State University of New York at Stony Brook School of Dental Medicine is a school of dentistry located in the United States city of Stony Brook. The school is one of the four dental schools in the state of New York. Wikipedia.
Mazzucato L.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Physics Reports | Year: 2012
This is a comprehensive review of the worldsheet techniques for the quantization of type IIB superstring theory on the AdS5×S5 background, using the pure spinor formalism. Particular emphasis is devoted to AdS/CFT applications, with several examples worked out in detail. The review is self-contained and pedagogical. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Lattimer J.M.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science | Year: 2012
Neutron stars are valuable laboratories for the study of dense matter. Recent observations have uncovered both massive and low-mass neutron stars and have also set constraints on neutron star radii. The largest mass measurements are powerfully influencing the high-density equation of state because of the existence of the neutron star maximum mass. The smallest mass measurements, and the distributions of masses, have implications for the progenitors and formation mechanisms of neutron stars. The ensemble of mass and radius observations can realistically restrict the properties of dense matter and, in particular, the behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy near the nuclear saturation density. Simultaneously, various nuclear experiments are progressively restricting the ranges of parameters describing the symmetry properties of the nuclear equation of state. In addition, new theoretical studies of pure neutron matter are providing insights. These observational, experimental, and theoretical constraints of dense matter, when combined, are now revealing a remarkable convergence. © 2012 by Annual Reviews.
Cahill A.E.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013
Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to be a major cause of species extinctions in the next 100 years. But what will actually cause these extinctions? For example, will it be limited physiological tolerance to high temperatures, changing biotic interactions or other factors? Here, we systematically review the proximate causes of climate-change related extinctions and their empirical support. We find 136 case studies of climatic impacts that are potentially relevant to this topic. However, only seven identified proximate causes of demonstrated local extinctions due to anthropogenic climate change. Among these seven studies, the proximate causes vary widely. Surprisingly, none show a straightforward relationship between local extinction and limited tolerances to high temperature. Instead, many studies implicate species interactions as an important proximate cause, especially decreases in food availability. We find very similar patterns in studies showing decreases in abundance associated with climate change, and in those studies showing impacts of climatic oscillations. Collectively, these results highlight our disturbingly limited knowledge of this crucial issue but also support the idea that changing species interactions are an important cause of documented population declines and extinctions related to climate change. Finally, we briefly outline general research strategies for identifying these proximate causes in future studies.
Mendell L.M.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Pain | Year: 2014
The gate theory of pain, published by Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall in Science in 1965, was formulated to provide a mechanism for coding the nociceptive component of cutaneous sensory input. The theory dealt explicitly with the apparent conflict in the 1960s between the paucity of sensory neurons that responded selectively to intense stimuli and the well-established finding that stimulation of the small fibers in peripheral nerves is required for the stimulus to be described as painful. It incorporated recently discovered mechanisms of presynaptic control of synaptic transmission from large and small sensory afferents, which was suggested to "gate" incoming information depending on the balance between these inputs. Other important features included the convergence of small and large sensory inputs on spinal neurons that transmitted the sensory information to the forebrain as well as the ability of descending control pathways to affect the biasing established by the gate. The clarity of the model and its description gave this article immediate visibility, with numerous attempts made to test its various predictions. Although subsequent experiments and clinical findings have made clear that the model is not correct in detail, the general ideas put forth in the article and the experiments they prompted in both animals and patients have transformed our understanding of pain mechanisms. © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bogenhagen D.F.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2012
Eukaryotic cells are characterized by their content of intracellular membrane-bound organelles, including mitochondria as well as nuclei. These two DNA-containing compartments employ two distinct strategies for storage and readout of genetic information. The diploid nuclei of human cells contain about 6. billion base pairs encoding about 25,000 protein-encoding genes, averaging 120. kB/gene, packaged in chromatin arranged as a regular nucleosomal array. In contrast, human cells contain hundreds to thousands of copies of a ca.16. kB mtDNA genome tightly packed with 13 protein-coding genes along with rRNA and tRNA genes required for their expression. The mtDNAs are dispersed throughout the mitochondrial network as histone-free nucleoids containing single copies or small clusters of genomes. This review will summarize recent advances in understanding the microscopic structure and molecular composition of mtDNA nucleoids in higher eukaryotes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Gene Expression. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Scharer O.D.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2013
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the main pathway used by mammals to remove bulky DNA lesions such as those formed by UV light, environmental mutagens, and some cancer chemotherapeutic adducts from DNA. Deficiencies in NER are associated with the extremely skin cancer-prone inherited disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Although the core NER reaction and the factors that execute it have been known for some years, recent studies have led to a much more detailed understanding of the NER mechanism, how NER operates in the context of chromatin, and how it is connected to other cellular processes such as DNA damage signaling and transcription. This review emphasizes biochemical, structural, cell biological, and genetic studies since 2005 that have shed light on many aspects of the NER pathway. © 2013 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
Lacey R.A.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015
Excitation functions for the Gaussian emission source radii difference (Rout2-Rside2) obtained from two-pion interferometry measurements in Au+Au (sNN=7.7-200 GeV) and Pb+Pb (sNN=2.76 TeV) collisions are studied for a broad range of collision centralities. The observed nonmonotonic excitation functions validate the finite-size scaling patterns expected for the deconfinement phase transition and the critical end point (CEP), in the temperature versus baryon chemical potential (T,μB) plane of the nuclear matter phase diagram. A finite-size scaling (FSS) analysis of these data suggests a second order phase transition with the estimates Tcep∼165 MeV and μBcep∼95 MeV for the location of the critical end point. The critical exponents (ν≈0.66 and γ≈1.2) extracted via the same FSS analysis place this CEP in the 3D Ising model universality class. © 2015 American Physical Society.
