Buffalo, NY, United States
Buffalo, NY, United States

Founded in 1887, SUNY Buffalo Law School, the State University of New York is a graduate professional school at the University at Buffalo. It is part of the State University of New York system and is the SUNY system's only law school. U.S. News & World Report ranks the University at Buffalo Law School 100th in the nation for 2014. However, many lesser known sites rank the Law School much higher. The University at Buffalo Law School is No. 1 in Thomson Reuter's "Super Lawyers" ranking of law graduates practicing in Upstate New York, which includes 54 of the 62 counties in New York State. This is in addition to the UB Law School's 2010 national ranking, where it placed 48th out of the 180 law schools in the country that produced Super Lawyers, a measure which examines "twelve indicators of professional achievement". Also, Malcolm Gladwell, in the New Yorker Magazine, devised a formula that ranks UB within the top 50 whereas Reuters ranks UB Law as 48th overall in the nation.According to SUNY Buffalo Law School's 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 60.5% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation. Wikipedia.

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Gong B.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Gong B.,Beijing Normal University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012

Through specific molecular shapes and repeating polymeric sequences, biomacromolecules encode information about both structure and function. Inspired by DNA molecules, we have conceived a strategy to encode linear molecular strands with sequences that specify intermolecular association, and we and our collaborators have supported this idea through our experimental work. This Account summarizes the design and development of a class of molecular duplexes with programmable hydrogen-bonding sequences and adjustable stabilities.The specific system involves oligoamide strands synthesized from readily available monomeric modules based on standard amide (peptide) chemistry. By covalently linking three types of basic building blocks in different orders, we create oligoamide strands with various arrangements of amide O and H atoms that provide arrays of hydrogen bonding sequences. Because one of the two edges of these molecules presents the sequences of hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors, these oligoamide strands associate via their hydrogen-bonding edges into double-stranded pairs or duplexes. Systematic studies have demonstrated the strict sequence specificity and tunable stability of this system. These structurally simple duplexes exhibit many features associated with DNA sequences such as programmable sequence specificity, shape and hydrogen-bonding complementarity, and cooperativity of multipoint interactions.Capable of specifying intermolecular associations, these duplexes have formed supramolecular structures such as β-sheets and non-covalent block copolymers and have templated chemical reactions. The incorporation of dynamic covalent interactions into these H-bonded duplexes has created association units that undergo sequence-specific association and covalent ligation in both nonpolar solvents and polar media including water. These new association units may facilitate the development of new dynamic covalent structures, and new properties are emerging from these structures. For example, we discovered hydrogen-bonded duplexes that could gelate different organic solvents, and we could tune the gelatinization by adjusting the multiple side chains attached to the duplexes. In addition, we have recently designed duplexes whose formation and dissociation are controlled by changes in external stimuli such as acidity.With their programmable specificity and tunable stability, these molecular duplexes have provided a systematic approach for the association of different structural units. Further development of this system could facilitate the creation of many supramolecular and dynamic covalent structures. Because these duplexes are easily modifiable and information is easily encoded and retrieved, this system may address some of the remaining challenges facing information-storing molecules including self-replication. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Sethi S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Annals of the American Thoracic Society | Year: 2014

The dynamics of infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are complex, and microbiome technology has provided us with a new research tool for its better understanding. There is compartmentalization of the microbiota in the various parts of the lung. Studies of the lower airway lumen microbiota in COPD have yielded confusing results, and additional studies with scrupulous attention to prevent and account for upper airway contamination of bronchoalveolar lavage samples are required. Lung tissue microbiota has been examined in three studies, which also demonstrate varied results based on the site of sampling (bronchial mucosa, lung parenchyma), and this variation extends to sampling sites within a lobe of the lung. The Vicious Circle Hypothesis embodies how an altered lung microbiome could contribute to COPD progression. Relating microbiota composition to airway and systemic inflammation and clinical outcomes are important research questions. Although various obstacles need to be surmounted, ultimately lung microbiome studies will provide new insights into how infection contributes to COPD. Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society.

Cullen P.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Sprague Jr. G.F.,University of Oregon
Genetics | Year: 2012

Filamentous growth is a nutrient-regulated growth response that occurs in many fungal species. In pathogens, filamentous growth is critical for host-cell attachment, invasion into tissues, and virulence. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes filamentous growth, which provides a genetically tractable system to study the molecular basis of the response. Filamentous growth is regulated by evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways. One of these pathways is a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. A remarkable feature of the filamentous growth MAPK pathway is that it is composed of factors that also function in other pathways. An intriguing challenge therefore has been to understand how pathways that share components establish and maintain their identity. Other canonical signaling pathways-rat sarcoma/protein kinase A (RAS/PKA), sucrose nonfermentable (SNF), and target of rapamycin (TOR)-also regulate filamentous growth, which raises the question of how signals from multiple pathways become integrated into a coordinated response. Together, these pathways regulate cell differentiation to the filamentous type, which is characterized by changes in cell adhesion, cell polarity, and cell shape. How these changes are accomplished is also discussed. High-throughput genomics approaches have recently uncovered new connections to filamentous growth regulation. These connections suggest that filamentous growth is a more complex and globally regulated behavior than is currently appreciated, which may help to pave the way for future investigations into this eukaryotic cell differentiation behavior. © 2012 by the Genetics Society of America.

Gong B.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Gong B.,Beijing Normal University | Shao Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

The transport of molecules and ions across nanometer-scaled pores, created by natural or artificial molecules, is a phenomenon of both fundamental and practical significance. Biological channels are the most remarkable examples of mass transport across membranes and demonstrate nearly exclusive selectivity and high efficiency with a diverse collection of molecules. These channels are critical for many basic biological functions, such as membrane potential, signal transduction, and osmotic homeostasis.If such highly specific and efficient mass transport or separa tion could be achieved with artificial nanostructures under controlled conditions, they could create revolutionary technologies in a variety of areas. For this reason, investigators from diverse disciplines have vigorously studied small nondeformable nanopores. The most exciting studies have focused on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which have exhibited fast mass transport and high ion selectivity despite their very simple structure. However, the limitations of CNTs and the dearth of other small (≤2 nm) nanopores have severely hampered the systematic investigation of nanopore-mediated mass transport, which will be essential for designing artificial nanopores with desired functions en masse.Researchers can overcome the difficulties associated with CNT and other artificial pores by stacking macrocyclic building blocks with persistent shapes to construct tunable, self-assembling organic pores. This effort started when we discovered a highly efficient, one-pot macrocyclization process to efficiently prepare several classes of macrocycles with rigid backbones containing nondeformable cavities. Such macrocycles, if stacked atop one another, should lead to nanotubular assemblies with defined inner pores determined by their constituent macrocycles. One class of macrocycles with aromatic oligoamide backbones had a very high propensity for directional assembly, forming nanotubular structures containing nanometer and sub-nanometer hydrophilic pores. These self-assembling hydrophilic pores can form ion channels in lipid membranes with very large ion conductances.To control the assembly, we have further introduced multiple hydrogen-bonding side chains to enforce the stacking of rigid macrocycles into self-assembling nanotubes. This strategy has produced a self-assembling, sub-nanometer hydrophobic pore that not only acted as a transmembrane channel with surprisingly high ion selectivity, but also mediated a significant transmembrane water flux.The stacking of rigid macrocycles that can be chemically modified in either the lumen or the exterior surface can produce self-assembling organic nanotubes with inner pores of defined sizes. The combination of our approach with the availability and synthetic tunability of various rigid macrocycles should produce a variety of organic nanopores. Such structures would allow researchers to systematically explore mass transport in the sub-nanometer regime. Further advances should lead to novel applications such as biosensing, materials separation, and molecular purifications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Khan O.,Wayne State University | Rieckmann P.,University of Bamberg | Boyko A.,Russian National Research Medical University | Selmaj K.,Medical University of Lódz | Zivadinov R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Annals of Neurology | Year: 2013

Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of glatiramer acetate (GA) 40mg administered 3× weekly (tiw) compared with placebo in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods This randomized, double-blind study was conducted in 142 sites in 17 countries. Patients with RRMS with at least 1 documented relapse in the 12 months before screening, or at least 2 documented relapses in the 24 months before screening, and an Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤ 5.5, were randomized 2:1 to receive either subcutaneous (sc) GA 40mg tiw (1ml) or placebo for 12 months. Results Of 1,524 patients screened, 1,404 were randomized to receive GA 40mg sc tiw (n = 943) or placebo (n = 461). Ninety-three percent and 91% of patients in the placebo and GA groups, respectively, completed the 12-month study. GA 40mg tiw was associated with a 34.0% reduction in risk of confirmed relapses compared with placebo (mean annualized relapse rate = 0.331 vs 0.505; p < 0.0001). Patients who received GA 40mg tiw experienced highly significant reduction (p < 0.0001) in the cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing T1 (44.8%) and new or newly enlarging T2 lesions (34.7%) at months 6 and 12. GA 40mg tiw was safe and well tolerated. The most common adverse events in the GA group were injection site reactions (35.5% with GA vs 5.0% with placebo). Interpretation GA 40mg sc tiw is a safe and effective regimen for the treatment of RRMS, providing the convenience of fewer sc injections per week. © 2013 American Neurological Association.

Benedict R.H.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Walton M.K.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Multiple Sclerosis Journal | Year: 2012

Brief cognitive assessments are increasingly emphasized in MS treatment studies and clinical care. While much is known about the reliability of several widely-used neuropsychological tests, interpretation of the changes in individual patients is inadequate. The FDA offers guidance on the issue, as related to patient-reported outcomes. Unfortunately, cognitive ability is only weakly correlated with the frequency and severity of self-reported cognitive problems. In this review, we critically examined the psychometrics of neuropsychological testing in MS, emphasizing statistical and anchor-based approaches to interpreting clinically meaningful change.We suggest that there are two paths forward that should be currently pursued. First, to employ co-primary outcomes, including a brief cognitive test and a clinician or observer's impression on a scale of change, where successful treatment would require showing significant improvement in both measures. Secondly, to work toward showing that when reliable brief cognitive tests are employed, increments of statistically-relevant change would correlate with changes in clinically-relevant anchors (such as vocational disability or clinical relapses with cognitive impairment). The latter goal will allow a more parsimonious and scientifically efficient approach of utilizing only the brief cognitive test as a primary outcome. While some progress has been made in this direction, more research is needed. We are of the opinion that data from both the statistical and clinically meaningful approaches will be necessary to develop valid definitions of meaningful change on cognitive outcome measures, and that it would be best to pursue research using tests that already have well-established reliability and validity. © The Author(s) 2012.

Buckley K.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Tobey E.A.,University of Texas at Dallas
Ear and Hearing | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE: A great amount of variability is observed in speech perception outcomes with cochlear implants. The mechanisms behind the observed variability need to be elucidated. One possible mechanism contributing to the observed variability is the development of cross-modal plasticity. This study examines the association between visual/auditory cross-modal plasticity and speech perception with a cochlear implant in individuals with pre- and postlingual onset of severe to profound hearing loss. DESIGN: The N1 visual evoked potential (VEP) in response to peripheral visual motion stimuli was recorded in individuals with pre- (N = 10) and postlingual (N = 12) onset of severe to profound hearing loss who use a cochlear implant. The association between the amplitude of the N1 VEP response over the right temporal lobe and sentence and word perception scores obtained with the cochlear implant was examined through linear regression analyses. In addition, the association between the duration of auditory deprivation and the amplitude of the N1 VEP response was examined. RESULTS: As the amplitude of the N1 VEP recorded over the right temporal lobe increased, speech perception scores in individuals with prelingual onset of severe to profound hearing loss decreased. However, a clear association between the amplitude of the N1 VEP over the right temporal lobe and speech perception scores was not observed for individuals with postlingual onset of severe to profound hearing loss. Neither group demonstrated an association between the amplitude of the VEP over the right temporal lobe and the duration of auditory deprivation before cochlear implantation. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that cross-modal plasticity accounts for a significant amount of the variability observed in speech perception performance with a cochlear implant in individuals with prelingual onset of severe to profound hearing loss but not in individuals who acquire severe to profound hearing loss later in life. Furthermore, the results suggest that the influence of cross-modal plasticity on speech perception ability is more greatly influenced by when (pre- or postlingually) a person acquires a severe to profound hearing impairment rather than the duration of auditory deprivation before receipt of a cochlear implant. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

News Article | March 1, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

Thirteen days before Christmas, somewhere in the frigid waters of the Bering Sea, a massive volcano unexpectedly rumbled back to life. Just like that, Bogoslof volcano began its first continuous eruption since 1992, belching great plumes of ash tens of thousands of feet into the cold sky over the Aleutian islands, generating volcanic lightning, and disrupting air travel—though not much else. The volcano is on a tiny island about 60 miles west of Unalaska, which is the largest city in the Aleutians. It has a population of about 5,000 people. Bogoslof hasn’t quieted yet. One explosion, in early January, sent ash 33,000 feet into the air. Weeks later, another eruption lasted for hours, eventually sprinkling enough ash on the nearby city to collect on car windshields and dust the snow-white ground with a sulfurous layer of gray. Over the course of two months, Bogoslof’s intermittent eruptions have caused the island to triple in size so far, as fragments of rock and ash continue to pile atop one another. Geologists don’t know how long the eruption will last. In 1992, the activity at Bogoslof began and ended within weeks. But more than a century ago, it erupted continuously for years. In the 1880s, volcano observers in the Aleutians had little but their own senses to track what was happening. Today, scientists use satellite data and thermal imagery to watch Bogoslof—signs of elevated temperatures in satellite data indicate that lava has bubbled to the surface, for example. But monitoring efforts are nowhere near what they could be. For the relatively remote Bogoslof, the absence of ground-level sensors is inconvenient, perhaps, but not necessarily alarming. Elsewhere, the dearth of volcano sensors poses a deadly problem. There are at least 169 active volcanoes in the United States, 55 of which are believed to pose a high or very high threat to people, according to a 2005 U.S. Geological Survey report. About one-third of the active volcanoes in the U.S. have erupted—some of them repeatedly—within the past two centuries. Volcanoes aren’t just dangerous because of their fiery lava. In 1986, volcanic gas killed more than 1,700 people in Cameroon. And one of the latest theories about the epic eruption at Pompeii, in 79 A.D., is that many people died from head injuries they sustained when boulders rained down on them. Recommended: Uber CEO: 'I Must Fundamentally Change ... and Grow Up' Hawaii’s Kilauea, Washington’s Mt. St. Helens, and Wyoming’s Yellowstone all have extensive monitoring. But many volcanoes in the Cascades have only a couple of far-field sensors, several geologists told me. The Pacific Northwest, which includes high-population areas in close proximity to active volcanoes, is of particular concern for public safety. “Most people in the U.S. perceive volcanic eruptions as rare, and [believe] that we’d be able to get advance notice because of the advance in science and instrumentation,” said Estelle Chaussard, an assistant professor of geophysics and volcanology at the State University of New York at Buffalo. “However, the massive eruption of Mount St. Helens, in Washington, was only 37 years ago, and it took until the volcano became active again in 2004 to start a truly comprehensive monitoring. ... This kind of assumption is therefore very dangerous, because most of our volcanoes are not as intensively monitored as we think they are or as they should be.” Almost half of the active volcanoes in the country don’t have adequate seismometers—tools used to track the earthquakes that often occur during volcanic eruptions. And even at the sites that do have seismometers, many instruments—selected because they are cheaper and consume less power—are unable to take a complete record of the ground shaking around an eruption, meaning “the full amplitude of a seismogram may be ‘clipped’ during recording, rendering the data less useful for in-depth analyses,” according to a 2009 report by the U.S. Geological Survey. Recommended: Why Amazon's Data Centers Are Hidden in Spy Country “Using satellite radar and other systems, it should be possible to systematically keep a close eye on most all hazardous volcanoes around the world,” said Roland Bürgmann, a professor of planetary science at the University of California at Berkeley. “Currently, some volcanoes in the U.S. and globally are well-monitored, but most are not.” GPS helps fill in some of the gaps. As magma accumulates at the Earth’s surface, the ground bulges upward—and that bulge can be measured from space, using radar bounced off the ground. “That’s a big advance, because you don’t need sensors on the ground and, in theory, you could monitor all the Earth’s volcanoes,” said Paul Segall, a professor of geophysics at Stanford University. “The trouble is, there’s nothing up there that is designed to do that, and the orbital repeat times aren’t frequent enough to do a really good job.” “In my view,” he added, “We haven’t even gotten up to bare bones, let alone more sophisticated monitoring.” (Janet Schaefer / AVO) A plume from the Bogoslof eruption can be seen from Unalaska Island, 53 miles away from the volcano, on February 19, 2017. That’s part of why a trio of U.S. senators is reintroducing legislation aimed at improving the country’s volcano monitoring efforts. “For the past 34 years, we have experienced first-hand the threat of volcanic activity to our daily lives with the ongoing eruption at Kilauea,” Senator Mazie Hirono, a Democrat from Hawaii, said in a statement about the bill. “As recently as 2014, we had evacuations and damage to critical infrastructure and residences.” Recommended: 'They Really Want to Blow This Place Up': Scenes From Trump's State Department The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, on Hawaii’s Big Island, has been monitoring volcanoes since 1912—nearly four decades before Hawaii became a state. Today it’s considered one of the world’s leading observatories. Yet there’s little coordination between even the best observatories in the United States. The Senate bill calls for the creation of a Volcano Watch Office that will provide continuous “situational awareness of all active volcanoes in the U.S. and its territories,” and act as a clearinghouse for the reams of volcanic data that new sensor systems would collect.“Long-records of activity are especially important in volcano monitoring to successfully identify behaviors that differ from the ordinary,” Chaussard told me in an email, “and not all of our volcanoes have such records.” “Essentially everything we do now is empirical,” Segall told me, “but most of the really dangerous volcanoes haven’t erupted in modern instrumental times.” More data means a better opportunity to identify eruption warning signs, which Segall hopes could eventually make it possible to forecast volcanic activity the way we can predict severe weather like hurricanes. “I don’t know if it’s possible, but it seems a worthy goal,” he said. “We obviously have less ability to peer into the Earth as we do to peer into the sky.” Read more from The Atlantic: The Three Failures of Trump's Speech This article was originally published on The Atlantic.

