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Bandeirantes, Brazil

Garcia P.V.,University of Campinas | Seiva F.R.F.,North of Parana State University | Carniato A.P.,University of Campinas | de Mello Junior W.,Sao Paulo State University | And 9 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2016

Background: The new modalities for treating patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) for whom BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) has failed or is contraindicated are recently increasing due to the development of new drugs. Although agents like mitomycin C and BCG are routinely used, there is a need for more potent and/or less-toxic agents. In this scenario, a new perspective is represented by P-MAPA (Protein Aggregate Magnesium-Ammonium Phospholinoleate-Palmitoleate Anhydride), developed by Farmabrasilis (non-profit research network). This study detailed and characterized the mechanisms of action of P-MAPA based on activation of mediators of Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 signaling pathways and p53 in regulating angiogenesis and apoptosis in an animal model of NMIBC, as well as, compared these mechanisms with BCG treatment. Results: Our results demonstrated the activation of the immune system by BCG (MyD88-dependent pathway) resulted in increased inflammatory cytokines. However, P-MAPA intravesical immunotherapy led to distinct activation of TLRs 2 and 4-mediated innate immune system, resulting in increased interferons signaling pathway (TRIF-dependent pathway), which was more effective in the NMIBC treatment. Interferon signaling pathway activation induced by P-MAPA led to increase of iNOS protein levels, resulting in apoptosis and histopathological recovery. Additionally, P-MAPA immunotherapy increased wild-type p53 protein levels. The increased wild-type p53 protein levels were fundamental to NO-induced apoptosis and the up-regulation of BAX. Furthermore, interferon signaling pathway induction and increased p53 protein levels by P-MAPA led to important antitumor effects, not only suppressing abnormal cell proliferation, but also by preventing continuous expansion of tumor mass through suppression of angiogenesis, which was characterized by decreased VEGF and increased endostatin protein levels. Conclusions: Thus, P-MAPA immunotherapy could be considered an important therapeutic strategy for NMIBC, as well as, opens a new perspective for treatment of patients that are refractory or resistant to BCG intravesical therapy. © 2016 The Author(s). Source

Martinez P.F.,Sao Paulo State University | Martinez P.F.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Bonomo C.,Sao Paulo State University | Guizoni D.M.,Sao Paulo State University | And 14 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Background: Chronic heart failure is characterized by decreased exercise capacity with early exacerbation of fatigue and dyspnea. Intrinsic skeletal muscle abnormalities can play a role in exercise intolerance. Causal or contributing factors responsible for muscle alterations have not been completely defined. This study evaluated skeletal muscle oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase activity in rats with myocardial infarction (MI) induced heart failure. Methods and Results: Four months after MI, rats were assigned to Sham, MI-C (without treatment), and MI-NAC (treated with N-acetylcysteine) groups. Two months later, echocardiogram showed left ventricular dysfunction in MI-C; NAC attenuated diastolic dysfunction. In soleus muscle, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in MI-C and unchanged by NAC. 3-nitrotyrosine was similar in MI-C and Sham, and lower in MI-NAC than MI-C. Total reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed by HPLC analysis of dihydroethidium (DHE) oxidation fluorescent products. The 2-hydroxyethidium (EOH)/DHE ratio did not differ between Sham and MI-C and was higher in MI-NAC. The ethidium/DHE ratio was higher in MI-C than Sham and unchanged by NAC. NADPH oxidase activity was similar in Sham and MI-C and lower in MI-NAC. Gene expression of p47phox was lower in MI-C than Sham. NAC decreased NOX4 and p22phox expression. Conclusions: We corroborate the case that oxidative stress is increased in skeletal muscle of heart failure rats and show for the first time that oxidative stress is not related to increased NADPH oxidase activity. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Martinez P.F.,Sao Paulo State University | Martinez P.F.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Bonomo C.,Sao Paulo State University | Guizoni D.M.,Sao Paulo State University | And 13 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Background/Aims: Although increased oxidative stress plays a role in heart failure (HF)-induced skeletal myopathy, signaling pathways involved in muscle changes and the role of antioxidant agents have been poorly addressed. We evaluated the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on intracellular signaling pathways potentially modulated by oxidative stress in soleus muscle from HF rats. Methods and Results: Four months after surgery, rats were assigned to Sham, myocardial infarction (MI)-C (without treatment), and MI-NAC (treated with N-acetylcysteine) groups. Two months later, echocardiogram showed left ventricular dysfunction in MI-C; NAC attenuated diastolic dysfunction. Oxidative stress was evaluated in serum and soleus muscle; malondialdehyde was higher in MI-C than Sham and did not differ between MI-C and MI-NAC. Oxidized glutathione concentration in soleus muscle was similar in Sham and MI-C, and lower in MI-NAC than MI-C (Sham 0.168 ± 0.056; MI-C 0.223 ± 0.073; MI-NAC 0.136 ± 0.023 nmol/mg tissue; p = 0.014). Western blot showed increased p-JNK and decreased p38, ERK1/2, and p-ERK1/2 in infarcted rats. NAC restored ERK1/2. NF-κB p65 subunit was reduced; p-Ser276 in p65 and IκB was increased; and p-Ser536 unchanged in MI-C compared to Sham. NAC did not modify NF-κB p65 subunit, but decreased p-Ser276 and p-Ser536. Conclusion: N-acetylcysteine modulates MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in soleus muscle of HF rats. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Carolo Dos Santos K.,Sao Paulo State University | Pereira Braga C.,Sao Paulo State University | Octavio Barbanera P.,Sao Paulo State University | Rodrigues Ferreira Seiva F.,North of Parana State University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Resveratrol (RSV), polyphenol from grape, was studied to evaluate its effects on calorimetric parameters, energy metabolism, and antioxidants in the myocardium of diabetic rats. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8): C (control group): normal rats; C-RSV: normal rats receiving RSV; DM: diabetic rats; and DM-RSV: diabetics rats receiving RSV. Type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced with administration of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg -1 body weight, single dose, i.p.). After 48 hours of STZ administration, the animals received RSV (1.0 mg/kg/day) for gavage for 30 days. Food, water, and energy intake were higher in the DM group, while administration of RSV caused decreases (p<0.05) in these parameters. The glycemia decreased and higher final body weight increased in DM-RSV when compared with the DM group. The diabetic rats showed higher serum-free fatty acid, which was normalized with RSV. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) decreased (p<0.05) in the DM group. This was accompanied by reductions in RQ. The C-RSV group showed higher VO2 and VCO2 values. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was lower in the DM group and normalizes with RSV. The DM group exhibited higher myocardial b-hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity, and RSV decreased the activity of these enzymes. The DM group had higher cardiac lactate dehydrogenase compared to the DM-RSV group. Myocardial protein carbonyl was increased in the DM group. RSV increased reduced glutathione in the cardiac tissue of diabetic animals. The glutathione reductase activity was higher in the DM-RSV group compared to the DM group. In conclusion, diabetes is accompanied by cardiac energy metabolism dysfunction and change in the biomarkers of oxidative stress. The cardioprotective effect may be mediated through RVS's ability to normalize free fatty acid oxidation, enhance utilization glucose, and control the biomarkers' level of oxidative stress under diabetic conditions. © 2014 Carolo dos Santos et al. Source

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