Grubbs R.B.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Polymer Reviews | Year: 2011
Since its introduction in the early 1990s, nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMP) has been widely adopted for the preparation of a panoply of new polymer architectures. While NMP provides a number of advantages for the preparation of specific types of polymers, several inherent limitations with NMP have led to the more widespread use of other reversible-deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP) methods, chiefly atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation-chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, in polymer synthesis. This short review discusses strategies that have been adopted for dealing with the difficulties of NMP and also surveys the use of NMP to prepare new polymers and copolymers over the past several years. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Blader J.C.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Archives of General Psychiatry | Year: 2011
Context: Data from facility-level surveys indicate that US inpatient psychiatric admissions rose in 2004, from their trough in 1998 to 2000, mainly in acute care settings. Patient-level factors, including age, admission type, diagnoses, length of stay, and payment source, are vital to understanding hospitalization trends. Objective: To evaluate trends in acute care hospitalizations for primary psychiatric diagnoses between 1996 and 2007 in relation to patient-level variables. Design, Setting, and Participants: The yearly National Hospital Discharge Survey furnished demographic, clinical, and payment data on a probability sample of discharges from short-stay facilities (mean [SD], 448.33 [19.66]), along with weights for extrapolation to population estimates. Discharges with a primary psychiatric diagnosis (mean [SD], 19 535 ) were identified among children (aged 5-13 years), adolescents (aged 14-19 years), adults (aged 20-64 years), and elderly individuals (≥65 years). Main Outcome Measures: Annual rates of discharges and total days of inpatient care associated with primary psychiatric diagnoses for each age group. Results: Psychiatric discharges increased for children from 155.54 per 100 000 children in 1996 to 283.04 per 100 000 in 2007 (P=.003); for adolescents, from 683.60 to 969.03 per 100 000 (P=.001); and for adults, from 921.35 to 995.51 per 100 000 (P=.003) but declined for elderly individuals from 977.63 to 807.55 per 100 000 (P<.001). Total inpatient days increased for children (1845 days per 100 000 in 1996 to 4370 days in 2007; P=.02) and for adolescents (5882 days per 100 000 in 1996 to 8247 days in 2007; P<.001) but decreased for elderly patients (10 348 days per 100 000 in 1996 to 6517 days; P<.001). The proportion of inpatient days paid by private sources declined among children (36%-21%), adolescents (52%-22%), and adults (35%-23%; all P<.001). Conclusions: Inpatient discharges in short-stay facilities with a primary psychiatric diagnosis rose between 1996 and 2007, most dramatically for youth, but decreased among elderly individuals. Private funding bore a declining share of costs. ©2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Wiens J.J.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Quarterly Review of Biology | Year: 2011
A major goal of research in ecology and evolution is to explain why species richness varies across habitats, regions, and clades. Recent reviews have argued that species richness patterns among regions and clades may be explained by"ecological limits" on diversity over time, which are said to offer an alternative explanation to those invoking speciation and extinction (diversification) and time. Further, it has been proposed that this hypothesis is best supported by failure to find a positive relationship between time (e.g., clade age) and species richness. Here, I critically review the evidence for these claims, and propose how we might better study the ecological and evolutionary origins of species richness patterns. In fact, ecological limits can only influence species richness in clades by influencing speciation and extinction, and so this new"alternative paradigm" is simply one facet of the traditional idea that ecology influences diversification. The only direct evidence for strict ecological limits on richness (i.e., constant diversity over time) is from the fossil record, but many studies cited as supporting this pattern do not, and there is evidence for increasing richness over time. Negative evidence for a relationship between clade age and richness among extant clades is not positive evidence for constant diversity over time, and many recent analyses finding no age-diversity relationship were biased to reach this conclusion. More comprehensive analyses strongly support a positive age-richness relationship. There is abundant evidence that both time and ecological influences on diversification rates are important drivers of both large-scale and small-scale species richness patterns. The major challenge for future studies is to understand the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms underpinning the relationships between time, dispersal, diversification, and species richness patterns.© 2011 by The University of Chicago Press. All rights reserved.