Flash Physics is our daily pick of the latest need-to-know developments from the global physics community selected by Physics World's team of editors and reporters Originally planned for Mauna Kea mountain in Hawaii, the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) could be built at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in the Canary Islands. The TMT International Observatory (TIO) Board of Governors has chosen the observatory in Spain as the "primary alternative" to the controversial Hawaiian site, which is being opposed by native Hawaiians who see building the TMT on Mauna Kea as a desecration of their spiritual and cultural pinnacle. Chair of the board Henry Yang says: "Mauna Kea continues to be the preferred choice for the location of the Thirty Meter Telescope, and the TIO Board will continue intensive efforts to gain approval for TMT in Hawaii." In July 2016, TMT deputy project-manager Fengchuan Liu said that the decision to build the TMT on an alternative site will be taken "by early 2017". Construction of the TMT is planned to begin in April 2018, with completion in 2022. A new type of artificial-muscle fibre that has high tensile strength and actuates – expands or contracts in response to a stimulus – at much cooler temperatures than previous fibres, has been developed by researchers at the Louisiana State University in the US. Guoqiang Li says the team was able to exceed the performance of other artificial muscles by focusing on the thermal properties as well as the molecular structure of their polymer fibre. According to Li, the team found that two factors are crucial for high performance – the untwisting nature of the fibre during actuation and its negative coefficient of thermal expansion. "The actuation temperature is very high in the polymer fibres used previously, for example they can go to 160 °C," says Li. "For some applications, like medical devices, [the] actuation temperature is too high. So you need to find a way to lower it." Li's group managed to bring the maximum actuation temperatures down to 67 °C. This lower temperature is particularly significant when considering applications related to human body temperature. In addition to medical devices, such applications include breathable textiles and self-healing materials with structures that adapt to environmental changes. The research is described in Applied Physics Letters. A new way of switching a beam of light on and off using another light beam has been unveiled by physicists in the US. Unlike other "light–light" switching schemes, which employ intense light beams to control relatively dim beams, this latest technique uses a weak beam to control a much brighter beam. The switch makes use of a new type of optical material called a non-Hermitian photonic metamaterial, which is created within a silicon optical fibre. Tiny features in the silicon create a standing wave when infrared signal light is shone into one end of the fibre. When control light is shone into the opposite end of the fibre, destructive interference in the fibre prevents the signal light from being transmitted. Created by Liang Feng at the State University of New York at Buffalo and colleagues and described in Physical Review Letters, the new switch could – with further improvements – find use in high-speed, all-optical telecoms networks of the future.

News Article | April 6, 2016
Site: www.sciencenews.org

For centuries, the mouth and the body have been disconnected — at least when it comes to health care. Through the Middle Ages and beyond, teeth fell under the care of barbers, who could shave a customer and pull a molar with equal skill. In the 1700s, French surgeon Pierre Fauchard published the Treatise on Teeth, establishing dentistry as its own science. Across the channel in England, as physicians gained stature in the 19th century, surgeons and dentists engaged in a power struggle. In the modern United States, after medicine became linked to employer insurance and Medicare, the fissure between medicine and dentistry widened. Insurance coverage began at the throat. So when Salomon Amar, a periodontal specialist at Boston University, began exploring links between oral bacteria and heart disease in animal studies in the late 1990s, reactions were lukewarm. “Many cardiologists thought we were a bit crazy,” he says. Skepticism still abounds, but the same molecular tools that have dramatically changed understanding of the gut microbiome are now allowing scientists to track and examine bacteria in the mouth. Advocates of a connection between the artery disease atherosclerosis and microbes are hoping to find convincing proof of their suspicions, while exploring links between ailing gums and other conditions, including cancer, arthritis, diabetes and even Alzheimer’s disease. The work has profound implications for public health, given that more than 65 million American adults are thought to have periodontal disease, which occurs when bacterial overgrowth inflames the gums and can lead to erosion of gums and bone. If it turns out that periodontal decay drives other diseases, doctors would have a new, and relatively simple, means of prevention. Wenche Borgnakke, a dental researcher at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, has been making this case for years, citing “solid evidence that periodontal treatment has an effect on systemic disease.” She points to a study published last year in the journal Medicine comparing patients on dialysis who received periodontal treatment with those who did not. Those getting treatment had an almost 30 percent lower risk of pneumonia and hospitalization from infections. Another study published earlier this year found that gum disease is associated with a roughly 10 percent higher mortality over 10 years among patients with kidney problems. U.S. adults over age 30 with periodontal disease Cognitive decline among Alzheimer’s patients with gum disease versus those with healthy gums Risk of several cancers among nonsmokers with advanced gum disease versus those with healthy gums Researchers working in the field often point out that about half of all deaths from atherosclerosis occur in people who do not have any classic risk factors, such as high cholesterol or obesity. Something else — something as yet unknown — is also contributing to heart disease. Even the root cause of many cancers is largely unexplained. Most women with breast cancer, for instance, have no risk factors other than older age. Says Jean Wactawski-Wende, a cancer epidemiologist at the State University of New York at Buffalo: “The more I work on oral health and cancer, the more I think, ‘Oh my gosh, I’ve got to keep my teeth clean.’ ” To date, more than 500 scientific papers have weighed in on the connection between atherosclerosis and gum disease. Officially, the theory remains “biologically plausible,” but unproven, according to the American Heart Association’s formal position. Some concepts are undisputed: For one, the microbes that live in the mouth don’t stay in the mouth. The simple act of brushing allows bacteria clinging to the teeth and gums to leak into the bloodstream. As the posters at the dentist’s office attest, neglected oral hygiene encourages bacterial growth, allowing the microbes to breed on and between teeth, as well as under the gums. What the illustrations don’t show is that these microorganisms form a biofilm, a tough microbial community bound together with sugar molecules in a thin coating. This is the plaque your dentist warns you about. “If you do not brush your teeth, it will sit there and accumulate. As that plaque gets thicker and thicker, there is less and less oxygen in the deepest layers,” Borgnakke says. Safely sheltered, the innermost plaque starts to favor anaerobic bacteria, which, when they escape into the blood, can survive in the oxygen-starved nooks and crannies deep inside the body. As plaque builds up, gums get irritated, swell and draw more blood into the distressed tissue. Eventually, chemicals produced by the biofilm break down the thin layer of cells that form a boundary between the gums and the blood vessels. Periodontitis officially occurs when gum and bone tissue starts to deteriorate. The space between the tooth and gums forms a pocket; dentists measure the depth of the pockets to determine the severity of infection. “We usually think of an infection as some bug from the outside that attacks the body,” says Borgnakke. “In this case, it’s an internal infection.” It was once thought that only a handful of microbial species were involved in the development of periodontitis, but the latest studies have revealed that many of the microbes responsible for gum disease come from “previously underappreciated species,” according to a 2015 report in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Because many bacteria resist growth in a laboratory, only a small portion of some 500 to 700 species of oral microbes have been well characterized. One aggressive pathogen, an organism called Porphyromonas gingivalis, has antennae that stick out and can pry open the space between two cells, Borgnakke says. “This is a really, really nasty bug.” Within minutes of invading blood vessels, P. gingivalis and its gang of accomplices are ferried to distant sites, where they can set up outposts. “Bacteria that normally live in the mouth are found in every organ in the body, and even muscle cells,” she says. The body doesn’t take this assault lying down. The immune system gets agitated and tends to stay in a state of slow simmer. But the bacteria that cause periodontal disease have a knack for turning the body’s defense on its head, according to a 2015 review in Nature Reviews Immunology. Case in point: Common white blood cells called neutrophils are deployed to the failing gums — where they not only fail to control the infection, but also end up releasing enzymes that further destroy tissue. The immune system also releases an avalanche of chemicals designed to help control the infection. For example, the liver starts producing C-reactive protein, a molecule that has such an important role in signaling the rise of heart disease that it is considered a risk factor by some researchers. Even after two decades of study, it has been hard to directly link periodontal dynamics to blocked arteries, despite hundreds of studies that have tried. There are seemingly smoking guns. Among them, P. gingivalis is commonly found lodged inside arteries, and the development of plaque in the arteries is driven by many of the same inflammatory chemicals triggered by periodontal disease. Many researchers also point to C-reactive protein, which is probably present long before atherosclerosis develops. Here to there While questions remain, researchers theorize that oral bacteria can travel and infect tissues throughout the body, triggering inflammation that affects various systems, as well as a developing fetus. But people with periodontitis also tend to share well-known risk factors for heart disease, such as high cholesterol, smoking and obesity. A sugar-sweetened diet that promotes oral decay is no friend to your arteries. The relationship is also hard to study because both atherosclerosis and periodontitis unfold slowly over time, so epidemiologists must rely on indirect measures of disease. Experts line up on both sides. “If there is an association, it’s a very weak one,” says Peter Lockhart, former chairman of oral medicine at Carolinas HealthCare System in Charlotte, N.C. An expert on heart valve infections, Lockhart was one of the leaders of an American Heart Association panel that reviewed the evidence before releasing an official statement in 2012. “I think the question has been answered for now,” he says. For cardiologists, the threat from periodontal disease “pales by comparison to the known risk factors that need to be focused on.” Others aren’t ready to abandon the hypothesis. In 2015 in the journal Atherosclerosis, a team of German researchers reviewed studies released since the AHA statement. They pointed out that a large body of work published in the previous three years, using more refined tools and study design, shows that a connection between the two “cannot be ruled out.” One study, published in PLOS ONE in 2014 from researchers at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Meharry Medical College in Nashville and elsewhere, claims to have found a causal relationship, at least in mice. A significant portion of animals that drank water containing P. gingivalis experienced inflammation and bacterial accumulation in their hearts and blood vessels. Very few unexposed animals did. While the artery studies carry on, new research is finding oral bacteria in surprising places. The brain, for one. In 2013, a team of researchers from Florida and the United Kingdom compared brain tissue samples from 10 people who had died from Alzheimer’s disease with samples from 10 people who had died from other causes. Signs of P. gingivalis infection showed up in four Alzheimer’s patients but in none of the comparison patients, the researchers reported in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. In a follow-up experiment published in the same journal, the researchers inoculated P. gingivalis into the mouths of 12 mice genetically protected from Alzheimer’s. Six months later, evidence of the same bacteria appeared in the brains of three-fourths of the animals. Another type of oral bacteria, spirochetes called Treponema denticola, “are already known to enter the brain,” says neuroscientist Sim Singhrao of the University of Central Lancashire in England. Traveling along the nerves that connect to the jaw, “they are a bit like jellyfish, crawling up into neurological tissue.” Once nestled inside the brain, oral bacteria could trigger an inflammatory chain reaction that eventually destroys certain nerve cells and leads to Alzheimer’s disease, says StJohn Crean, Lancashire’s executive dean of the College of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences. He points out that Chinese researchers, writing last year in the Journal of Periodontal Research, found that people carrying certain versions of APOE, a gene linked to Alzheimer’s, were also more likely to suffer aggressive periodontal infection. Finally, a study published in March in PLOS ONE found that among 59 people with hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease followed for six months, those with periodontitis experienced cognitive decline at more than six times the rate as those without gum disease. “We’ve moved on from that ‘this-can’t-be-right’ feeling,” Crean says. He is hoping to get funding for a study that would compare progression of Alzheimer’s among people who receive intensive oral hygiene, such as frequent dental-office–style cleanings, compared with those who brush and floss regularly. But he also notes that the arrow connecting gum disease and Alzheimer’s could point in both directions. “When your memory goes, you’re not going to remember to brush your teeth.” Providing still more reason to invest in dental floss, new research is raising questions about cancer’s link to gum health. Aside from oral cancers, the cancer connection was barely on the scientific radar before 2008, when a study appeared in Lancet Oncology. Some research had suggested that gum disease is associated with higher cancer mortality, but questions remained about the influence of smoking. In the study in Lancet Oncology, researchers from Imperial College London, Harvard Medical School and elsewhere reviewed data for almost 50,000 men enrolled in the Harvard Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. That study found a small increased risk of cancer mortality in men with periodontal disease. A second study, published in February in Annals of Oncology, found that men with advanced periodontal disease who had never smoked nonetheless had a 2.5 times higher risk of cancers associated with smoking, such as lung, bladder and esophageal tumors. The researchers hypothesize that gum disease might trigger the same sort of immune response that tobacco does. Another study examined data from more than 73,000 participants of the Women’s Health Initiative, which gathered health information from volunteers over 15 years. Participants diagnosed with periodontal disease had a 14 percent increased risk of breast cancer compared with women with healthy gums. “It’s a modest increase, but when 50 percent of adults are diagnosed with periodontal disease, you could see this becoming a very important factor for prevention,” says Buffalo’s Wactawski-Wende, who led the study, published in January’s Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. Laboratory studies are also offering compelling evidence of associations with certain cancers. Almost a dozen studies conducted over the last five years have found one particular species of mouth bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum, living in seeming abundance in colorectal tumors. Like P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum thrives in diseased gums and in low-oxygen areas. Wactawski-Wende is studying samples of various tumors to look for oral organisms. Hundreds of species of bacteria live in the mouth. Here are four particularly bad actors linked to a variety of conditions. Clings to cells and tissues using thin appendages called fimbriae A cousin of Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis Major players in the gut microbiome; thrive on a high-carb, low-meat diet Sources: J Mysek et al/J. Immunol. Res. 2014; S. Poole et al/J. Alz. Dis. 2015; M. Hussain et al/Front. in Immunol. 2015; SS. Chukkapalli et al/Infection and Immunity 2014; I. Olsen and Sim K. Singhrao/J. Oral Microbio. 2015; A. Bashir et al/Euro. J. Cancer Prev. 2015; M. Castellarin et al/Genome Res. 2012; O. Sanu et al/J. Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Med. 2011; Y. Kimura et al/Rheumatology 2015; R. Persson et al/BMC Infect. Dis. 2009; K. Moen et al/Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 2006; Marian Glick-Bauer and Ming-Chin Yeh/Nutrients 2014. Given that periodontal disease causes the immune system to remain in a state of irritation, other lines of research have tried to tie diseased gums to inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. Writing last year in the journal Mediators of Inflammation, researchers from the University of Ceará in Brazil reviewed published studies on rheumatoid arthritis, concluding that “the majority of the articles have confirmed that there is a correlation,” especially among women. Both gum disease and arthritis, they wrote, could even feed off one another, amplifying a hyperactive immune system that makes both conditions worse. A long line of research has also examined the relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease. In 2013, Borgnakke and an international team reviewed the evidence in the Journal of Clinical Periodontology. Of the 17 studies they found to have sufficient quality, the evidence suggests that people with poor periodontal health have a greater chance of developing early symptoms of diabetes and having greater complications from the disease once it develops. But she acknowledges that diabetes, and in fact all conditions under study, have multiple causes, making the role of any one culprit difficult to determine. It’s also hard to account for the role of genetics. “You could have two patients with the same amount of plaque. One patient will have really deep pockets [between teeth and gums], and the other one will have no consequences,” she says. “That’s why it’s so hard to say anything in general.” Even as research continues, those involved concede that they may never satisfy skeptics, given the slim chance of ever having a long-term prospective study. That research would need to monitor the cardiac health of a large population over an extended time, half with gum disease and half without, to determine if those with periodontal problems experienced worse cardiac health. But given the length of time it takes for both gum disease and systemic disease to reveal themselves, a study would need to involve thousands of participants over many years to be definitive, Amar says. “It would be financially prohibitive.” And he points out that pharmaceutical companies, which often help fund large clinical trials, would not back a study that has no product for them to eventually sell. “Causality may not ever be demonstrated,” he says. To most doctors, the mouth will probably remain unconnected to the body. Amar and others will nonetheless continue, in hopes their work may one day give health professionals a little more to chew on. This article appears in the April 16, 2016, issue of Science News under the headline, "Down in the mouth."

News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: www.cemag.us

A new, ultrathin film that is both transparent and highly conductive to electric current has been produced by a cheap and simple method devised by an international team of nanomaterials researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago and Korea University. The film is also bendable and stretchable, offering potential applications in roll-up touchscreen displays, wearable electronics, flexible solar cells, and electronic skin. The results are reported in Advanced Functional Materials. The new film is made of fused silver nanowires, and is produced by spraying the nanowire particles through a tiny jet nozzle at supersonic speed. The result is a film with nearly the electrical conductivity of silver-plate — and the transparency of glass, says senior author Alexander Yarin, UIC Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering. “The silver nanowire is a particle, but very long and thin,” Yarin says. The nanowires measure about 20 microns long, so four laid end-to-end would span the width of a human hair. But their diameter is a thousand times smaller — and significantly smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which minimizes light scattering. The researchers suspended the nanowire particles in water and propelled them by air through a de Laval nozzle, which has the same geometry as a jet engine, but is only a few millimeters in diameter. “The liquid needs to be atomized so it evaporates in flight,” Yarin says. When the nanowires strike the surface they are being applied to at supersonic speed, they fuse together, as their kinetic energy is converted to heat. “The ideal speed is 400 meters per second,” Yarin says. “If the energy is too high, say 600 meters per second, it cuts the wires. If too low, as at 200 meters per second, there’s not enough heat to fuse the wires.” The researchers applied the nanowires to flexible plastic films and to three-dimensional objects. “The surface shape doesn’t matter,” Yarin says. The transparent flexible film can be bent repeatedly and stretched to seven times its original length and still work, says Sam Yoon, the corresponding author of the study and a professor of mechanical engineering at Korea University. Earlier this year, Yarin and Yoon and their colleagues produced a transparent conducting film by electroplating a mat of tangled nanofiber with copper. Compared to that film, the self-fused silver nanowire film offers better scalability and production rate, Yoon says. “It should be easier and cheaper to fabricate, as it’s a one-step versus a two-step process,” says Yarin. “You can do it roll-to-roll on an industrial line, continuously.” Co-authors with Yarin and Yoon are Jong-Gun Lee, Do-Yeon Kim, Jong-Hyuk Lee, and Donghwan Kim of Korea University; Suman Sinha-Ray of the Indian Institute of Technology in Indore, India; and Mark T. Swihart of the State University of New York at Buffalo. The research was supported by the National Research Foundation, GFHIM-2013M3A6B1078879, and the Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program, 10045221, funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea.

News Article | November 22, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A new, ultrathin film that is both transparent and highly conductive to electric current has been produced by a cheap and simple method devised by an international team of nanomaterials researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago and Korea University. The film is also bendable and stretchable, offering potential applications in roll-up touchscreen displays, wearable electronics, flexible solar cells and electronic skin. The results are reported in Advanced Functional Materials. The new film is made of fused silver nanowires, and is produced by spraying the nanowire particles through a tiny jet nozzle at supersonic speed. The result is a film with nearly the electrical conductivity of silver-plate -- and the transparency of glass, says senior author Alexander Yarin, UIC Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering. "The silver nanowire is a particle, but very long and thin," Yarin said. The nanowires measure about 20 microns long, so four laid end-to-end would span the width of a human hair. But their diameter is a thousand times smaller -- and significantly smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which minimizes light scattering. The researchers suspended the nanowire particles in water and propelled them by air through a de Laval nozzle, which has the same geometry as a jet engine, but is only a few millimeters in diameter. "The liquid needs to be atomized so it evaporates in flight," Yarin said. When the nanowires strike the surface they are being applied to at supersonic speed, they fuse together, as their kinetic energy is converted to heat. "The ideal speed is 400 meters per second," Yarin said. "If the energy is too high, say 600 meters per second, it cuts the wires. If too low, as at 200 meters per second, there's not enough heat to fuse the wires." The researchers applied the nanowires to flexible plastic films and to three-dimensional objects. "The surface shape doesn't matter," Yarin said. The transparent flexible film can be bent repeatedly and stretched to seven times its original length and still work, said Sam Yoon, the corresponding author of the study and a professor of mechanical engineering at Korea University. Earlier this year, Yarin and Yoon and their colleagues produced a transparent conducting film by electroplating a mat of tangled nanofiber with copper. Compared to that film, the self-fused silver nanowire film offers better scalability and production rate, Yoon said. "It should be easier and cheaper to fabricate, as it's a one-step versus a two-step process," said Yarin. "You can do it roll-to-roll on an industrial line, continuously." Co-authors with Yarin and Yoon are Jong-Gun Lee, Do-Yeon Kim, Jong-Hyuk Lee and Donghwan Kim of Korea University; Suman Sinha-Ray of the Indian Institute of Technology in Indore, India; and Mark T. Swihart of the State University of New York at Buffalo. The research was supported by the National Research Foundation, GFHIM-2013M3A6B1078879, and the Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program, 10045221, funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea.

