the funerary practices indicate a set of rituals not previously recorded in the Canary Islands; 2) genetic data show that some people buried in the cemetery could have North-African and sub-Saharan African lineages; 3) isotopic results suggest that some individuals were born outside Gran Canaria; and 4) markers of physical activity show a pattern of labour involving high levels of effort.This set of evidence, along with information from historical sources, suggests that Finca Clavijo was a cemetery for a multiethnic marginalized population that had being likely enslaved. Results also indicate that this population kept practicing non-Christian rituals well into the 17th century. We propose that this was possible because the location of the Canaries, far from mainland Spain and the control of the Spanish Crown, allowed the emergence of a new society with multicultural origins that was more tolerant to foreign rituals and syncretism.

Mansino S.,University of Valencia | Ruiz-Sanchez F.J.,University of Valencia | Ruiz-Sanchez F.J.,State University of Santa Elena Peninsula | Freudenthal M.,University of Granada | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association | Year: 2014

The species of the genus Apocricetus are considered to form the phyletic lineage A. aff. plinii (MN11)-. A. plinii-. A. alberti-. A. barrierei-. A. angustidens (MN16). Along this lineage, gradual morphological and biometrical changes occur, but not all the species are represented by rich populations. The assemblage of Apocricetus alberti from Venta del Moro is by far the most abundant collection of this species. This population shows a great morphological variability in some characters like the morphology of the anteroconid and the anterolophulids in m1 and the shape of the anterolophule in M1, with morphotypes that resemble both older and younger populations of Apocricetus. Along the phyletic lineage of Apocricetus, a change in the shape of m3 occurs, from predominantly subtriangular forms in the oldest populations to predominantly subrectangular in the youngest. To quantify this feature we use the posterior width of the molar and the anterior width/posterior width ratio, proposing five morphological categories, from extremely triangular to subrectangular. © 2014 The Geologists' Association.

Mansino S.,University of Valencia | Javier Ruiz-Sanchez F.,University of Valencia | Javier Ruiz-Sanchez F.,State University of Santa Elena Peninsula | Montoya P.,University of Valencia
Historical Biology | Year: 2016

Fossil squirrels are relatively abundant in Aragonian and Ramblian assemblages, but very scarce in the Late Turolian and Ruscinian of the Iberian Peninsula. Until now, the locality of Venta del Moro has yielded over 4500 micromammal dental remains, but just nine of them are sciurids. In this assemblage, we have identified the taxa Pliopetaurista pliocaenica, Heteroxerus cf. mariatheresae and Atlantoxerus cf. margaritae. This is the first co-occurrence of the genera Pliopetaurista, Heteroxerus and Atlantoxerus in the same locality, being also one of the oldest records of P. pliocaenica, the oldest record of a form that could be related to A. margaritae, and the youngest record of the genus Heteroxerus. In addition, we hypothesize about the phylogeny of Pliopetaurista in the light of recent discoveries. Finally, the presence of the genera Heteroxerus and Atlantoxerus suggests an open environment and relatively dry environmental conditions, while Pliopetaurista is purportedly a flying squirrel, dweller of forested habitats and wet climates. Based on this, we infer an open environment of grassland type, bordered by forested habitats, agreeing with the conditions supposed for Venta del Moro according to its macromammal and floral assemblages. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

PubMed | Technical University of Madrid, State University of Santa Elena Peninsula and Instituto Geologico Y Minero Of Espana
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

The Fuente de Piedra lake is a hypersaline wetland of great extension (13.5km

Diaz Nafria J.M.,University of León | Diaz Nafria J.M.,State University of Santa Elena Peninsula | Diaz Nafria J.M.,Munich University of Applied Sciences | Alfonso Cendon J.,University of León | Panizo Alonso L.,University of León
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2015

The social systems developed in the context of globalisation are further more complex that those arisen within the rule-of-law of the nation-states. The local, national and international relations impose into these social systems different force fields determining the space of possibilities in which they evolve. In this situation, the decision-making is correspondingly further more complex as to drive democratic participation from the root-level of individual members and stakeholders, all the way through until the global system. eParticipation represents a possibility to make it possible determined by the member perceptions of partaking in relevant decisions. A paradigmatic example of these globalised social structures is the European Higher Education System, in which very well defined local and national structures coexist with a normative field of globalised relations. Between 2010 and 2013 an eParticipation system was developed under EU support involving a significant number of universities from Europe and abroad. A flexible approach was used to adapt the system to the different contexts, whereas an analytical framework was set up to evaluate the experience in order to find guidance for future eParticipation developments. The socio-technical and analytical frameworks and the corresponding results are discussed aiming to propose a new architecture for eParticipation. This solution targets the challenges of the 21st century University in which the crossroads of learning analytics, eAdministration and eParticipation are deeply re-structuring the academic environment. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Bayas M.M.,Vinnytsia National Technical University | Dubovoy V.M.,State University of Santa Elena Peninsula
International Journal of Engineering and Technology | Year: 2013

One of the main challenges of the management of complex manufacturing processes is the development of hierarchical control systems. Effective control of technological processes can be achieved by using a distributed control system with multi-level hierarchical structure. The hierarchical structure is characterized by decomposition into interrelated local subsystems. These subsystems are controlled by local decision makers that require coordination. In this paper, the concept of coordination is understood as the act of making the right allocation of tasks and resources and management actions to meet the objectives of production. An optimization program, based on random walk methods, was applied to a dairy factory data for the optimization of the obtained profits.

