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New York City, NY, United States

State University of New York at Stony Brook School of Dental Medicine is a school of dentistry located in the United States city of Stony Brook. The school is one of the four dental schools in the state of New York. Wikipedia.

Lattimer J.M.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science | Year: 2012

Neutron stars are valuable laboratories for the study of dense matter. Recent observations have uncovered both massive and low-mass neutron stars and have also set constraints on neutron star radii. The largest mass measurements are powerfully influencing the high-density equation of state because of the existence of the neutron star maximum mass. The smallest mass measurements, and the distributions of masses, have implications for the progenitors and formation mechanisms of neutron stars. The ensemble of mass and radius observations can realistically restrict the properties of dense matter and, in particular, the behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy near the nuclear saturation density. Simultaneously, various nuclear experiments are progressively restricting the ranges of parameters describing the symmetry properties of the nuclear equation of state. In addition, new theoretical studies of pure neutron matter are providing insights. These observational, experimental, and theoretical constraints of dense matter, when combined, are now revealing a remarkable convergence. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. Source

Cahill A.E.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to be a major cause of species extinctions in the next 100 years. But what will actually cause these extinctions? For example, will it be limited physiological tolerance to high temperatures, changing biotic interactions or other factors? Here, we systematically review the proximate causes of climate-change related extinctions and their empirical support. We find 136 case studies of climatic impacts that are potentially relevant to this topic. However, only seven identified proximate causes of demonstrated local extinctions due to anthropogenic climate change. Among these seven studies, the proximate causes vary widely. Surprisingly, none show a straightforward relationship between local extinction and limited tolerances to high temperature. Instead, many studies implicate species interactions as an important proximate cause, especially decreases in food availability. We find very similar patterns in studies showing decreases in abundance associated with climate change, and in those studies showing impacts of climatic oscillations. Collectively, these results highlight our disturbingly limited knowledge of this crucial issue but also support the idea that changing species interactions are an important cause of documented population declines and extinctions related to climate change. Finally, we briefly outline general research strategies for identifying these proximate causes in future studies. Source

Mendell L.M.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Pain | Year: 2014

The gate theory of pain, published by Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall in Science in 1965, was formulated to provide a mechanism for coding the nociceptive component of cutaneous sensory input. The theory dealt explicitly with the apparent conflict in the 1960s between the paucity of sensory neurons that responded selectively to intense stimuli and the well-established finding that stimulation of the small fibers in peripheral nerves is required for the stimulus to be described as painful. It incorporated recently discovered mechanisms of presynaptic control of synaptic transmission from large and small sensory afferents, which was suggested to "gate" incoming information depending on the balance between these inputs. Other important features included the convergence of small and large sensory inputs on spinal neurons that transmitted the sensory information to the forebrain as well as the ability of descending control pathways to affect the biasing established by the gate. The clarity of the model and its description gave this article immediate visibility, with numerous attempts made to test its various predictions. Although subsequent experiments and clinical findings have made clear that the model is not correct in detail, the general ideas put forth in the article and the experiments they prompted in both animals and patients have transformed our understanding of pain mechanisms. © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Scharer O.D.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2013

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the main pathway used by mammals to remove bulky DNA lesions such as those formed by UV light, environmental mutagens, and some cancer chemotherapeutic adducts from DNA. Deficiencies in NER are associated with the extremely skin cancer-prone inherited disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Although the core NER reaction and the factors that execute it have been known for some years, recent studies have led to a much more detailed understanding of the NER mechanism, how NER operates in the context of chromatin, and how it is connected to other cellular processes such as DNA damage signaling and transcription. This review emphasizes biochemical, structural, cell biological, and genetic studies since 2005 that have shed light on many aspects of the NER pathway. © 2013 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved. Source

Wiens J.J.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
Quarterly Review of Biology | Year: 2011

A major goal of research in ecology and evolution is to explain why species richness varies across habitats, regions, and clades. Recent reviews have argued that species richness patterns among regions and clades may be explained by"ecological limits" on diversity over time, which are said to offer an alternative explanation to those invoking speciation and extinction (diversification) and time. Further, it has been proposed that this hypothesis is best supported by failure to find a positive relationship between time (e.g., clade age) and species richness. Here, I critically review the evidence for these claims, and propose how we might better study the ecological and evolutionary origins of species richness patterns. In fact, ecological limits can only influence species richness in clades by influencing speciation and extinction, and so this new"alternative paradigm" is simply one facet of the traditional idea that ecology influences diversification. The only direct evidence for strict ecological limits on richness (i.e., constant diversity over time) is from the fossil record, but many studies cited as supporting this pattern do not, and there is evidence for increasing richness over time. Negative evidence for a relationship between clade age and richness among extant clades is not positive evidence for constant diversity over time, and many recent analyses finding no age-diversity relationship were biased to reach this conclusion. More comprehensive analyses strongly support a positive age-richness relationship. There is abundant evidence that both time and ecological influences on diversification rates are important drivers of both large-scale and small-scale species richness patterns. The major challenge for future studies is to understand the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms underpinning the relationships between time, dispersal, diversification, and species richness patterns.© 2011 by The University of Chicago Press. All rights reserved. Source

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