Home > Press > Supersonic spray yields new nanomaterial for bendable, wearable electronics: Film of self-fused nanowires clear as glass, conducts like metal Abstract: A new, ultrathin film that is both transparent and highly conductive to electric current has been produced by a cheap and simple method devised by an international team of nanomaterials researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago and Korea University. The film is also bendable and stretchable, offering potential applications in roll-up touchscreen displays, wearable electronics, flexible solar cells and electronic skin. The results are reported in Advanced Functional Materials. The new film is made of fused silver nanowires, and is produced by spraying the nanowire particles through a tiny jet nozzle at supersonic speed. The result is a film with nearly the electrical conductivity of silver-plate -- and the transparency of glass, says senior author Alexander Yarin, UIC Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering. "The silver nanowire is a particle, but very long and thin," Yarin said. The nanowires measure about 20 microns long, so four laid end-to-end would span the width of a human hair. But their diameter is a thousand times smaller -- and significantly smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which minimizes light scattering. The researchers suspended the nanowire particles in water and propelled them by air through a de Laval nozzle, which has the same geometry as a jet engine, but is only a few millimeters in diameter. "The liquid needs to be atomized so it evaporates in flight," Yarin said. When the nanowires strike the surface they are being applied to at supersonic speed, they fuse together, as their kinetic energy is converted to heat. "The ideal speed is 400 meters per second," Yarin said. "If the energy is too high, say 600 meters per second, it cuts the wires. If too low, as at 200 meters per second, there's not enough heat to fuse the wires." The researchers applied the nanowires to flexible plastic films and to three-dimensional objects. "The surface shape doesn't matter," Yarin said. The transparent flexible film can be bent repeatedly and stretched to seven times its original length and still work, said Sam Yoon, the corresponding author of the study and a professor of mechanical engineering at Korea University. Earlier this year, Yarin and Yoon and their colleagues produced a transparent conducting film by electroplating a mat of tangled nanofiber with copper. Compared to that film, the self-fused silver nanowire film offers better scalability and production rate, Yoon said. "It should be easier and cheaper to fabricate, as it's a one-step versus a two-step process," said Yarin. "You can do it roll-to-roll on an industrial line, continuously." ### Co-authors with Yarin and Yoon are Jong-Gun Lee, Do-Yeon Kim, Jong-Hyuk Lee and Donghwan Kim of Korea University; Suman Sinha-Ray of the Indian Institute of Technology in Indore, India; and Mark T. Swihart of the State University of New York at Buffalo. The research was supported by the National Research Foundation, GFHIM-2013M3A6B1078879, and the Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program, 10045221, funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

Fu Y.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Guo G.,West Virginia University | Huang T.S.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2010

Human age, as an important personal trait, can be directly inferred by distinct patterns emerging from the facial appearance. Derived from rapid advances in computer graphics and machine vision, computer-based age synthesis and estimation via faces have become particularly prevalent topics recently because of their explosively emerging real-world applications, such as forensic art, electronic customer relationship management, security control and surveillance monitoring, biometrics, entertainment, and cosmetology. Age synthesis is defined to rerender a face image aesthetically with natural aging and rejuvenating effects on the individual face. Age estimation is defined to label a face image automatically with the exact age (year) or the age group (year range) of the individual face. Because of their particularity and complexity, both problems are attractive yet challenging to computer-based application system designers. Large efforts from both academia and industry have been devoted in the last a few decades. In this paper, we survey the complete state-of-the-art techniques in the face image-based age synthesis and estimation topics. Existing models, popular algorithms, system performances, technical difficulties, popular face aging databases, evaluation protocols, and promising future directions are also provided with systematic discussions. © 2006 IEEE.

Chen G.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Chen G.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Agren H.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Ohulchanskyy T.Y.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2015

Light upconverting nanostructures employing lanthanide ions constitute an emerging research field recognized with wide ramifications and impact in many areas ranging from healthcare, to energy and, to security. The core-shell design of these nanostructures allows us to deliberately introduce a hierarchy of electronic energy states, thus providing unprecedented opportunities to manipulate the electronic excitation, energy transfer and upconverted emissions. The core-shell morphology also causes the suppression of quenching mechanisms to produce efficient upconversion emission for biophotonic and photonic applications. Using hierarchical architect, whereby each shell layer can be defined to have a specific feature, the electronic structure as well as the physiochemical structure of the upconverting nanomaterials can be tuned to couple other electronic states on the surface such as excitations of organic dye molecules or localized surface plasmons from metallic nanostructures, or to introduce a broad range of imaging or therapeutic modalities into a single conduct. In this review, we summarize the key aspects of nanophotonic control of the light upconverting nanoparticles through governed design and preparation of hierarchical shells in the core-shell nanostructures, and review their emerging applications in the biomedical field, solar energy conversion, as well as security encoding. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Brown R.J.,Durham University | Valentine G.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Bulletin of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2013

We assess bias in the record of kimberlite volcanism by using newly acquired size data on more than 900 kimberlite bodies from 12 kimberlite fields eroded to depths of between 0 m and >1200 m, and by a comparison with intraplate monogenetic basaltic volcanic fields. Eroded kimberlite fields are composed of pipes (or diatremes) and dikes, and within any one kimberlite field, regardless of erosion level, kimberlite bodies vary in area at Earth's surface over 2-3 orders of magnitude. Typically 60%-70% of the bodies are <10% the area of the largest pipe in the field. The maximum size of a kimberlite pipe found in a field shows a relationship with estimated erosion levels, suggesting that the erosion level of a region could be used to predict the maximum potential size of a pipe where it intersects the surface. The data indicate that the selective removal of surface volcanic structures and deposits by erosion has distorted the geological record of kimberlite volcanism. Selective mining of preferentially large, diamondiferous kimberlite pipes and underreporting of small kimberlite pipes and dikes add further bias. A comparison of kimberlite volcanic fields with intraplate monogenetic basaltic volcanic fields indicates that both types of volcanism overlap in terms of field size, volcano number and size, and typical erupted volumes. Eroded monogenetic basaltic fields consist of dikes that fed effusive and weakly explosive surface eruptions, and diatremes (pipes) generated during phreatomagmatic eruptions, and they are structurally similar to eroded kimberlite fields. Reassessment of published data suggests that kimberlite magmas can erupt in a variety of ways and that most published data, taken from the largest kimberlite pipes, may not be representative of kimberlite volcanism as a whole. This refuels long-standing debates as to whether kimberlite pipes (diatremes) primarily result from phreatomagmatic eruptions (as in basaltic volcanism) or from volatile-driven magmatic eruptions. © 2013 Geological Society of America.

Nair J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Lakshminrusimha S.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Lakshminrusimha S.,Children's Hospital of Buffalo
Seminars in Perinatology | Year: 2014

Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a syndrome of failed circulatory adaptation at birth, seen in about 2/1000 live born infants. While it is mostly seen in term and near-term infants, it can be recognized in some premature infants with respiratory distress or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Most commonly, PPHN is secondary to delayed or impaired relaxation of the pulmonary vasculature associated with diverse neonatal pulmonary pathologies, such as meconium aspiration syndrome, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and respiratory distress syndrome. Gentle ventilation strategies, lung recruitment, inhaled nitric oxide, and surfactant therapy have improved outcome and reduced the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in PPHN. Newer modalities of treatment discussed in this article include systemic and inhaled vasodilators like sildenafil, prostaglandin E1, prostacyclin, and endothelin antagonists. With prompt recognition/treatment and early referral to ECMO centers, the mortality rate for PPHN has significantly decreased. However, the risk of potential neurodevelopmental impairment warrants close follow-up after discharge for infants with PPHN. © 2014.

Fliesler S.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Bretillon L.,University of Burgundy
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2010

The vertebrate retina has multiple demands for utilization of cholesterol and must meet those demands either by synthesizing its own supply of cholesterol or by importing cholesterol from extraretinal sources, or both. Unlike the blood-brain barrier, the blood-retina barrier allows uptake of cholesterol from the circulation via a lipoprotein-based/receptor-mediated mechanism. Under normal conditions, cholesterol homeostasis is tightly regulated; also, cholesterol exists in the neural retina overwhelmingly in unesterified form, and sterol intermediates are present in minimal to negligible quantities. However, under certain pathological conditions, either due to an inborn error in cholesterol biosynthesis or as a consequence of exposure to selective inhibitors of enzymes in the cholesterol pathway, the ratio of sterol intermediates to cholesterol in the retina can rise dramatically and persist, in some cases resulting in progressive degeneration that significantly compromises the structure and function of the retina. Although the relative contributions of de novo synthesis versus extraretinal uptake are not yet known, herein we review what is known about these processes and the dynamics of cholesterol in the vertebrate retina and indicate some future avenues of research in this area.

Dudukovic N.A.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Zukoski C.F.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Soft Matter | Year: 2014

We explore the formation and structure of gels produced from solutions of the aromatic dipeptide derivative molecule fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Mixing these solutions with water results in the self-assembly of Fmoc-FF molecules into space-filling fibrous networks, exhibiting mechanical properties characteristic of gels. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we observe the gel transition in situ and find that, upon the addition of water, the solution undergoes a rapid transition to a non-equilibrium state forming ∼2 μm spheres, followed by the formation of fibers 5-10 nm in diameter, nucleating at a sphere surface and expanding into the solution as the remaining spheres dissolve, extending the network. The gel aging process is associated with the network becoming increasingly uniform through apparent redissolution/reaggregation of the Fmoc-FF molecules, corresponding to the observed increase in the elastic modulus to a plateau value. We demonstrate that this increase in uniformity and elastic modulus can be expedited by controlling the temperature of the system, as well as that these gels are thermally reversible, further indicating that the system is in equilibrium in its fibrous network state. X-ray scattering information suggests that the packing of the molecules within a fiber is based on π-π stacking of β-sheets, consistent with models proposed in the literature for similar systems, implying that each particle (molecule) possesses a limited number of interaction sites. These observations provide experimental evidence that these low molecular weight gelator molecules can be considered valence-limited "patchy" particles, which associate at low enough temperature to form equilibrium gels. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Scutari G.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Pang J.-S.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2013

In this paper, we propose a novel class of Nash problems for cognitive radio (CR) networks, modeled as Gaussian frequency-selective interference channels, wherein each secondary user (SU) competes against the others to maximize his own opportunistic throughput by choosing jointly the sensing duration, the detection thresholds, and the vector power allocation. The proposed general formulation allows us to accommodate several (transmit) power and (deterministic/probabilistic) interference constraints, such as constraints on the maximum individual and/or aggregate (probabilistic) interference tolerable at the primary receivers. To keep the optimization as decentralized as possible, global (coupling) interference constraints are imposed by penalizing each SU with a set of time-varying prices based upon his contribution to the total interference; the prices are thus additional variable to optimize. The resulting players' optimization problems are nonconvex; moreover, there are possibly price clearing conditions associated with the global constraints to be satisfied by the solution. All this makes the analysis of the proposed games a challenging task; none of classical results in the game theory literature can be successfully applied. The main contribution of this paper is to develop a novel optimization-based theory for studying the proposed nonconvex games; we provide a comprehensive analysis of the existence and uniqueness of a standard Nash equilibrium, devise alternative best-response based algorithms, and establish their convergence. Some of the proposed algorithms are totally distributed and asynchronous, whereas some others require limited signaling among the SUs (in the form of consensus algorithms) in favor of better performance; overall, they are thus applicable to a variety of CR scenarios, either cooperative or noncooperative, which allows the SUs to explore the existing tradeoff between signaling and performance. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 743.47K | Year: 2010

We propose to develop and evaluate generalizable techniques for Enabling Representation of Meta-Information in Net-Centric Environments (ERMINE). The proposed ERMINE effort represents a fundamental contribution to research in meta-information portrayal that will generalize across domains. Under Phase I, we demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed approach to developing and evaluating meta-information representations. We performed a Work Domain Analysis to identify the potential impacts of meta-information on decision-making and define cross-domain avenues for research. We performed a scoped literature review, and designed an extensible knowledge repository, to inform our Phase I and future experiment design efforts. We demonstrated meta-information portrayal strategies, developed a specific evaluation plan including a detailed pilot study, and executed that pilot study. Under Phase II, we propose to: (1) extend and refine the WDA to capture additional complexities associated with cyberwarfare and to ensure generalizability across tasks, contexts, and domains; (2) rapidly prototype and empirically evaluate new meta-information visualization methods; (3) build a publicly accessible, community-driven Web site to characterize meta-information research and encourage collaboration among stakeholders; and (4) execute experiments to expand our basic understanding of human reasoning about and perception of meta-information, as well as to support the development of cross-domain meta-information portrayal methods. BENEFIT: We see considerable promise in the commercial application of our approach to developing meta-information visualization techniques, particularly in the financial industry, where decision-making incorporates risk management and the evaluation of meta-informational attributes of specific investment choices to develop coherent and effective strategies. We also see applications for meta-information visualization methods in Federal, State, and Local Government emergency response systems in homeland security scenarios where meta-information critically affects decision-making. In addition, we plan to transition specific meta-information visualization techniques to our BNet® suite of commercial products as we begin to target vertical markets (e.g., business intelligence).

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.75K | Year: 2011

Modern military and security scenarios increasingly demand rapid evaluation of human affective states, accurately detecting stress, anxiety, uncertainty, and fatigue (SAUF) to assess warfighter effectiveness or to advance security screening and interrogation objectives. In our Phase I effort, we designed and demonstrated a system to Analyze Facial Features to Enable Operator Condition Tracking (AFFECT) by extracting a broad array of features from visible and thermal spectrum imagery of the human face. We designed an effective stress induction protocol and recorded the resultant elevated stress levels using heart rate variability data. We demonstrated the feasibility of our classification methodology by implementing a prototype of the AFFECT system. For Phase II, we propose to expand on these results by designing new affective induction techniques and ground-truth metrics for anxiety, uncertainty, and fatigue. We will detect these states by applying novel visual and thermal feature extraction algorithms, and by implementing the temporal feature algorithms designed in Phase I. We are confident that the sound principles underlying our Phase I approach will provide a robust foundation for expanded SAUF classification in Phase II.

News Article | March 1, 2017
Site: www.24-7pressrelease.com

WILLIAMSBURG, VA, March 01, 2017-- Dr. Mary L. Voorhess is a celebrated Marquis Who's Who biographee. As in all Marquis Who's Who biographical volumes, individuals profiled are selected on the basis of current reference value. Factors such as position, noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and prominence in a field are all taken into account during the selection process.Marquis Who's Who, the world's premier publisher of biographical profiles, is proud to name Dr. Voorhess a Lifetime Achiever. An accomplished listee, Dr. Voorhess celebrates many years' experience in her professional network, and has been noted for achievements, leadership qualities, and the credentials and successes she has accrued in her field.Dr. Voorhess, Professor Emerita, Dept. of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, prepared for her role as co-chief of the Division of Endocrinology at Children's Hospital of Buffalo by earning a Doctor of Medicine degree from Baylor College of Medicine (Houston); a Bachelor of Arts in Zoology from the University of Texas (Austin); and became an RN after graduating from City Hospital School of Nursing in Binghamton, NY.Dr. Voorhess received a Research Career Development Award from the National Cancer Institute (NIH), and the Dean's Award for Service to the University from SUNY Buffalo. She has been featured in numerous Marquis Who's Who publications, including Who's Who of American Women, Who's Who in the World, Who's Who in the South and Southwest, Who's Who in Science and Engineering, Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare and Who's Who in America.In recognition of outstanding contributions to her profession and the Marquis Who's Who community, Dr. Voorhess has been featured on the Marquis Who's Who Lifetime Achievers website. Please visit https://wwlifetimeachievement.com/2016/12/12/mary-voorhess/ to view this distinguished honor.About Marquis Who's Who :Since 1899, when A. N. Marquis printed the First Edition of Who's Who in America , Marquis Who's Who has chronicled the lives of the most accomplished individuals and innovators from every significant field of endeavor, including politics, business, medicine, law, education, art, religion and entertainment. Today, Who's Who in America remains an essential biographical source for thousands of researchers, journalists, librarians and executive search firms around the world. Marquis publications may be visited at the official Marquis Who's Who website at www.marquiswhoswho.com

News Article | November 15, 2016
Site: www.24-7pressrelease.com

BUFFALO, NY, November 15, 2016-- Dr. C. Alan Riedesel has been included in Marquis Who's Who. As in all Marquis Who's Who biographical volumes, individuals profiled are selected on the basis of current reference value. Factors such as position, noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and prominence in a field are all taken into account during the selection process.For more than five decades, Dr. Riedesel has been a professor of education at the collegiate level. He has utilized his talents in roles with the State University of New York at Buffalo, Georgia State University, Pennsylvania State University, Kansas State University and the State University of New York at Plattsburgh. Recognized as a distinguished educator, he has performed extensive research supported by the National Science Foundation. Further, Dr. Riedesel is revered for creative works that he has published during his tenure. Most notably, he developed and released a two-part series, titled Essentials in Teaching, and he was the software author for two volumes of "Sunburst." In addition, Dr. Riedesel was the author of six editions of Teaching Elementary School Math, and the handbooks, Elementary School Math, Mathematics for Elementary Teachers, and "What Happened to Buddy?"Prior to establishing himself professionally, Dr. Riedesel invested his time and efforts into his own education. He earned a Bachelor of Arts from Cornell College in 1951, a Master of Arts from the University of Iowa in 1956 and a Ph.D., also from the University of Iowa, in 1962. To remain at the top of his field, Dr. Riedesel is a member of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the National Council of Social Studies Teachers and the National Council of Teachers of Math.In recognition of professional excellence, Dr. Riedesel was selected for inclusion in Who's Who in America for eight consecutive years, Who's Who in American Education on two occasions, Who's Who in the East on seven occasions, and Who's Who in the World each year since 2011. As he looks to the future, Dr. Riedesel intends to work with the Library of Westfield, N.Y. on various projects and new opportunities.About Marquis Who's Who :Since 1899, when A. N. Marquis printed the First Edition of Who's Who in America , Marquis Who's Who has chronicled the lives of the most accomplished individuals and innovators from every significant field of endeavor, including politics, business, medicine, law, education, art, religion and entertainment. Today, Who's Who in America remains an essential biographical source for thousands of researchers, journalists, librarians and executive search firms around the world. Marquis now publishes many Who's Who titles, including Who's Who in America , Who's Who in the World , Who's Who in American Law , Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare , Who's Who in Science and Engineering , and Who's Who in Asia . Marquis publications may be visited at the official Marquis Who's Who website at www.marquiswhoswho.com