Bayas M.M.,Vinnytsia National Technical University | Dubovoy B.M.,State University of Santa Elena Peninsula | Shegebaeva J.,Kazakh National Technical University | Gromaszek K.,Lublin University of Technology
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

The advisability of clustering of control tasks providing reduction of information flows needed to coordinate operational processes is demonstrated. Criterion and algorithm for optimal aggregation are proposed. The influence of the hierarchical structure of control system on the filling factor of information flow matrix is discussed. © 2015 SPIE.

Ayerza R.,State University of Santa Elena Peninsula
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2016

The chia (Salvia hispanica L.), belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is an annual herb that grows in summer. The present study was conducted on seeds commercially grown in two different ecosystems called Sub-Humid Chaco, in Bolivia, and Tropical Forest, in Ecuador. The crop year effect on the growing cycle length, seed yield, seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acids profile, was measured during four years. The seeds from Ecuador had higher average yields at each year crop, than the seeds from Bolivia. Overall, the oil of seeds from the Tropical Forest Ecosystem showed significant (P<0.05) higher content of α-linolenic fatty acid and significant (P<0.05) lower ω-6: ω-3 ratio than the oil of seeds from the Sub-Humid Chaco Ecosystem, and also the lowest significant (P<0.05) a-linoleic and oleic fatty acid concentrations. Regression analysis was performed, for a-linolenic vs. oleic and linoleic fatty acid contents. Analysis using combined data of fatty acids from all four years and from both ecosystems showed that a-linolenic fatty acid content was negatively correlated with its precursors, oleic (R2= 0.77, P < 0.0005) and linoleic (R2= 0.92, P < 0.0005) fatty acid. Comparing both countries, the oil from chia seeds grown in Ecuador showed more stability and a significant (P<0.05) higher a-linolenic fatty acid content than Bolivia.

Lindsey E.L.,University of California at Berkeley | Lopez R. E.X.,State University of Santa Elena Peninsula
Journal of South American Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

Fossil deposits in the petroleum-rich sediments of the Santa Elena Peninsula in southwestern Ecuador contain some of the largest and best-preserved assemblages of Pleistocene megafaunal remains known from the neotropics, and thus represent an opportunity to greatly expand our knowledge of Pleistocene paleoecology and the extinction of Quaternary megafauna in this region. This paper reports data from excavations at Tanque Loma, a late-Pleistocene locality on the Santa Elena Peninsula that preserves a dense assemblage of megafaunal remains in hydrocarbon-saturated sediments along with microfaunal and paleobotanical material. The megafauna bones are concentrated in and just above a ~0.5m thick asphaltic layer, but occur sparsely and with poorer preservation up to 1m above this deposit. Several meters of presumed-Holocene sediments overlying the megafauna-bearing strata are rich in bones of microvertebrates including birds, squamates, and rodents. These are interpreted as raptor assemblages. While over 1000 megafaunal bones have been identified from the Pleistocene strata at Tanque Loma, more than 85% of these remains pertain to a single species, the giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi. Only five other megafauna taxa have been identified from this site, including Glossotherium cf. tropicorum, Holmesina occidentalis, cf. Notiomastodon platensis, Equus (Amerhippus) c.f. santaeelenae, and a cervid tentatively assigned to cf. Odocoileus salinae based on body size and geography. No carnivores have yet been identified from Tanque Loma, and microvertebrate remains are extremely rare in the Pleistocene deposits, although terrestrial snail shells and fragmented remains of marine invertebrates are occasionally encountered. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dates on Eremotherium and cf. Notiomaston bones from within and just above the asphaltic layer yielded dates of ~17,000 - 23,500 radiocarbon years BP.Taken together, the taxonomic composition, taphonomy, geologic context, and sedimentology of Tanque Loma suggest that this site represents a bone bed assemblage in a heavily vegetated, low-energy riparian environment with secondary infiltration of asphalt that helped to preserve the bones. The predominance of Eremotherium fossils at this site indicate that it may have been an area where these animals congregated, suggesting possible gregarious behavior in this taxon. The radiocarbon dates so far obtained on extinct taxa at Tanque Loma are consistent with a model positing earlier extinctions of megafauna in tropical South America than of related taxa further south on the continent, although this pattern may be an artifact of low sampling in the region. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | State University of Santa Elena Peninsula
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Die Naturwissenschaften | Year: 2015

We investigate the relative development of the carnivoran radial sesamoids to untangle the evolution of this iconic structure. In the pandas (both giant and red), this false thumb is known to perform a grasping role during bamboo feeding in both the red and giant pandas. An original locomotor role has been inferred for ailurids, but this remains to be ascertained for ursids. A large sample of radial sesamoids of Indarctos arctoides from the Miocene of Batallones-3 (Spain) indicates that this early ailuropodine bear displayed a relatively hypertrophied radial sesamoid, with a configuration more similar to that of the red panda and other carnivorans than to that of giant pandas. This false thumb is the first evidence of this feature in the Ursidae, which can be linked to a more herbivorous diet. Moreover, in the two extant pandas, the false thumb should not be interpreted as an anatomical convergence, but as an exaptive convergence regarding its use during the bamboo feeding, which changes the evolutionary view of this singular structure.

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