News Article | December 13, 2016
Site: globenewswire.com

De achtergrond van Hilmar in de metaalindustrie, en in het bijzonder zijn ervaring en technische kennis inzake de smeltingindustrie, zal de transformatiestrategie voor Metaalverwerking ten goede komen. Hij heeft blijk gegeven van ervaring door zijn betrokkenheid bij de bouw en oplevering van een ISA smeltoven en zuurinstallatie op de site van het Kazzinc project in Kazachstan. Hij heeft eveneens uitgebreide ervaring opgedaan bij het Skorpion zinkproject in Namibië, hetgeen hoogwaardig zink produceert. Voor verdere details omtrent Hilmar's professionele ervaring wordt verwezen naar de Noten hieronder. Hilmar brengt meer dan 20 jaar ervaring in de metaal- (zink, koper, steenkool en diamanten), papier & verpakking- en chemische industrie naar Nyrstar. Hij was actief bij BHP Billiton, Glencore, Mondi, Anglo American en Praxair in hogere managementfuncties met inbegrip op het vlak van operaties, strategie, business development en onderzoek en ontwikkeling. Bij Glencore en Anglo American deed hij uitgebreide ervaring op in zink & lood mijnbouw- en smeltactiviteiten. Terwijl hij actief was bij Anglo American, werkte Hilmar gedurende vier jaar op het Skorpion zinkproject in Namibië van de pre-haalbaarheidfase tot oplevering. Hij was tijdens de projectfase verantwoordelijk voor product en marketing, met inbegrip van product- en gieterijspecificatie, uitgaande logistiek, havenopslagspecificatie, segmentatie van cliënten en implementatie van de verkoopsstrategie. Hij behaalde een PhD in Chemical Engineering en een Masters in Environmental Engineering van de State University of New York at Buffalo en een first-class degree in Chemical Engineering van de University of Stellenbosch. Hij voltooide eveneens het Advanced Management Programme aan de Harvard Business School. Over Nyrstar Nyrstar is een globale multimetaalonderneming, met een leiderspositie op de zink- en loodmarkt, en groeiende posities voor andere basis- en edelmetalen, welke essentiële grondstoffen zijn die de snelle verstedelijking en industrialisering van onze veranderende wereld voeden. Nyrstar heeft mijnbouw-, smelt- en andere activiteiten in Europa, het Amerikaanse continent en Australië en stelt ongeveer 5.000 mensen te werk. Nyrstar werd opgericht in België en heeft haar hoofdzetel in Zwitserland. Nyrstar is op Euronext Brussels genoteerd onder het symbool NYR. Meer informatie vindt u op de website van Nyrstar: www.nyrstar.com.

News Article | December 13, 2016
Site: globenewswire.com

The Board of Directors of Nyrstar NV ("Nyrstar" or "the Company") announce today that Bill Scotting, Chief Executive Officer of Nyrstar, has decided to leave the Company to pursue other opportunities with immediate effect. Since joining in 2015, Bill has led Nyrstar and been instrumental in implementing the change in strategy to strengthen the balance sheet, divest the Mining segment, deliver substantial cash and cost savings and progress the Port Pirie Redevelopment. Mr Hilmar Rode, an industry leader with significant experience in metals processing, the Board's unanimous choice as Bill's successor, will be the new Chief Executive Officer of Nyrstar effective immediately. Hilmar's background in the metals industry and specifically his experience and technical knowledge of the smelting business will be an asset for the Metals Processing transformation strategy. He has demonstrated experience through his involvement with the construction and commissioning of an ISA smelt furnace and acid plant at the Kazzinc project in Kazakhstan, and his extensive experience at the Skorpion zinc project in Namibia which produces special high grade zinc.  Further detail of Hilmar's professional experience can be found in the Notes to Editors below. Chairman, Martyn Konig said: "The Board thanks Bill for his hard work and unrelenting dedication since he joined Nyrstar.  We all wish Bill the best for his next venture." "For Nyrstar, 2017 is  a significant year of delivery with the Port Pirie Redevelopment, further optimisation of the Metals Processing assets and the divestment of the remainder of the Mining segment. We welcome Hilmar as CEO and are confident that his extensive experience in delivering projects of this scale and type will successfully execute  the Company's strategy." Hilmar brings to Nyrstar more than 20 years of experience in the metals (zinc, copper, coal and diamonds), paper & packaging and chemicals industries. He has worked at BHP Billiton, Glencore, Mondi, Anglo American and Praxair in senior management roles spanning operations, strategy, business development and R&D. At Glencore and Anglo American he accumulated extensive experience in zinc & lead mining and smelting. Most recently, he led the successful transformation of Minera Escondida, the largest copper mining and processing project in Chile operated by BHP Billiton. The transformation achieved a step change in productivity and reset the cost base whilst always putting safety first. Prior to BHP Billiton, Hilmar led a restructuring and business optimisation project at Glencore's Kazzinc operation in Kazakhstan for two years, including the design and implementation of a new business model converting the zinc, lead and copper smelters from cost centres to profit centres, the construction and commissioning of an ISA smelt furnace and construction of a new acid plant. While at Anglo American, Hilmar worked on the Skorpion zinc project in Namibia for four years from pre-feasibility through to commissioning. He had responsibility during the project phase for product and marketing, including product and casthouse specification, outbound logistics, port warehouse specification, customer segmentation and implementation of the sales strategy. He holds a PhD in Chemical Engineering and a Masters in Environmental Engineering from the State University of New York at Buffalo and a first-class degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Stellenbosch. He also completed the Advanced Management Programme at Harvard Business School. About Nyrstar Nyrstar is a global multi-metals business, with a market leading position in zinc and lead, and growing positions in other base and precious metals, which are essential resources that are fuelling the rapid urbanisation and industrialisation of our changing world. Nyrstar has mining, smelting and other operations located in Europe, the Americas and Australia and employs approximately 5,000 people. Nyrstar is incorporated in Belgium and has its corporate office in Switzerland. Nyrstar is listed on Euronext Brussels under the symbol NYR. For further information please visit the Nyrstar website: www.nyrstar.com. The full press release can be downloaded from the following link:

News Article | December 21, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Northcentral University (NCU), a global online graduate-focused university, is pleased to announce that Dr. Laurie Shanderson has joined NCU as the Founding Dean of its new School of Health Sciences. Before taking this position, Shanderson served as both Associate Dean and Assistant Dean for the School of Health Sciences at Stockton University in Galloway, New Jersey. She received a Bachelor in Health and Human Services from the State University of New York at Buffalo, a Master of Public Administration from Pace University and a PhD in Health Services from Walden University. Shanderson is tasked with developing the School of Health Sciences for NCU. “My goal is to build quality accredited programs that prepare students for the interdisciplinary and interprofessional health care field,” explained Shanderson. During her career, she has worked at a variety of health institutions including health insurance organizations, non-profit health organizations, a research institute and higher education. Shanderson has a strong background in healthcare as well as distance education, program development, accreditation, cultural competence/diversity, and health administration/management. Shanderson is the current Chair of the Cultural Perspectives Forum for the Association of University Programs in Health Administration (AUPHA) and former Chair and Chair-Elect of the AUPHA Innovative Teaching Faculty Network. She is a founding member of the American Public Health Association’s (APHA) Health Informatics Information Technology section, as well as the current section treasurer, and was recently awarded for Outstanding Leadership Service. About Northcentral University Founded in 1996, Northcentral University is a regionally accredited, private, online and graduate-focused university serving professionals globally. NCU offers doctoral, master’s and bachelor’s degrees in business and technology management, education, and psychology, as well as doctoral and master’s degrees in marriage and family therapy. Without physical residency requirements, courses are taught one-to-one by an NCU professor, all of whom have doctoral degrees. Northcentral University is regionally accredited by WASC Senior College and University Commission (WASC), http://www.wascsenior.org. For more information, visit http://www.ncu.edu/ or call 866.776.0331.

News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A team of researchers led by Jiajun Cao, a PhD candidate in the College of Computer and Information Science (CCIS) at Northeastern University, recently completed what appears to be the largest known instance of transparent checkpointing. Transparent checkpointing allows computer scientists and engineers working on large projects to save and reopen programs without modifying any code. This assures researchers working across hundreds or thousands of computers that their work will be safe in case of a computer failure. Their programs are run on CPU cores, and computers can contain multiple cores, allowing them to run one program simultaneously across multiple cores. Transparent checkpointing could simplify the work of computer scientists handling large amounts of data and using supercomputers to process that data. For example, with transparent checkpointing software, meteorologists can process and analyze billions of pieces of weather data without the fear that a computer crash could erase that work. "The idea of checkpointing is that one can take a running computation, automatically stop it in the middle and save the state of everything to a file on disk," Gene Cooperman, a professor at CCIS and Cao's advisor, explains. "Then you can copy that file to another computer or keep it on the same one. When you restart, the program continues running from where it left off." Cooperman's work with Distributed Multi-Threaded CheckPointing (DMTCP) software, which is responsible for checkpointing, is now in its second decade. What makes this example of transparent checkpointing significant is the massive amount of data that was run and saved in a short period of time. The MVAPICH software supporting the Message Passing Interface (MPI) was used to run the High Performance Conjugate Gradients (HPCG) program for linear algebra in parallel over 32,768 CPU cores on 2,048 computers. It used a total memory of 38 terabytes, and was checkpointed in 10 minutes and 53 seconds. A second program, Nanoscale Molecular Dynamics (NAMD), was run in parallel over 16,368 CPU cores on 1,024 computers, using a total memory of 10 terabytes. It was checkpointed in two minutes and 38 seconds. Checkpointing these amounts of data in 11 minutes or less is a breakthrough for scientists usually restricted by having to run their programs before modifying and saving them within 24-hour time slots. These processes were carried out on the Stampede supercomputer at the Texas Advanced Computer Center (TACC). Stampede is one of the world's largest supercomputers. The research was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation awarded to Cooperman's DMTCP project, under which Cao's checkpointing research falls. "These results show how the Extended Collaborative Support Services from the National Science Foundation-supported Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment can help scientists and developers improve the scalability and efficiency of their code on high performance computing clusters," says Jérôme Vienne, a research associate at TACC. Dhabaleswar K. Panda, who leads the MVAPICH team at Ohio State, explains that "the results of this collaborative work push the existing capabilities of the MVAPICH2 library further in terms of fault-tolerance and check-pointing." Cao's collaborators include Kapil Arya of Mesophere, Inc.; Rohan Garg and Gene Cooperman of Northeastern University; Shawn Matott of the Center for Computational Research at the State University of New York at Buffalo; Dhabaleswar K. Panda and Hari Subramoni of Ohio State University; and Jérôme Vienne of the Texas Advanced Computing Center at the University of Texas at Austin. The paper, titled "System-level Scalable Checkpoint-Restart for Petascale Computing," is available to read online. This work will be published at the 22nd Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS) in December 2016.

News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: phys.org

Transparent checkpointing allows computer scientists and engineers working on large projects to save and reopen programs without modifying any code. This assures researchers working across hundreds or thousands of computers that their work will be safe in case of a computer failure. Their programs are run on CPU cores, and computers can contain multiple cores, allowing them to run one program simultaneously across multiple cores. Transparent checkpointing could simplify the work of computer scientists handling large amounts of data and using supercomputers to process that data. For example, with transparent checkpointing software, meteorologists can process and analyze billions of pieces of weather data without the fear that a computer crash could erase that work. "The idea of checkpointing is that one can take a running computation, automatically stop it in the middle and save the state of everything to a file on disk," Gene Cooperman, a professor at CCIS and Cao's advisor, explains. "Then you can copy that file to another computer or keep it on the same one. When you restart, the program continues running from where it left off." Cooperman's work with Distributed Multi-Threaded CheckPointing (DMTCP) software, which is responsible for checkpointing, is now in its second decade. What makes this example of transparent checkpointing significant is the massive amount of data that was run and saved in a short period of time. The MVAPICH software supporting the Message Passing Interface (MPI) was used to run the High Performance Conjugate Gradients (HPCG) program for linear algebra in parallel over 32,768 CPU cores on 2,048 computers. It used a total memory of 38 terabytes, and was checkpointed in 10 minutes and 53 seconds. A second program, Nanoscale Molecular Dynamics (NAMD), was run in parallel over 16,368 CPU cores on 1,024 computers, using a total memory of 10 terabytes. It was checkpointed in two minutes and 38 seconds. Checkpointing these amounts of data in 11 minutes or less is a breakthrough for scientists usually restricted by having to run their programs before modifying and saving them within 24-hour time slots. These processes were carried out on the Stampede supercomputer at the Texas Advanced Computer Center (TACC). Stampede is one of the world's largest supercomputers. The research was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation awarded to Cooperman's DMTCP project, under which Cao's checkpointing research falls. "These results show how the Extended Collaborative Support Services from the National Science Foundation-supported Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment can help scientists and developers improve the scalability and efficiency of their code on high performance computing clusters," says Jérôme Vienne, a research associate at TACC. Dhabaleswar K. Panda, who leads the MVAPICH team at Ohio State, explains that "the results of this collaborative work push the existing capabilities of the MVAPICH2 library further in terms of fault-tolerance and check-pointing." Cao's collaborators include Kapil Arya of Mesophere, Inc.; Rohan Garg and Gene Cooperman of Northeastern University; Shawn Matott of the Center for Computational Research at the State University of New York at Buffalo; Dhabaleswar K. Panda and Hari Subramoni of Ohio State University; and Jérôme Vienne of the Texas Advanced Computing Center at the University of Texas at Austin. The paper, titled "System-level Scalable Checkpoint-Restart for Petascale Computing," is available to read online. This work will be published at the 22nd Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS) in December 2016. Explore further: For software developers, more speed and mobility

News Article | October 12, 2016
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

For decades a fossilized carnivore jawbone sat largely unnoticed in a drawer at Chicago's Field Museum. Now the scientist who grew curious when he opened that drawer has established with a colleague that the fossil belonged to an early, long-extinct relative of dogs, foxes and weasels known as a beardog. The Field Museum fossil and another at the University of Texas each represent a new genus, the taxonomic rank above species. The researchers believe these beardogs, which lived up to 40 million years ago, may eventually tell the world more about the evolution of dogs and other carnivores and how animals adapt to changes in climate. According to a paper to be published Wednesday in the journal Royal Society Open Science, the jawbones belonged to two closely related types of Chihuahua-sized beardogs, new genera now named Gustafsonia and Angelarctocyon. The Field Museum fossil set off the research by post-doctoral researcher Susumu Tomiya, who works at the museum and spends much time taking care of its large collection of fossils. "In my spare time I like to walk around the aisles in the collections and open up drawers," he said. "One day I just stumbled on these interesting-looking jaws of a little carnivore." The fossil was discovered in Texas in 1946 and 30 years ago was loosely classified as some type of carnivore. But no one knew where it fit into the carnivore family, said Tomiya, who authored the paper with Jack Tseng of the State University of New York at Buffalo. The teeth stood out to Tomiya. They had flatter surfaces for crushing that suggested their owners ate more than meat - maybe berries and bugs, too, like present-day foxes. The teeth reminded Tomiya of beardogs he was familiar with, he said. But the types of beardogs he knew were much larger predators that were the size of a bear and once roamed parts of North America, Europe, Asia and Africa. The researchers also compared the fossil with one written about in an earlier paper at the University of Texas. Tomiya and Tseng concluded both belonged in what had essentially been a blank spot in the branch of the mammalian tree that includes dogs, raccoons, weasels and similar animals. Beardogs evolved alongside the ancient cousins of present-day dogs, cats, bears and other carnivores. The evolution of beardogs from the small varieties classified by Tomiya and Tseng to the much larger animals that needed more food and habitat seems to match evolutionary paths of other animals that led to extinction, Tomiya said. Beardogs were extinct by 5 million to 10 million years ago, he said. Studying how the diversity of beardogs waxed and waned over time could tell us about larger patterns in carnivore evolution," he said. The two genera of small beardogs also lived at a time of climate transition in North America, from subtropical to cooler and relatively dry. Further study could help answer questions about what kinds of animals adapted well to that change, Tomiya said. The new research is interesting in part because the fossils were found in North America, said Steven Wallace, a geosciences professor at East Tennessee State University and curator at the East Tennessee Natural History Museum. Beyond that, Tomiya and Tseng's work is a reminder to scientists that discoveries don't just come from fresh digs in far-flung locales. "It's almost like they feel that once a specimen's been described, they've learned everything they can from it," Wallace said. "Sometimes the coolest discoveries come right out of a museum."

The International Association of HealthCare Professionals is pleased to welcome Andrew Robert Reichert, MD, Psychiatrist, to their prestigious organization with his upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. He is a highly trained and qualified psychiatrist with an extensive expertise in both advanced psychopharmacology and psychodynamic psychotherapy. Dr. Andrew Robert Reichert has been in practice for more than 25 years and is currently serving patients at Suburban Psychiatric Associates in Buffalo, New York. He maintains an affiliation with Buffalo General Hospital/Kaleida Hospitals as well as Bry Lin Hospital. Dr. Andrew Robert Reichert’s career in medicine began in 1987 when he graduated with his Medical Degree from the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine. Following his graduation, Dr. Reichert completed his residency training at the University of Rochester/ Strong Memorial Hospital. He holds board certification by the American Board of Psychiatry. To keep up to date with the latest advances in his field, Dr. Reichert maintains a professional membership with the American Medical Association and the American Psychiatric Association. He is well versed in the treatment of mood disorders and complex psychiatric syndromes including post traumatic stress. He attributes his success to his ability to establish a positive and caring therapeutic relationship with his patients that goes beyond the current general medical model. He has trained in the biopsychosocial framework of psychiatry, and his holistic approach has served his patients well. Learn more about Dr. Reichert by reading his upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. FindaTopDoc.com is a hub for all things medicine, featuring detailed descriptions of medical professionals across all areas of expertise, and information on thousands of healthcare topics.  Each month, millions of patients use FindaTopDoc to find a doctor nearby and instantly book an appointment online or create a review.  FindaTopDoc.com features each doctor’s full professional biography highlighting their achievements, experience, patient reviews and areas of expertise.  A leading provider of valuable health information that helps empower patient and doctor alike, FindaTopDoc enables readers to live a happier and healthier life.  For more information about FindaTopDoc, visit http://www.findatopdoc.com

News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

THE WORLD'S MOST EXTREME physical exam starts in the world's plushest exam room, complete with a couch, a private bathroom and a teeming fruit plate. It will be my home for an entire day. First come the blood tests, vial after vial. Then two 35-minute sessions in an MRI tube, where REM and U2 try to drown out the clanks as the machine takes pictures of my entire body. There's an ultrasound of my heart. Salade Niçoise for lunch. A stool sample. A cognitive test in which letters flash on a computer screen at a dizzying pace. And a CT scan of my heart as well, which originally seemed so over-the-top for someone my age that I tried to get out of it. "In Vietnam, I used to do autopsies on 18-to-22-year-olds, and a lot of them had cardiovascular disease," J. Craig Venter, the architect of the process, says with a shrug, before adding, ominously, "We find things. The question is what you do with it." Yes, it's that Craig Venter, the man in the late 1990s who, frustrated by the slow progress of the government-funded Human Genome Project, launched an effort that sequenced human DNA two years earlier than planned (he was subsequently the first human to have his complete DNA sequenced). He hasn't slowed down since. He sailed around the world in a voyage inspired by Darwin's journey on the Beagle, discovering thousands of new species along the way. He has created synthetic life and started three companies, and was almost a billionaire before being fired from one of the most promising, Celera Genomics. Now he's back with his most ambitious project since his historic breakthrough 17 years ago. He's raised $300 million from investors including Celgene and GE Ventures for a new firm, Human Longevity, that's trying to take the DNA information he helped unlock and figure out how to leverage it to cheat death for years, or even decades. Core to the effort is the $25,000 executive physical, branded the Health Nucleus, that I'm taking (disclosure: I got tested for free). It's certainly very thorough--and, to many doctors, precisely the wrong approach, owing to all the false positives. "Study after study of various kinds of screening measures has shown they do more harm than good," says Steven Nissen, the chairman of cardiology at the Cleveland Clinic. "You do a total body MRI and you're lucky if you don't find something. I don't think it's good medicine." Venter scoffs. "We're screening healthy people, and a lot of physicians don't like that," he acknowledges. "My response is: How do you know they're healthy? We use a definition of health out of the Middle Ages: If you look okay and you feel okay, you're deemed healthy. We have a different way of looking at people." Now 70, Venter cites himself. Last year, he underwent his own physical and says he found prostate cancer, which was removed last November. The man he has called his "scientific muse," Nobel laureate Hamilton Smith, 85, found he had a deadly lymphoma in his lung. It has also been treated, and Smith says his prognosis is good. The famously gruff Venter is entirely comfortable ticking off the establishment, no matter what that establishment is, and the feeling is mutual. His DNA breakthrough was one of the great scientific accomplishments of the 20th century, yet he never won a Nobel Prize. Academics view him as someone interested in profits over science. "He's a very insecure person who compensates by coming across as very arrogant and aggressive," says one former collaborator. Similarly, Venter's discoveries have upended industries, yet his business track record, including a brief flirtation with billionairehood, is checkered, as connections to past backers and bosses have gone up in flames. "He has irritated a lot of people," says Harvard genetics professor George Church, a Venter fan. "It's a pity." Thus, Human Longevity offers Venter a last chance to square his legacy, awe the scientists and make billions in the process, all the while shaking the foundation of a topic that precisely 100% of homo sapiens have a keen interest in: how and when each of us will die. VENTER HAS DISPLAYED POTENTIAL, BOTH achieved and unrealized, almost since birth. Growing up in Millbrae, California, near what was emerging as Silicon Valley, he had such bad grades that by high school his worried mother sometimes checked his arms for track marks. The first glimmer of his future success was in swimming. He was initially mediocre, but when a coach sent him home for the summer with tips, his competitive streak kicked in. He spent three months training furiously and never again lost a race. "Had things been different I would have been competing for the Olympics," Venter says. "But Lyndon Johnson changed that for me with the draft." Swimming unlocked his potential, but Vietnam made him who he is. At age 20 he served as a Navy hospital corpsman, triaging troops who came back from battle, including the Tet Offensive. Deciding who would live and who would die was so traumatic that he says he considered suicide and swam far out to sea intending to drown. He says he had a change of heart a mile out after a shark prodded him. But he'd go through Vietnam again. "Knowing the outcome and what it did for my personal growth, I would force myself to do it again if I had the choice," Venter says. After he returned to the States, he went to community college, then the University of California, San Diego, where he initially wanted to be a doctor but discovered science. He eventually completed his Ph.D. in physiology and pharmacology, became a professor at the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1976 and, in 1984, joined the National Institutes of Health. At the NIH the themes that would define his career locked into place: productivity, perceived greed, the conflicts between pure science and industry money. Using a new technology, he discovered thousands of human genes. The NIH made the unprecedented decision to patent them in his name, and colleagues blamed Venter, calling him greedy. Nobel laureate James Watson said he was "horrified." Venter insists he was always against the patents but that the NIH did it anyway. Frustrated, he started a nonprofit institute in 1992, with a unique model. He raised money from venture capitalists, on the condition that he share his data with a for-profit company, Human Genome Sciences, before he published it. The relationship ended unhappily in 1997 because of arguments over data disclosure, with Venter walking away from $40 million in research funding. "I paid a lot of money to get rid of [Human Genome Sciences]," Venter says. But in 1995, Venter's institute made a real breakthrough: the first genome, or map of the genetic code of an organism, in this case a type of bacterium. It was a suggestion from Ham Smith. They had met at a scientific conference in Spain in 1993 and gone out drinking, starting a two-decade-plus collaboration. Foreshadowing his later race with the Human Genome Project, Venter and Smith's bacterial genome map beat similar projects in academia by many months. That led a California unit of lab equipment maker Perkin-Elmer, which made DNA sequencers, to approach Venter. If he could sequence a bacterial genome, why not use the company's newest machines to sequence a human genome? Venter couldn't say no, which led to Celera Genomics' founding in 1998. It not only succeeded in overtaking the $3 billion Human Genome Project, an international consortium funded largely by the U.S. government, but it also mapped the genomes of the fruit fly and the mouse, both important laboratory animals. In the process, Venter angered scientists globally, aghast that such research would be driven by profit rather than knowledge. At the time, James Watson reportedly became so enraged he compared Venter to Hitler, asking colleagues who they were going to be--Chamberlain or Churchill? But the pressure of private enterprise ultimately spurred results, both at Celera and the public group, which improved their methods and accelerated their research. As a result, the two groups jointly announced they had mapped the entire human genome--an achievement that our grandkids will be reading about in their textbooks--at the White House on June 26, 2000. In the age of the dot-com boom, Celera became a highflier, raising $855 million in a stock offering in February 2000 and peaking at a market capitalization of $14 billion just before the entire market started to collapse in March. Venter's stake briefly surpassed $700 million. He says he gave half his shares to his nonprofit foundation, which then sold half of them, netting more than $150 million, which has funded his science ever since. It was a necessary scientific nest egg. Celera struggled to invent drugs and diagnostic tests based on its pioneering research, and Venter bickered constantly with the board. They wanted Celera to become a pharma giant and invent medicines in-house. Venter simply wanted to be a scientist and sell other companies his data. He was fired in January 2002, days before a quarter of his stock options would vest. "Being fired in the way it was done was about as slimy as anybody could do it," Venter says. Celera limped along until 2011, when it was sold to Quest Diagnostics for $344 million. ( Forbes estimates that Venter's current net worth, based on his stakes in his two startups, is $300 million.) Venter's baby had essentially been sold for parts. WITH HUMAN LONGEVITY, VENTER HOPES TO solve the problem that ultimately limited the efficacy of Celera and the Human Genome Project. Those two groups produced an "average" DNA sequence. That's incredibly important for a science textbook, but for individuals, it's the differences--how one person's genes are different from another's, leading to different noses, eye colors and, yes, diseases--that matter. Venter says that, thanks to new technology, he can generate the data that can determine those differences. At Celera, Venter loved to show off his 25,000-square-foot rooms of DNA sequencing machines. But just one modern desktop DNA sequencer is as powerful as a thousand of those rooms and can map a person's genome in days for about $1,000. The original Human Genome Project took more than a decade and at least $500 million to do the same thing. (Illumina, the San Diego firm that makes the desktop sequencers, is a big investor in Human Longevity.) Human Longevity initially sequenced DNA from 40,000 people who had participated in clinical trials for the pharmaceutical companies Roche and AstraZeneca. Venter says this work has led to the discovery of genetic variations that can be found in young people but not older ones--meaning the young folks had genes incompatible with surviving into old age. Figuring out what these genes do could be the kind of breakthrough that would turn the promise of genome sequencing into a lifesaver. Venter decided that he also needed a study of people that could collect even more data than you can get from a clinical trial. Hence, the $25,000 physical. And because people pay, it's not only a source of data but also a revenue generator. At the moment, close to 500 people have gone through the physical. Venter hopes to be able to serve 2,000 annually as early as this year, which would generate $50 million in revenue. This isn't exactly covered by Medicare. The market, for the moment, will be the wealthy and the occasional company looking out for key executives--the promise of health as the ultimate luxury item. Doctors hate it. "I'm massively skeptical," says Benjamin Davies, a urologist at the University of Pittsburgh. "We've been down this road of investigating healthy patients, and it's been a sordid road." He points to a recent study that used CT scans to screen for lung cancer: 60% of patients needed follow-up tests, but only 1.5% had cancer. Otis Brawley, the chief medical officer of the American Cancer Society, said Venter's work sounded like "fascinating science," so long as the people taking the physical understand that this is research, not medicine. Venter believes the problem with earlier screening tests is that they give too little data, not too much. He is his own evidence. He was the first person to get his DNA sequenced, and the results made him think his risk for most types of cancer was low. When he got prostate cancer, he asked his researchers why. They found what he calls "the likely perpetrator." It's a change in the way his body responds to the hormone testosterone. Testosterone works by tripping a cellular receptor (think of it as a switch). The gene for that receptor is more effective if it has fewer "repeats" (bits of repeated, garbled genetic code). Testosterone makes prostate cancer grow, so a man with 22 repeats and an inefficient receptor has a lowered risk of the disease. Venter's androgen receptor had just six repeats. "Basically, I have a supersensitive testosterone receptor," Venter says. "Everybody thought I had balls of steel. In fact, I have only six repeats in my androgen receptor." But Venter's constant search for more data about his own biology also made the problem worse, illustrating one of the true dangers of something like his $25,000 physical. Years before, Venter learned that his testosterone levels were low and decided to take testosterone supplements. (Most doctors don't recommend doing this.) That almost certainly made his tumor grow faster. About 40% of Health Nucleus' patients have found out they have something serious. Some, like Ham Smith's lung cancer, absolutely needed to be treated. Venter insists Smith's tumor might have killed him had it been discovered a few weeks later. But for most of Human Longevity's patients, the results are not so clear-cut. I'm lucky: My MRI results showed nothing save that my hippocampus, a part of the brain that forms memories, is of only average size. (My DNA sequence isn't in yet.) I've been thinking a lot about what I would do if I'd learned about a tumor or an aneurysm, and whether this whole endeavor is a bad idea. But I also haven't been able to get myself to regret going through it. Knowledge about yourself is a very seductive offer. It's one that Venter hopes will give him the data to finally deliver on the genome's promise. The dream of understanding life well enough to create it from scratch sounds like something out of Frankenstein. But Craig Venter is getting there, partly using investor money to fund the work. "There's no government funding to make a synthetic species," he says. In 2010, a team led by Venter that included his closest lieutenant, Hamilton Smith, and synthetic-biology wunderkind Daniel Gibson synthesized a genome for the bacterium Mycoplasma mycoides but with slight changes: their names and a James Joyce quote, all translated into a DNA code. Then they inserted the synthetic DNA into a bacterium and its original genome was destroyed. The cell functioned with the new, man-made DNA. They've since made another bacterium whose genome has been edited to lack any extraneous genes. Researchers thought bacteria needed only 250 genes to stay alive, but Venter's team found its germ needed 473--and nobody knows what 149 of them do. The resulting minimal genome could be useful for understanding which genes are really important. But there have already been commercial applications for this work. Synthetic Genomics Inc. (SGI) was founded around them in 2005. In 2009 Exxon Mobil pledged up to $300 million to create algae that can produce a biofuel that is cheaper than gasoline. Other projects involve drug manufacturing (including a project to rapidly prototype experimental vaccines), a partnership with Johnson & Johnson in drug research and an effort, with the biotechnology firm United Therapeutics, to create pigs whose organs can be safely transplanted into humans. SGI has also made a relatively inexpensive DNA printer that allows bench scientists to easily modify genetic material. It costs between $50,000 and $75,000. Fifty have been sold so far, but SGI chief executive Oliver Fetzer says the near-term addressable market could be worth $500 million. --M.H.

Brossard K.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Campagnari A.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Campagnari A.A.,Buffalo Center of Excellence
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2012

Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant source of nosocomial infections worldwide. This bacterium has the ability to survive and persist on multiple abiotic surfaces in health care facilities, and once a focus has been established, this opportunistic pathogen is difficult to eradicate. This paper demonstrates that the A. baumannii biofilm-associated protein (Bap) is necessary for mature biofilm formation on medically relevant surfaces, including polypropylene, polystyrene, and titanium. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of biofilms show that Bap is required for three-dimensional tower structure and water channel formation. In conjunction with persistence on abiotic surfaces, adherence to eukaryotic cells is an important step in bacterial colonization resulting in infection of the host. We have described Bap as the surface structure involved in adherence of A. baumannii to both normal human bronchial epithelial cells and normal human neonatal keratinocytes. However, Bap is not involved in internalization of the bacterium in these two cell lines. Furthermore, this study shows that the presence of Bap increases the bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity. The results of this study are pertinent, as the data lead to a better understanding of the role of Bap in biofilm formation on medical surfaces and in colonization of the host. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Velagapudi S.P.,Scripps Research Institute | Velagapudi S.P.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Gallo S.M.,Buffalo Center of Excellence | Disney M.D.,Scripps Research Institute
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2014

Oligonucleotides are designed to target RNA using base pairing rules, but they can be hampered by poor cellular delivery and nonspecific stimulation of the immune system. Small molecules are preferred as lead drugs or probes but cannot be designed from sequence. Herein, we describe an approach termed Inforna that designs lead small molecules for RNA from solely sequence. Inforna was applied to all human microRNA hairpin precursors, and it identified bioactive small molecules that inhibit biogenesis by binding nuclease-processing sites (44% hit rate). Among 27 lead interactions, the most avid interaction is between a benzimidazole (1) and precursor microRNA-96. Compound 1 selectively inhibits biogenesis of microRNA-96, upregulating a protein target (FOXO1) and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Apoptosis is ablated when FOXO1 mRNA expression is knocked down by an siRNA, validating compound selectivity. Markedly, microRNA profiling shows that 1 only affects microRNA-96 biogenesis and is at least as selective as an oligonucleotide. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Curtis A.B.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Worley S.J.,Lancaster General Hospital | Adamson P.B.,Oklahoma Foundation for Cardiovascular Research | Chung E.S.,Heart and Vascular Center at Christ Hospital | And 4 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular pacing restores an adequate heart rate in patients with atrioventricular block, but high percentages of right ventricular apical pacing may promote left ventricular systolic dysfunction. We evaluated whether biventricular pacing might reduce mortality, morbidity, and adverse left ventricular remodeling in such patients. METHODS: We enrolled patients who had indications for pacing with atrioventricular block; New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I, II, or III heart failure; and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 50% or less. Patients received a cardiac-resynchronization pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (the latter if the patient had an indication for defibrillation therapy) and were randomly assigned to standard right ventricular pacing or biventricular pacing. The primary outcome was the time to death from any cause, an urgent care visit for heart failure that required intravenous therapy, or a 15% or more increase in the left ventricular end-systolic volume index. RESULTS: Of 918 patients enrolled, 691 underwent randomization and were followed for an average of 37 months. The primary outcome occurred in 190 of 342 patients (55.6%) in the right-ventricular-pacing group, as compared with 160 of 349 (45.8%) in the biventricular-pacing group. Patients randomly assigned to biventricular pacing had a significantly lower incidence of the primary outcome over time than did those assigned to right ventricular pacing (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% credible interval, 0.60 to 0.90); results were similar in the pacemaker and ICD groups. Left ventricular lead-related complications occurred in 6.4% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Biventricular pacing was superior to conventional right ventricular pacing in patients with atrioventricular block and left ventricular systolic dysfunction with NYHA class I, II, or III heart failure. (Funded by Medtronic; BLOCK HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00267098.) Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Wang J.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Scutari G.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Palomar D.P.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2011

Cognitive radio (CR) systems improve the spectral efficiency by allowing the coexistence in harmony of primary users (PUs), the legacy users, with secondary users (SUs). This coexistence is built on the premises that no SU can generate interference higher than some prescribed limits against PUs. The system design based on perfect channel state information (CSI) can easily end up violating the interference limits in a realistic situation where CSI may be imperfect. In this paper, we propose a robust design of CR systems, composed of multiple PUs and multiple noncooperative SUs, in either single-input single-output (SISO) frequency-selective channels or more general multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels. We formulate the design of the SU network as a noncooperative game, where the SUs compete with each other over the resources made available by the PUs, by maximizing their own information rates subject to the transmit power and robust interference constraints. Following the philosophy of the worst-case robustness, we take explicitly into account the imperfectness of SU-to-PU CSI by adopting proper interference constraints that are robust with respect to the worst channel errors. Relying on the variational inequality theory, we study the existence and uniqueness properties of the Nash equilibria of the resulting robust games, and devise totally asynchronous and distributed algorithms along with their convergency properties. We also propose efficient numerical methods, based on decomposition techniques, to compute the robust transmit strategy for each SU. © 2010 IEEE.

Gan Q.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Bartoli F.J.,Lehigh University | Kafafi Z.H.,Northwestern University | Kafafi Z.H.,National Science Foundation
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

Recent advances in molecular organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have shown 10% power conversion efficiency (PCE) for single-junction cells, which put them in direct competition with PVs based on amorphous silicon. Incorporation of plasmonic nanostructures for light trapping in these thin-film devices offers an attractive solution to realize higher-efficiency OPVs with PCE10%. This article reviews recent progress on plasmonic-enhanced OPV devices using metallic nanoparticles, and one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) patterned periodic nanostructures. We discuss the benefits of using various plasmonic nanostructures for broad-band, polarization-insensitive and angle-independent absorption enhancement, and their integration with one or two electrode(s) of an OPV device. This article reviews recent progress on plasmon-enhanced organic photovoltaic devices using metal nanoparticles, one-dimensional and two-dimensional patterned nanostructures, and integrated plasmonic electrodes, for broad-band, polarization-insensitive, angle-independent absorption enhancement. By increasing exciton and separated photo-generated charge carrier densities, and efficiently collecting charges at the respective electrodes, one can significantly surpass the 10% power conversion efficiency barrier. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Alavanja M.C.R.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Bonner M.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part B: Critical Reviews | Year: 2012

A review of the epidemiological literature linking pesticides to cancers in occupational studies worldwide was conducted, with particular focus on those articles published after the release of IARC Monograph 53 (1991): Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Applications and Some Pesticides. Important new data are now available. Chemicals in every major functional class of pesticides including insecticides, herbicide, fungicides, and fumigants have been observed to have significant associations with an array of cancer sites. Moreover, associations were observed with specific chemicals in many chemical classes of pesticides such as chlorinated, organophosphate, and carbamate insecticides and phenoxy acid and triazine herbicides. However, not every chemical in these classes was found to be carcinogenic in humans. Twenty-one pesticides identified subsequent to the last IARC review showed significant exposure-response associations in studies of specific cancers while controlling for major potential confounders. This list is not an exhaustive review and many of these observations need to be evaluated in other epidemiological studies and in conjunction with data from toxicology and cancer biology. Nonetheless, it is reasonable and timely for the scientific community to provide a multidisciplinary expert review and evaluation of these pesticides and their potential to produce cancer in occupational settings. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Alavanja M.C.R.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Ross M.K.,Mississippi State University | Bonner M.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2013

A growing number of well-designed epidemiological and molecular studies provide substantial evidence that the pesticides used in agricultural, commercial, and home and garden applications are associated with excess cancer risk. This risk is associated both with those applying the pesticide and, under some conditions, those who are simply bystanders to the application. In this article, the epidemiological, molecular biology, and toxicological evidence emerging from recent literature assessing the link between specific pesticides and several cancers including prostate cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer are integrated. Although the review is not exhaustive in its scope or depth, the literature does strongly suggest that the public health problem is real. If we are to avoid the introduction of harmful chemicals into the environment in the future, the integrated efforts of molecular biology, pesticide toxicology, and epidemiology are needed to help identify the human carcinogens and thereby improve our understanding of human carcinogenicity and reduce cancer risk. © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 79.79K | Year: 2014

To address the Navy"s need for a common, scalable, platform for multi-modal 1pA level current sensing for Electrocardiogram (ECG), Electroencephalogram (EEG), and Electrodermal Response (EDR) to be fielded as a miniature wearable device with non-contact electrodes, Sentient and the State University of New York (SUNY) propose to develop the Bioelectronic Fusion Sensor System (BioFuSenS) that will assess a subject"s stress, fatigue and resilience. BioFuSenS will be modular, real-time, low cost, low bandwidth, open standards-based, including autonomous prediction, health monitoring and management. Innovation is based on an ultra-sensitive, multi-channel, compact low power integrated circuit (IC), combined with mechanical sensing, a Bayesian-based data-model fusion algorithm, and ground truth data model. BioFuSenS is supported by"Predict-Acquire-Confirm-Control"process for monitoring center or remote operation. Energy harvesting for full power management and immunity to motion artifacts and muscle noises through robust and accurate data-model fusion is enabled, addressing the requirements of the Navy. In Phase I, we demonstrate feasibility through transistor-level IC simulations, thorough nonlinear systems analysis, and data-model fusion and noise handling simulations for ECG sensing. In Phase II, we will develop/validate a prototype, demonstrate multi-modal, model-based detection with noise filtering, and optimize the design to meet size, weight, power, and cost (SWAP-C) requirements.

Mastronarde N.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Van Der Schaar M.,University of California at Los Angeles
IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing | Year: 2013

We consider the problem of energy-efficient point-to-point transmission of delay-sensitive data (e.g., multimedia data) over a fading channel. Existing research on this topic utilizes either physical-layer centric solutions, namely power-control and adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), or system-level solutions based on dynamic power management (DPM); however, there is currently no rigorous and unified framework for simultaneously utilizing both physical-layer centric and system-level techniques to achieve the minimum possible energy consumption, under delay constraints, in the presence of stochastic and a priori unknown traffic and channel conditions. In this paper, we propose such a framework. We formulate the stochastic optimization problem as a Markov decision process (MDP) and solve it online using reinforcement learning (RL). The advantages of the proposed online method are that 1) it does not require a priori knowledge of the traffic arrival and channel statistics to determine the jointly optimal power-control, AMC, and DPM policies; 2) it exploits partial information about the system so that less information needs to be learned than when using conventional reinforcement learning algorithms; and 3) it obviates the need for action exploration, which severely limits the adaptation speed and runtime performance of conventional reinforcement learning algorithms. Our results show that the proposed learning algorithms can converge up to two orders of magnitude faster than a state-of-the-art learning algorithm for physical layer power-control and up to three orders of magnitude faster than conventional reinforcement learning algorithms. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

Andrade R.,Wayne State University | Haj-Dahmane S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
ACS Chemical Neuroscience | Year: 2013

The dorsal raphe nucleus contains one of the largest groups of serotonergic neurons in the mammalian brain and is the main site of origin of the serotonergic projection to the cerebral cortex. Early electrophysiological studies suggested that serotonergic neurons in this cell group formed a homogeneous cell class. More recent studies however have reported heterogeneity among the core anatomical and electrophysiological properties of these neurons, thus raising the possibility that serotonergic neurons of this cell group may form two or more distinct cell classes. In this Viewpoint, we review these findings and suggest ways to look at cellular heterogeneity among serotonergic neurons. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Valentine G.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Hirano N.,Tohoku University
Geology | Year: 2010

We compare two intraplate, Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic fields in different tectonic settings - the central Basin and Range and the northwest Pacific Ocean. Both fields are characterized by widely scattered, small-volume, alkali basaltic volcanoes; within the fields, each volcano apparently originates from a separate, volatile-enriched parental melt from the upper mantle. There is no evidence at either field for locally anomalous heat flow or ongoing introduction of new fluids into the upper mantle such as might occur above a subducting slab. We conclude that the volcanic fields reflect deformation-driven collection of already existing partial melts in a heterogeneous upper mantle. Deformation-driven melt collection may be an important mechanism for other diffuse intraplate volcanic fields, and this is consistent with a tectonically controlled, low-flux end member for intraplate fields where magmatism is a passive response to regional deformation. Differences in the degree of fractionation and contamination between the two fields are inferred to be related to flexure-induced vertical variations in the orientation of principal stresses in the northwest Pacific Ocean, which cause stalling of ascending dikes in the lithosphere. © 2010 Geological Society of America.

Lerman J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Lerman J.,University of Rochester
British Journal of Anaesthesia | Year: 2011

Summary. Children with neuromuscular diseases present a wide range of clinical manifestations and clinical implications for the anaesthesiologist. Neuromuscular diseases in children affect muscle strength by either directly weakening the muscle fibrils or indirectly by a degenerative nerve supply and weak neuromuscular junction. Of the more than 200 neuromuscular disorders known, the vast majority are genetic in origin. This review focuses on four of the more common neuromuscular disorders with emphasis on their pathophysiology and clinical implications for anaesthesiologists: malignant hyperthermia, the muscular dystrophies (Duchennes, Beckers, and EmeryDreifuss), mitochondrial disorders, and cerebral palsy. © The Author [2011]. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved.

Warren R.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Chick L.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Global Change Biology | Year: 2013

Rapid climate change may prompt species distribution shifts upward and poleward, but species movement in itself is not sufficient to establish climate causation. Other dynamics, such as disturbance history, may prompt species distribution shifts resembling those expected from rapid climate change. Links between species distributions, regional climate trends and physiological mechanism are needed to convincingly establish climate-induced species shifts. We examine a 38-year shift (1974-2012) in an elevation ecotone between two closely related ant species, Aphaenogaster picea and A. rudis. Even though A. picea and A. rudis are closely related with North American distributions that sometimes overlap, they also exhibit local- and regional-scale differences in temperature requirements so that A. rudis is more southerly and inhabits lower elevations whereas A. picea is more northerly and inhabits high elevations. We find considerable movement by the warm-habitat species upward in elevation between 1974 and 2012 with A. rudis, replacing the cold-habitat species, A. picea, along the southern edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain in north Georgia, USA. Concomitant with the distribution shifts, regional mean and maximum temperatures remain steady (1974-2012), but minimum temperatures increase. We collect individuals from the study sites and subject them to thermal tolerance testing in a controlled setting and find that maximum and minimum temperature acclimatization occurs along the elevation gradient in both species, but A. rudis consistently becomes physiologically incapacitated at minimum and maximum temperatures 2 °C higher than A. picea. These results indicate that rising minimum temperatures allow A. rudis to move upward in elevation and displace A. picea. Given that Aphaenogaster ants are the dominant woodland seed dispersers in eastern deciduous forests, and that their thermal tolerances drive distinct differences in temperature-cued synchrony with early blooming plants, these climate responses not only impact ant-ant interactions, but might have wide implications for ant-plant interactions. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Bron A.J.,University of Oxford | Argueso P.,Schepens Eye Research Institute | Irkec M.,Hacettepe University | Bright F.V.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research | Year: 2015

In this article we review the mechanism of ocular surface staining. Water-soluble dyes are excluded from the normal epithelium by tight junctions, the plasma membranes and the surface glycocalyx. Shed cells can take up dye. A proportion of normal corneas show sparse, scattered time-dependent, punctate fluorescein uptake, which, we hypothesise, is due to a graded loss of the glycocalyx barrier, permitting transcellular entry into pre-shed cells. In pathological staining, there is little evidence of 'micropooling' at sites of shedding and the term 'punctate erosion' may be a misnomer. It is more likely that the initial event involves transcellular dye entry and, in addition, diffusion across defective tight junctions. Different dye-staining characteristics probably reflect differences in molecular size and other physical properties of each dye, coupled with differences in visibility under the conditions of illumination used. This is most relevant to the rapid epithelial spread of fluorescein from sites of punctate staining, compared to the apparent confinement of dyes to staining cells with dyes such as lissamine green and rose bengal. We assume that fluorescein, with its lower molecular weight, spreads initially by a paracellular route and then by transcellular diffusion. Solution-Induced Corneal Staining (SICS), related to the use of certain contact lens care solutions, may have a different basis, involving the non-pathological uptake of cationic preservatives, such as biguanides, into epithelial membranes and secondary binding of the fluorescein anion. It is transient and may not imply corneal toxicity. Understanding the mechanism of staining is relevant to the standardisation of grading, to monitoring disease and to the conduct of clinical trials. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Longhi S.,CNR Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies | Feng L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

The lasing and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) properties of PT-symmetric microrings with mixed index and gain gratings, externally coupled to a bus waveguide, are theoretically investigated. For a complex grating at the PT - symmetry breaking point, perfect unidirectional (either clockwise or counterclockwise) laser emission can be realized, but the grating does not discriminate longitudinal modes and CPA can not be simultaneously achieved. Above the grating the PT-symmetry breaking point, single-mode emission, and simultaneous CPA can be obtained, with unbalanced and controllable excitation of clockwise and counterclockwise modes in the ring. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Thomas M.,Cornell University | Desai K.K.,Binghamton University State University of New York | Seenivasan S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Consumer Research | Year: 2011

Some food items that are commonly considered unhealthy also tend to elicit impulsive responses. The pain of paying in cash can curb impulsive urges to purchase such unhealthy food products. Credit card payments, in contrast, are relatively painless and weaken impulse control. Consequently, consumers are more likely to buy unhealthy food products when they pay by credit card than when they pay in cash. Results from four studies support these hypotheses. Analysis of actual shopping behavior of 1,000 households over a period of 6 months revealed that shopping baskets have a larger proportion of food items rated as impulsive and unhealthy when shoppers use credit or debit cards to pay for the purchases (study 1). Follow-up experiments (studies 2-4) show that the vice-regulation effect of cash payments is mediated by pain of payment and moderated by chronic sensitivity to pain of payment. Implications for consumer welfare and theories of impulsive consumption are discussed. © 2010 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc.

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 282.22K | Year: 2013

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This proposal aims to develop a novel, highly-specific targeted therapy for treatment of breast cancer. The long-term objective is to convert the proprietary intellectual property, the mouse monoclonal antibody (McAb)JAA-F11, which targets the pancarcinoma Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF-Ag) to a humanized form for use as an adjunct with conventional therapy to improve outcomes in cancer patients by blocking metastasis and through direct cytotoxicity. The hypotheses are: 1) that humanization of JAA-F11 can yield an antibody of the same biologic and chemical specificity as the original mouse JAA-F11 McAb; and 2) that humanized JAA-F11 (hJAA-F11) can be used therapeutically to create a survival advantage for patients with breast cancers, including triple negative breast cancers, through direct killing and by blocking tumor cell spread. Data indicates that this therapy would be useful in 80% of the breast cancer cases. The overall objective of this Phase I application is to advance translational studies with JAA-F11, through selection of a humanized antibody optimized for chemical and biological specificity and reactivity. The specific aims are; Aim 1: Humanize JAA-F1, producing at least 9 candidates. Humanization will be facilitated by use of data previously obtained by x-ray crystallography of JAA-F11 and computational carbohydrate threading which elucidated the amino acids which interact with the carbohydrate antigen (TF-Ag), and those important for the Gal?1-3GalNAc-alpha restriction of the binding site. Humanization will precede using modified CDR grafting onto the human antibody molecule variable sequence found to be most like the JAA-F11 mouse sequence in BLASTp analysis. The suggested 3 heavy and 3 light chain sequences will be synthesized by GeneArt Synthesis and will be cloned into the plasmid vectors for human antibody scaffolds for IgG1 and kappa light chain (provided by Sherie Morrison). To maximize success we will also obtain 3-9 additional candidates of humanized JAA-F11 from a humanization of antibody supplier. Aim 2: Selection of the hJAA-F11candidates with antigenic specificity most similar to JAA-F11 will be performed using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and glycan array analyses. Maximum affinity antibody from those with optimal specificity will be selected by surface plasmon resonance analysis. If none of the antibodies show the TF-Ag alpha specificity required, more of the mouse sequence will be added in the production of new hJAA-F11 candidates. Aim 3: Assessment of the biological specificity and reactivity of candidates will be performed by imaging human tumors with radiolabeled hJAA-F11 in mice and by performing ADCC and CDC cytotoxicity assays with human tumor cells. If the hJAA- F11 is not cytolytic, an antibody-cytotoxic agent conjugate will be produced and tested in Phase II. In Phase II the molecule will be prepared for use in clinical trials following pharmacologic and toxicologic testing. Phase III studies will involve clinical testing. Potential partnering or out-licensing points for pharmaceutical company facilitation of commercialization of JAA-F11 can occur after each completed phase of the overall project. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The first phase of this STTR proposal will bring the anti-metastatic properties of JAA-F11, our mouse monoclonal antibody, to an antibody that will be compatible for use in breast cancer patients. This should result in a new therapeutic that can be added to current treatment to block metastasis, increase killing of tumor cells and improve survival. Data suggests that this antibody will be effective in 80% of breast cancers, including those that do not respond to hormone or Herceptin therapy, without harming normal tissue.

Bernaciak C.,University of Heidelberg | Wackeroth D.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

The precision measurement of the mass of the W boson is an important goal of the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It requires accurate theoretical calculations which incorporate both higher-order QCD and electroweak corrections, and also provide an interface to parton-shower Monte Carlo programs which make it possible to realistically simulate experimental data. In this paper, we present a combination of the full O(α) electroweak corrections of wgrad2, and the next-to-leading order QCD radiative corrections to W→â.,"ν production in hadronic collisions in a single event generator based on the powheg framework, which is able to interface with the parton-shower Monte Carlo programs pythia and herwig. Using this new combined QCD + EW Monte Carlo program for W production, we provide numerical results for total cross sections and kinematic distributions of relevance to the W mass measurement at the Tevatron and the LHC for the processes pp, pp̄→W ±→μ ±ν μ. In particular, we discuss the impact of EW corrections in the presence of QCD effects when including detector resolution effects. © 2012 American Physical Society.

News Article | February 24, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

James Fischer has been named director of the Lehigh University Small Business Development Center (SBDC). With over 35 years of experience in real estate and general business law, he brings diverse global experience in assets, leasing and transaction management to his new position. “We welcome Mr. Fischer to the statewide network of Pennsylvania SBDCs, and we look forward to having him as part of our leadership team,” said Pennsylvania SBDC State Director Christian Conroy. “SBDCs are strong supporters of business growth and development and we are proud to have an experienced professional such as Mr. Fischer join our program,” he added. Echoing his sentiments, Dean Georgette Phillips of the College of Business and Economics at Lehigh University, where the SBDC resides, stated “I am thrilled to have Jim Fischer at the SBDC.” In his new role, Fischer will be responsible for delivering SBDC programs and services to small business owners and aspiring entrepreneurs in the Center’s service area of Bucks, Lehigh, Montgomery and Northampton counties. In addition to providing direct business development support and managing a staff of six development professionals, he will also serve as an advocate for business development, expansion and retention in the region. Before joining Lehigh University SBDC, Fischer was a senior fellow and general counsel for the Social Enterprise Institute at Elizabethtown College. As a research and development technical advisor at Elizabethtown, Fischer’s background in social impact investments and business advisory services helped develop and foster the growth of community projects and social enterprises. Prior to Fischer becoming a Juris Doctor from New York University, he earned his Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology from State University of New York at Buffalo followed by a Master of Arts in Anthropology from Cornell University. About Pennsylvania Small Business Development Centers (SBDC) The Pennsylvania SBDC network is the only statewide, nationally accredited program that provides high quality one-on-one consulting, training and information resources to empower new and existing businesses. SBDC consultants work with entrepreneurs in confidential, individualized sessions to help them with a range of business issues including testing a new business proposition, shaping a business plan, investigating funding opportunities, and much more. The SBDC program is a public/private partnership with the U.S. Small Business Administration, the Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development and 18 universities and colleges across the Commonwealth. For more information on the Pennsylvania SBDC services and impact, please visit http://www.pasbdc.org.

The International Association of HealthCare Professionals is pleased to welcome Kinga Michelle Huzella, MD, Ophthalmologist, to their prestigious organization with her upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. She is a highly-trained and qualified ophthalmologist with an extensive expertise in all facets of her work, especially glaucoma and cornea treatments. Dr. Kinga Michelle Huzella has been in practice for more than 25 years and is currently serving patients at Maryland Vision Institute in Hagerstown, Maryland. Dr. Kinga Michelle Huzella’s career in medicine began in 1991 when she graduated with her Medical Degree from the Jacobs School of Medicine at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Following her graduation, Dr. Huzella went on to complete her internship at the University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, followed by her residency at New York’s Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, where she served as Chief Resident. Furthermore, Dr. Huzella is board certified by the American Board of Ophthalmology. To keep up to date with the latest advances and developments in her field, Dr. Huzella maintains a professional membership with the American Academy of Ophthalmology, the Maryland Society of Eye Physicians and Surgeons, the Hungarian Medical Association of America, and Women in Ophthalmology. Dr. Huzella attributes her success to the love and encouragement of her parents, her great work ethic, her passion and compassion for her patients, and the support from her husband. When she is not assisting her patients, Dr. Huzella enjoys playing the piano, animals, traveling, aerobics, jogging, tennis, and spending time with her family. Learn more about Dr. Huzella by reading her upcoming publication in The Leading Physicians of the World. FindaTopDoc.com is a hub for all things medicine, featuring detailed descriptions of medical professionals across all areas of expertise, and information on thousands of healthcare topics.  Each month, millions of patients use FindaTopDoc to find a doctor nearby and instantly book an appointment online or create a review.  FindaTopDoc.com features each doctor’s full professional biography highlighting their achievements, experience, patient reviews and areas of expertise.  A leading provider of valuable health information that helps empower patient and doctor alike, FindaTopDoc enables readers to live a happier and healthier life.  For more information about FindaTopDoc, visit http://www.findatopdoc.com

Balashov K.E.,UMDNJ | Lindzen E.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Multiple Sclerosis Journal | Year: 2012

Background and objectives: It is widely accepted that typical acute demyelinating lesions in relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) exhibit vasogenic edema with increased diffusion, as demonstrated by an increased apparent diffusion coefficient on MRI. In contrast, acute ischemic lesions demonstrate cytotoxic edema with restricted diffusion. Recent reports have documented selected cases of acute demyelinating lesions exhibiting restricted diffusion (ADLRD) in MS. We aimed to assess the morphologies, distributions, signal characteristics and changes over time of nine ADLRD. An additional goal was to obtain clinical correlations and relate our findings to all previously published case reports describing ADLRD. Methods: A retrospective case series study was performed at two academic centers. MRI characteristics of nine ADLRD found in six RRMS patients were compared with typical active symptomatic contrast-enhancing lesions with increased or normal diffusion in control RRMS patients. Results: The average size of ADLRD was not significantly different from typical lesions. A periventricular location and faint signal on T2-weighted images were significantly more common for ADLRD compared with typical lesions. Two patients with ADLRD on initial MRI exhibited new ADLRD on their follow up scans. Conclusion: Our results and review of prior published cases suggest that ADLRD represent a new variant of MS lesion. The restricted diffusion that is a characteristic of ADLRD on MRI is a new challenge in the differential diagnosis of stroke in young adults. The pathogenesis of ADLRD remains to be understood. © The Author(s) 2012.

Bostwick W.,Northern Illinois University | Hequembourg A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2014

A growing body of evidence indicates disproportionate rates of mental health disorders among bisexual women compared to both heterosexual and lesbian women. Such disparities are often attributed to stressors related to minority status, including experiences of prejudice and discrimination. Prior research has made little distinction between the prejudicial experiences of bisexual groups as compared to lesbian/gay groups. Based on qualitative data gathered in focus groups with 10, predominantly White, bisexual-identified women, which occurred in a large city in the USA, we posit that differences in prejudicial experiences do exist for bisexual groups, and that such differences reside in the realms of the epistemic, yet have very real implications for bisexual women's daily lived experiences. We discuss everyday slights and insults, also known as microaggressions, reported by the participants vis-à-vis their bisexual identity. These bisexual-specific microaggressions include hostility; denial/dismissal; unintelligibility; pressure to change; lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender legitimacy; dating exclusion; and hypersexuality. We consider how such microaggressions may adversely impact mental health and well-being and may assist in explaining the mental health disparities among bisexual women. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Chen G.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Chen G.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Qiu H.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Qiu H.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Theranostics is a concept of integrating imaging and therapy into a single platform for use in the next generation of personalized medicine to meet the challenges in modern health care. The diagnostic role of theranostic agents reports the presence of a disease, its status, and its response to a specific treatment, while the therapeutic role of the agent can be implemented in several forms. Two-photon-excitation or second harmonic generation contrast agents, which utilize longer wavelength light, have been recently developed to overcome these limitations for imaging of cells and small animals. However, they require expensive ultrashort pulsed lasers to perform the excitation as they involve inefficient nonlinear optical processes. For bioimaging, some of the advantages are virtually zero autofluorescence background to improve signal-to-noise ratio, large anti-Stokes shifts allowing us to easily separate the PL from the excitation wavelength, narrow emission bandwidths allowing ease of multiplexed imaging.

Chen G.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Chen G.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Seo J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Seo J.,Seoul National University | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

Nanochemistry and nanomaterials provide numerous opportunities for a new generation of photovoltaics with high solar energy conversion efficiencies at low fabrication cost. Quantum-confined nanomaterials and polymer-inorganic nanocomposites can be tailored to harvest sun light over a broad range of the spectrum, while plasmonic structures offer effective ways to reduce the thickness of light-absorbing layers. Multiple exciton generation, singlet exciton fission, photon down-conversion, and photon up-conversion realized in nanostructures, create significant interest for harvesting underutilized ultraviolet and currently unutilized infrared photons. Nanochemical interface engineering of nanoparticle surfaces and junction-interfaces enable enhanced charge separation and collection. In this review, we survey these recent advances employed to introduce new concepts for improving the solar energy conversion efficiency, and reduce the device fabrication cost in photovoltaic technologies. The review concludes with a summary of contributions already made by nanochemistry. It then describes the challenges and opportunities in photovoltaics where the chemical community can play a vital role. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

Chen G.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Chen G.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Yang C.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Prasad P.N.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Prasad P.N.,Korea University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

Nanophotonics is an emerging science dealing with the interaction of light and matter on a nanometer scale and holds promise to produce new generation nanophosphors with highly efficient frequency conversion of infrared (IR) light. Scientists can control the excitation dynamics by using nanochemistry to produce hierarchically built nanostructures and tailor their interfaces. These nanophosphors can either perform frequency up-conversion from IR to visible or ultraviolet (UV) or down-conversion, which results in the IR light being further red shifted. Nanophotonics and nanochemistry open up numerous opportunities for these photon converters, including in high contrast bioimaging, photodynamic therapy, drug release and gene delivery, nanothermometry, and solar cells. Applications of these nanophosphors in these directions derive from three main stimuli. Light excitation and emission within the near-infrared (NIR) "optical transparency window" of tissues is ideal for high contrast in vitro and in vivo imaging. This is due to low natural florescence, reduced scattering background, and deep penetration in tissues. Secondly, the naked eye is highly sensitive in the visible range, but it has no response to IR light. Therefore, many scientists have interest in the frequency up-conversion of IR wavelengths for security and display applications. Lastly, frequency up-conversion can convert IR photons to higher energy photons, which can then readily be absorbed by solar materials. Current solar devices do not use abundant IR light that comprises almost half of solar energy.In this Account, we present our recent work on nanophotonic control of frequency up- and down-conversion in fluoride nanophosphors, and their biophotonic and nanophotonic applications. Through nanoscopic control of phonon dynamics, electronic energy transfer, local crystal field, and surface-induced non-radiative processes, we were able to produce new generation nanophosphors with highly efficient frequency conversion of IR light. We show that nanochemistry plays a vital role in the design and interface engineering of nanophosphors, providing pathways to expand their range of applications. High contrast in vitro and in vivo NIR-to-NIR up- and down-conversion bioimaging were successfully demonstrated by our group, evoking wide interests along this line. We introduced trivalent gadolinium ions into the lattice of the nanophosphors or into the shell layer of nanophosphors in a core/shell configuration to produce novel nanophosphors for multimodal (MRI and optical) imaging. We also demonstrate the security and display applications using photopatternable NIR-to-NIR and NIR-to-visible frequency up-conversion nanophosphors with appropriately engineered surface chemistry. In addition, we present preliminary results on dye-sensitized solar cells using up-conversion in fluoride lattice-based nanophosphors for IR photon harvesting. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Gan Q.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Bartoli F.J.,Lehigh University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2011

Planar chirped plasmonic nanogratings were designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized, and "rainbow trapping" in nanoplasmonic systems is unambiguously demonstrated across the entire visible spectrum. This planar approach has significant processing advantages when compared to other approaches that require precise nanofabrication control in the vertical direction, and is compatible with large-area nanofabrication technologies. This planar chirped nanograting opens the door to develop exciting chip-scale applications based on the "rainbow" trapping effect. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Chowdhury K.R.,Northeastern University | Melodia T.,State University of New York at Buffalo
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2010

This article reviews, discusses, and classifies the existing experimental platforms and testbeds for experimental evaluation of CR ad hoc networks. The article first describes the internal organization of typical existing software defined radio platforms. Then the existing software frameworks are discussed and classified. Consequently, the challenges involved in integration of these platforms to form multihop networks are discussed, and the major efforts for large-scale testbed implementations described. Finally, limitations of existing platforms and future research challenges toward the design of accurate open testbeds that will enable sound experimental evaluation of CR networks are discussed. © 2006 IEEE.

News Article | December 5, 2016
Site: marketersmedia.com

— Due to rising costs, inefficient and complex drug development, high attrition, and long regulatory review cycles, the pharmaceutical R&D environment has become increasingly challenging. The success rate in bringing new drugs to market is rather low, with only about 11.3% of drugs that enter human trials receiving marketing approval, according to the Center for the Study of Drug Development (CSDD) at Tufts University. Furthermore, it costs approximately $2.6 billion to develop and obtain FDA approval for a new prescription drug, a $1 billion increase from a decade ago, according to data from CSDD. Pharmaceutical scientist, inventor, and biotech entrepreneur Dr. Najib Babul explains how following a popular baseball strategy of data-inspired solutions called “The Shift” might speed up the process that brings new medicines to market. The idea was memorialized in Michael Lewis’s bestseller, Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game about the Oakland A’s and its contrarian GM, Billy Beane, who used an evidence-based statistical approach to field a winning baseball team, despite a limited budget and decades-old baseball orthodoxy. A movie based on the book starring Brad Pitt and Jonah Hill was nominated for six Academy Awards. According to Dr. Babul, there are many ways to apply the lessons of Lewis's Moneyball to drug development. One idea is a move towards more adaptive clinical trials in place of traditional randomized controlled clinical trials, the current gold standard in drug development. Adaptive clinical trial designs evaluate treatments by observing participant efficacy and safety outcomes, and then respond with modifications to the ongoing study. Such adaptations have the potential to reduce R&D costs and time to market. While adaptive trial design must not undermine the scientific validity of the research, mid-study changes may include revisions in overall sample size, subject allocation to treatment groups, and real time reductions or increases in dosages. Adaptive trials also have the potential to protect subjects from needless experimental risk by requiring fewer subject exposures to ineffective or potentially toxic doses, or fewer subjects treated overall to provide statistically significant results. This new paradigm in thinking is not unlike the defensive tactic known as “The Shift” in the sport of baseball where statistics collected throughout the season influence where players position themselves on the field to better prepare for each batter’s hitting tendencies. “The benefits of The Shift have been demonstrated by the effectiveness of various data-inspired defensive alignments - exactly what researchers are aiming for as well,” notes Dr. Najib Babul. Although the central premise of adaptive clinical trial design is sound, many pharmaceutical companies are reticent to go into uncharted territory without the simultaneous and robust embrace of drug regulators. Notwithstanding ongoing pharma and regulator trepidation, the march towards more efficient clinical trial design is inexorable since companies must eventually contain overall R&D costs to improve profitability. Furthermore, there is growing demand for precision medicine, medicines to treat narrow target populations and medicines for rare diseases, populations ideally suited to adaptive clinical trial design. The benefit of adaptive designs for clinical trials may ultimately lie in the prospect that the data for future adaptive clinical trials would be shared, overcoming the inherent competitive nature of pharmaceutical companies. Dr. Babul cites a successful example of this in the precompetitive collaboration between AstraZeneca and Merck on a combination therapy for cancer in 2007, which despite the complexity of the treatment, was accomplished quickly. Increasing data sharing and incorporating more adaptive trials would quicken the pace of medicine development and potentially deliver results faster and with greater safety. A graduate of the University of British Columbia, the State University of New York at Buffalo and the California Institute of Advanced Management, Dr. Najib Babul, PharmD, MBA is currently a drug development consultant to pharmaceutical companies and investment banks, and Director of Medical and Pharmaceutical Consulting at the California Institute of Advanced Management. The author of more than 170 abstracts and manuscripts, Dr. Babul is an accomplished pharmaceutical scientist, inventor, biotech entrepreneur and drug developer with more than 20 years of experience bringing new and repurposed drugs to market. Najib Babul - On the Accuracy of Pain Memory: http://finance.yahoo.com/news/najib-babul-accuracy-pain-memory-044700506.html Najib Babul - Explains Why Treatment Advances in Fibromyalgia Have Been Slow: http://sports.yahoo.com/news/najib-babul-explains-why-treatment-130500043.html For more information, please visit http://www.NajibBabulNews.com

Hartkamp J.,University of Manchester | Carpenter B.,University of Manchester | Roberts S.G.E.,University of Manchester | Roberts S.G.E.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Molecular Cell | Year: 2010

The Wilms' tumor suppressor protein WT1 functions as a transcriptional regulator of genes controlling growth, apoptosis, and differentiation. It has become clear that WT1 can act as an oncogene in many tumors, primarily through the inhibition of apoptosis. Here, we identify the serine protease HtrA2 as a WT1 binding partner and find that it cleaves WT1 at multiple sites following the treatment of cells with cytotoxic drugs. Ablation of HtrA2 activity either by chemical inhibitor or by siRNA prevents the proteolysis of WT1 under apoptotic conditions. Moreover, the apoptosis-dependent cleavage of WT1 is defective in HtrA2 knockout cells. Proteolysis of WT1 by HtrA2 causes the removal of WT1 from its binding sites at gene promoters, leading to alterations in gene regulation that enhance apoptosis. Our findings provide insights into the function of HtrA2 in the regulation of apoptosis and the oncogenic activities of WT1. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Beran M.J.,Georgia State University | Smith J.D.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Perdue B.M.,Georgia State University
Psychological Science | Year: 2013

Metacognition can be defined as knowing what one knows, and the question of whether nonhuman animals are metacognitive has driven an intense debate. We tested 3 language-trained chimpanzees in an information-seeking task in which the identity of a food item was the critical piece of information needed to obtain the food. The chimpanzees could either report the identity of the food immediately or first check a container in which the food had been hidden. In two experiments, the chimpanzees were significantly more likely to visit the container first on trials in which they could not know its contents but were more likely to just name the food item without looking into the container on trials in which they had seen its contents. Thus, chimpanzees showed efficient information-seeking behavior that suggested they knew what they had or had not already seen when it was time to name a hidden item. © The Author(s) 2013.

Sablon K.A.,U.S. Army | Little J.W.,U.S. Army | Mitin V.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Sergeev A.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 2 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2011

We report a 50% increase in the power conversion efficiency of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells due to n-doping of the interdot space. The n-doped device was compared with GaAs reference cell, undoped, and p-doped devices. We found that the quantum dots with built-in charge (Q-BIC) enhance electron intersubband quantum dot transitions, suppress fast electron capture processes, and preclude deterioration of the open circuit voltage in the n-doped structures. These factors lead to enhanced harvesting and efficient conversion of IR energy in the Q-BIC solar cells. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Cosci F.,University of Florence | Fava G.A.,University of Bologna | Fava G.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics | Year: 2013

Background: The staging method, whereby a disorder is characterized according to its seriousness, extension, development and features, is attracting increasing attention in clinical psychology and psychiatry. The aim of this systematic review was to critically summarize the tools that are available for reproducing and standardizing the clinical intuitions that are involved in a staging formulation. Methods: A comprehensive research was conducted on the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2012. The following search terms were used: 'stage/staging' AND 'psychiatric disorder/mental disorder/schizophrenia/mood disorder/anxiety disorder/substance use disorder/eating disorder'. Results: A total of 78 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. We discussed studies addressing or related to the issue of staging in a number of mental disorders (schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, substance use disorders, anorexia and bulimia nervosa). The literature indicates that disorders have a longitudinal development or a treatment history that can be categorized according to stages. We proposed staging formulations for the above-mentioned psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: Staging models offer innovative assessment tools for clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. Characterizing each stage of an illness demarcates major prognostic and therapeutic differences among patients who otherwise seem to be deceptively similar since they share the same psychiatric diagnosis. A stage 0 to denote an at-risk condition does not appear to be warranted at the current state of research. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Ramon G.,Santa Clara University | Hu X.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

The effects of a nearby two-level charge fluctuator on a double-dot two-spin qubit are studied theoretically. Assuming no direct tunneling between the charge fluctuator and the qubit quantum dots, the Coulomb couplings between the qubit orbital states and the fluctuator are calculated within the Hund-Mulliken framework to quadrupole-quadrupole order in a multipole expansion. We identify and quantify the coupling term that entangles the qubit to the fluctuator and analyze qubit decoherence effects that result from the decay of the fluctuator to its reservoir. Our results show that the charge environment can severely impact the performance of spin qubits, and indicate working points at which this decoherence channel is minimized. Our analysis also suggests that an ancillary double-dot can provide a convenient point for single-qubit operations and idle position, adding flexibility in the quantum control of the two-spin qubit. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.72K | Year: 2010

The proposed research program focuses on design, fabrication, and characterization of quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) which features bias-tunable parameters, including the spectral response, optical gain, and operating time. Wide variations of detector parameters can be realized through the bias-tunable potential barriers surrounding quantum dots. Changes in bias will transform the band structure and modify the population of electron states in quantum dots. These quasi-localized electrons create local and collective potential barriers, which in turn may significantly change the photoelectron capture and spectral characteristics. Specific tasks include (i) advanced modeling of regimes with bias-tunable barriers and search for optimal design (geometry, selective doping etc); (ii) fabrication and characterization of QD structures with selective doping favorable for bias-tunable barriers; (iii) measurements of detector parameters; (vi) optimization of structures and operating regimes. By investigating essential nanoscale phenomena in QD structures, we expect to develop an adequate description of electron kinetics and transport. By providing the needed base, this program will have a strong impact on the development of adaptive QDIPs. BENEFIT: Multispectral infrared remote sensing is an advancing technology with numerous applications, including detection of specific objects based on differences of their IR spectra relative to the background. Bias-tunable spectral functions and electron kinetics in quantum dot IR photo-detectors will allow of fabricating focal plane arrays with adaptive pixel under voltage control.

David Smith J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Couchman J.J.,State University of New York at Fredonia | Beran M.J.,Georgia State University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Humans feel uncertain. They know when they do not know. These feelings and the responses to them ground the research literature on metacognition. It is a natural question whether animals share this cognitive capacity, and thus animal metacognition has become an influential research area within comparative psychology. Researchers have explored this question by testing many species using perception and memory paradigms. There is an emerging consensus that animals share functional parallels with humans' conscious metacognition. Of course, this research area poses difficult issues of scientific inference. How firmly should we hold the line in insisting that animals' performances are low-level and associative? How high should we set the bar for concluding that animals share metacognitive capacities with humans? This area offers a constructive case study for considering theoretical problems that often confront comparative psychologists. The authors present this case study and address diverse issues of scientific judgement and interpretation within comparative psychology. © 2012 The Royal Society.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 747.61K | Year: 2010

Esensors, with SUNY at Buffalo and SUNY at Albany as a subcontractor, will simulate, fabricate, experimentally investigate, evaluate, and deliver aprototype of a new adaptive IR photodetector based on advanced quantum dot (QD) structures. The detector’s operating principle is based on a new concept of the photoelectron lifetime tunable via adjustable potential barriers in QD structures. The photoelectron kinetics and corresponding noise processes will be investigated in specially designed and fabricated QD structures with lateral and vertical transport, which is controlled by specific potential barriers created by charged QD rows, planes and clusters. Tuning the photocarrier lifetime by the bias and/or gate voltages will allow for new intriguing possibilities for adaptive sensing and imaging with optimal data acquisition via controllable interplay of basic parameters: operating time vs.sensitivity. The proposed detectors will have the advantages: (a) tunable photoelectron kinetics, which allows for adaptive operating regimes; (b) adjustable highly-selective coupling to electromagnetic radiation due to control of QD levels and their occupations; (c) high phoconductive gain and responsivity; (d) low generation-recombination noise; (e) high scalability of nanoblocks and numerous possibilities for nano-engineering; (f) high mobility of carriers and low dissipation; (g) technological compatibility with mainstream manufacturing. BENEFIT: The structured quantum dot detector provides an important fundamental building block to IR system developers offering increased sensitivity, lower noise at a competitive cost. The improvements in sensitivity/signal-to-noise are estimated by our research team to be better than 100 times better than product currently available at a comparable price. This advanced mid-IR detector will result in development of a new generation of high sensitivity IR detectors and imagers. Immediate applications exist in three market areas: scientific measurement, military surveillance and chemical-biological (includes medical).

News Article | February 28, 2017
Site: physicsworld.com

A new 2D material just one atom thick has been made by an international team of researchers led by Axel Enders. Dubbed hexangonal boron–carbon–nitrogen (h-BCN), the material could offer many of the benefits of graphene, which is a hexagonal lattice made of just carbon. But unlike graphene, h-BCN has a direct electronic band gap, which could make it useful for creating electronic devices. First isolated in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, who shared the 2010 Nobel Prize for Physics for their discovery, graphene is blessed with a wealth of potentially useful mechanical and electronic properties. Despite being so thin and flexible, graphene is much stronger than steel and is an excellent conductor of heat. Graphene also conducts electrons at extremely high speeds. As a result, it could be the ideal material for making electronic devices that are ultrafast, high-density and even bendable. Many of graphene's electronic properties arise from the fact that it is a semiconductor with a zero-energy gap between its valence and conduction bands. This is not ideal for making transistors and other electronic devices because such circuits need semiconductors, such as silicon, that have a band gap. In an attempt to make a modified version of graphene that does have a band gap, device developers have therefore explored various schemes – including applying an electric field, adding chemical impurities or modifying the structure of graphene. None, however, has proved ideal. Now, Enders and colleagues at the University of Bayreuth, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of Krakow, State University of New York at Buffalo, Boston College and Tufts University have developed a graphene-like material that could fit the bill. The team made h-BCN by heating an organic molecule containing boron, nitrogen and carbon on an iridium substrate. The result is an atomically thin layer of h-BCN that is corrugated because of the lattice mismatch between the layer and substrate. The team studied the structure and electronic properties of the film using molecular-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy imaging, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. The researchers also used density functional theory and first-principles calculations to further understand h-BCN. An important result of the measurements and calculations is the prediction that h-BCN should have a direct electronic band gap of a size that falls between that of gapless graphene and hexagonal boron nitride, which is an insulator. According to the researchers, this band gap could make the material better suited than graphene for electronics applications. "Our findings could be the starting point for a new generation of electronic transistors, circuits and sensors that are much smaller and more bendable than the electronic elements used to date," says Enders. "They are likely to enable a considerable decrease in power consumption.” The study is described in ACS Nano.

Donnelly K.T.,State University of New York at Buffalo
The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation | Year: 2011

To provide item analyses, estimates of temporal reliability and internal consistency, and examination of the sensitivity and specificity of a traumatic brain injury-screening tool. Five hundred veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan enrolled in the study, approximately half of whom (248) volunteered. The remaining 252 participants were referred to Veteran Affairs (VA) neuropsychology or polytrauma clinics. This psychometric study constitutes part of a larger 4-year, multisite prospective cohort study of veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Five VA medical centers and one VA outpatient clinic. Veteran traumatic brain injury screening tool (VATBIST), a structured diagnostic interview for traumatic brain injury; a military-oriented posttraumatic stress disorder checklist. The VATBIST appeared to have high-internal consistency (0.77) and test-retest reliability (0.80), high sensitivity (0.94) and moderate specificity (0.59). Diagnostic odds ratios for the screening tool ranged from 12.6 for the total sample to 24, when veterans with probable posttraumatic stress disorder were excluded from analysis. The VATBIST appears to be a reliable and valid instrument. The presence of significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, however, reduces the accuracy of the measure and highlights the need for careful clinical follow-up of persons who screen positive.

Yin J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Tian L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2014

In practice, usually multiple biomarkers are measured on the same subject for disease diagnosis. Combining these biomarkers into a single score could improve diagnostic accuracy. Many researchers have addressed the problem of finding the optimal linear combination based on maximizing the area under ROC curve (AUC). Actually, such combined score might have less than optimal property at the diagnostic threshold. In this paper, we propose the idea of using Youden index as an objective function for searching the optimal linear combination. The combined score directly achieves the maximum overall correct classification rate at the diagnostic threshold corresponding to Youden index; in other words, it is the optimal linear combination score for making the disease diagnosis. We present both empirical and numerical searching methods for the optimal linear combination. We carry out extensive simulation study to investigate the performance of the proposed methods. Additionally, we empirically compare the optimal overall classification rates between the proposed combination based on Youden index and the traditional one based on AUC and demonstrate a significant gain in diagnostic accuracy for the proposed combination. In the end, we apply the proposed methods to a real data set. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Welliver R.C.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Current Opinion in Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common cause of severe lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. Its importance as a pathogen in the elderly and in the immunocompromised is becoming more clearly understood. RSV infection in infancy may lead to chronic lung disease ion later life. Newer forms of therapy are needed. This review will discuss the status of many types of compounds that interfere with RSV infection, including antibodies, inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitors, fusion inhibitors, entry inhibitors, anti-sense RNA inhibitors, and nucleoprotein inhibitors. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Wagmiller R.L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Child Development Perspectives | Year: 2015

Economic deprivation during childhood adversely affects achievement in adolescence and early adulthood. Economically disadvantaged children tend to achieve less than their more advantaged peers on a variety of measures of educational and socioeconomic achievement. Researchers recognize that what matters for achievement is not merely exposure to economic deprivation during childhood but also the temporal dynamics of deprivation. Recent studies have found that the effects of childhood economic disadvantage on achievement depend on the timing of deprivation (early childhood vs. middle or late childhood), the sequencing of deprivation (whether family income is rising or falling), and the overall duration of exposure to deprivation. In this article, I describe conceptual and methodological advances in understanding the temporal dynamics of childhood economic disadvantage, and address the implications of these improvements for our knowledge of how deprivation affects children's achievement. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development.

Sadanand S.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Corso J.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition | Year: 2012

Activity recognition in video is dominated by low- and mid-level features, and while demonstrably capable, by nature, these features carry little semantic meaning. Inspired by the recent object bank approach to image representation, we present Action Bank, a new high-level representation of video. Action bank is comprised of many individual action detectors sampled broadly in semantic space as well as viewpoint space. Our representation is constructed to be semantically rich and even when paired with simple linear SVM classifiers is capable of highly discriminative performance. We have tested action bank on four major activity recognition benchmarks. In all cases, our performance is better than the state of the art, namely 98.2% on KTH (better by 3.3%), 95.0% on UCF Sports (better by 3.7%), 57.9% on UCF50 (baseline is 47.9%), and 26.9% on HMDB51 (baseline is 23.2%). Furthermore, when we analyze the classifiers, we find strong transfer of semantics from the constituent action detectors to the bank classifier. © 2012 IEEE.

Auerbach A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2010

Acetylcholine receptor-channels are allosteric proteins that isomerize ('gate') between conformations that have a low vs. high affinity for the transmitter and conductance for ions. In order to comprehend the mechanism by which the affinity and conductance changes are linked it is of value to know the magnitude, timing and distribution of energy flowing through the system. Knowing both the di- and unliganded gating equilibrium constants (E2 and E0) is a foundation for understanding the AChR gating mechanism and for engineering both the ligand and the protein to operate in predictable ways. In adult mouse neuromuscular receptors activated by acetylcholine, E2= 28 and E0≈ 6.5 × 10-7. At each (equivalent) transmitter binding site acetylcholine provides ∼5.2 kcal mol-1 to motivate the isomerization. The partial agonist choline provides ∼3.3 kcal mol-1. The relative time of a residue's gating energy change is revealed by the slope of its rate-equilibrium constant relationship. A map of this parameter suggests that energy propagates as a conformational cascade between the transmitter binding sites and the gate region. Although gating energy changes are widespread throughout the protein, some residues are particularly sensitive to perturbations. Several specific proposals for the structural events that comprise the gating conformational cascade are discussed. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 The Physiological Society.

Tao M.H.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Freudenheim J.L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Epigenetics | Year: 2010

Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecological cancer, and it has been shown to be a complex disease driven by abnormal genetic and epigenetic alterations, as well as environmental factors. Epigenetic changes resulting in aberrant gene expression are dynamic and modifiable features of many cancer types. A significant epigenetic change is aberrant DNA methylation. In this review, we review evidence on the role of aberrant DNA methylation, examining changes in relation to endometrial carcinogenesis, and report on recent advances in the understanding of the contribution of aberrant DNA methylation to endometrial cancer with the emphasis on the role of dietary/lifestyle and environmental factors, as well as opportunities and challenges of DNA methylation in endometrial cancer management and prevention. © 2010 Landes Bioscience.

Garrett-Sinha L.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2013

The Ets1 transcription factor is a member of the Ets gene family and is highly conserved throughout evolution. Ets1 is known to regulate a number of important biological processes in normal cells and in tumors. In particular, Ets1 has been associated with regulation of immune cell function and with an aggressive behavior in tumors that express it at high levels. Here we review and summarize the general features of Ets1 and describe its roles in immunity and autoimmunity, with a focus on its roles in B lymphocytes. We also review evidence that suggests that Ets1 may play a role in malignant transformation of hematopoietic malignancies including B cell malignancies. © 2013 Springer Basel.

Nesset V.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Library and Information Science Research | Year: 2013

Two representations of a three-stage diagrammatic model that holistically depicts the research process are presented. The representations incorporate elements culled from existing information-seeking behavior and information literacy instruction research, as well as evidence gathered from a study of third grade elementary school students, as they worked to fulfill a class project's requirements. Both representations are content independent, attribute equal importance to each of the three stages, and target the K-12 educational environment. The full representation, the preparing, searching, using (PSU) model, is intended for use by instructors and more advanced students. The model identifies elements inherent within the three stages of the research process including actions, affective behaviors, impact factors, learning, and reflection. The simpler representation, the beginning, acting, telling (BAT) model, which is embedded into the PSU, presents only the three main stages and the actions associated with those stages using a familiar graphic (a bat) and a mnemonic device to visually present the basic elements of the research process to younger elementary school students. The PSU model is designed to identify and address the unique information behaviors of students (affective, cognitive, and physical) and factors that may impact the research process. As a result, the representations can be used by educators, including information professionals and teachers, to inform instruction, such as lesson planning, development of assignments, resource location and evaluation, and the use of information, to fully exploit all aspects of the research process. The PSU model can also be used to teach more sophisticated concepts to older students by introducing more complex features gradually to the BAT model. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Ruckenstein E.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Djikaev Y.S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2011

The number and energy of hydrogen bonds that a water molecule forms in the vicinity of a hydrophobic surface differ from their bulk values. Such an alteration gives rise to a hydrogen bond contribution to the external potential field whereto a water molecule is subjected in the vicinity of a hydrophobic surface. This contribution is repulsive and can be determined by using a recently developed probabilistic approach to water-water hydrogen bonding. Combining the probabilistic approach with the density functional theory, we have found that the hydrogen bond contribution to the external potential plays a crucial role in the formation of a thin depletion layer (of thickness of a molecular diameter and of very low density) between liquid water and hydrophobic surface. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Purohit P.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Auerbach A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of General Physiology | Year: 2010

Acetylcholine receptor channels switch between conformations that: have a low versus high affinity for the transmitter and conductance for ions (R↔R*; gating). The forward isomerization, which begins at the transmitter binding sites and propagates ~50 Å to the narrow region of the pore, occurs by approximately the same sequence of molecular events with or without agonists present at the binding sites. To pinpoint the forces that govern, the R versus R* agonist affinity ratio, we measured single-channel activation parameters for apo-receptors having combinations of mutations of 10 transmitter binding site residues in the α (Y93, G147, W149, G153, Y190, C192, and Y198), e (W55 and Pl21 ), or 8 (W57) subunit. Gating energy changes were largest for the tryptophan residues. The αW149 energy changes were coupled with those of the other aromatic amino acids. Mutating the aromatic residues to Phe reduces the R/R* equilibrium dissociation constant ratio, with αY190 and αW149 being the most sensitive positions. Most of the mutations eliminated long-lived spontaneous openings. The results provide a foundation for understanding how ligands trigger protein conformational change. © 2010 Purohit and Auerbach.

Pfordresher P.Q.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Mantell J.T.,St. Mary's College of Maryland
Cognitive Psychology | Year: 2014

Singing is a ubiquitous and culturally significant activity that humans engage in from an early age. Nevertheless, some individuals - termed poor-pitch singers - are unable to match target pitches within a musical semitone while singing. In the experiments reported here, we tested whether poor-pitch singing deficits would be reduced when individuals imitate recordings of themselves as opposed to recordings of other individuals. This prediction was based on the hypothesis that poor-pitch singers have not developed an abstract "inverse model" of the auditory-vocal system and instead must rely on sensorimotor associations that they have experienced directly, which is true for sequences an individual has already produced. In three experiments, participants, both accurate and poor-pitch singers, were better able to imitate sung recordings of themselves than sung recordings of other singers. However, this self-advantage was enhanced for poor-pitch singers. These effects were not a byproduct of self-recognition (Experiment 1), vocal timbre (Experiment 2), or the absolute pitch of target recordings (i.e., the advantage remains when recordings are transposed, Experiment 3). Results support the conceptualization of poor-pitch singing as an imitative deficit resulting from a deficient inverse model of the auditory-vocal system with respect to pitch. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Allen C.L.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Gulick A.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2014

Microorganisms produce a variety of natural products via secondary metabolic biosynthetic pathways. Two of these types of synthetic systems, the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), use large modular enzymes containing multiple catalytic domains in a single protein. These multidomain enzymes use an integrated carrier protein domain to transport the growing, covalently bound natural product to the neighboring catalytic domains for each step in the synthesis. Interestingly, some PKS and NRPS clusters contain free-standing domains that interact intermolecularly with other proteins. Being expressed outside the architecture of a multi-domain protein, these so-called type II proteins present challenges to understand the precise role they play. Additional structures of individual and multi-domain components of the NRPS enzymes will therefore provide a better understanding of the features that govern the domain interactions in these interesting enzyme systems. The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406-ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented here. Comparison with the closest structural homologs of other carrier proteins identifies the requirements for a conserved glycine residue and additional important sequence and structural requirements within the regions that interact with partner proteins. © 2014 International Union of Crystallography.

Wang L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

This paper presents a multi-scale approach for delineating individual tree crowns (ITC) from high spatial resolution imagery. By analyzing the evolution of image gradients over the scale-space constructed with orthogonal wavelets, tree crown boundaries are effectively strengthened while the textures resulted from tree branches and twigs are largely suppressed. Two scale consistency checks, a scale and a geometric consistency check, were devised to account for tree crown's radiometric and geometric characteristic. After an edge-enhanced image was acquired, a previously developed marker-controlled watershed segmentation method was adopted to delineate ITC. An experiment was carried out in a study site in California. Field measurements of crown size of 58 trees were compared with those derived from aerial imagery. An R square value of 0.68 was achieved. It was found that crown size was underestimated from the photo interpretation compared to that from the ground survey. The result can be attributed to the fact that pixels lying on the tree crown boundaries are poorly represented in the image. © 2010 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

Whittaker L.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Patridge C.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Banerjee S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters | Year: 2011

The peculiarities in the electronic structure of the seemingly simple binary vanadium oxide VO 2, as manifested in a pronounced metal-insulator phase transition in proximity to room temperature, have made it the subject of extensive theoretical and experimental investigations over the last several decades. We review some recent advances in theoretical treatments of strongly correlated systems along with ultrafast measurements of VO 2 samples that provide unprecedented mechanistic insight into the nature of the phase transition. Scaling VO 2 to nanoscale dimensions has recently been possible and has allowed well-defined VO 2 nanostructures to serve as model systems for measurements of intrinsic properties without obscuration from grain boundary connectivities and domain dynamics. Geometric confinement, substrate interactions, and varying defect densities of VO 2 nanostructures give rise to an electronic and structural phase diagram that is substantially altered from the bulk. We postulate that design principles deduced from fundamental understanding of phase transitions in nanostructures will allow the predictive and rational design of systems with tunable charge and spin ordering. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Perception of external stimuli and generation of an appropriate response are crucial for host colonization by pathogens. In pathogenic fungi, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate dimorphism, biofilm/mat formation, and virulence. Signaling mucins, characterized by a heavily glycosylated extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a small cytoplasmic domain, are known to regulate various signaling pathways. In Candida albicans, the mucin Msb2 regulates the Cek1 MAPK pathway. We show here that Msb2 is localized to the yeast cell wall and is further enriched on hyphal surfaces. A msb2Δ/Δ strain formed normal hyphae but had biofilm defects. Cek1 (but not Mkc1) phosphorylation was absent in the msb2Δ/Δ mutant. The extracellular domain of Msb2 was shed in cells exposed to elevated temperature and carbon source limitation, concomitant with germination and Cek1 phosphorylation. Msb2 shedding occurred differentially in cells grown planktonically or on solid surfaces in the presence of cell wall and osmotic stressors. We further show that Msb2 shedding and Cek1 phosphorylation were inhibited by addition of Pepstatin A (PA), a selective inhibitor of aspartic proteases (Saps). Analysis of combinations of Sap protease mutants identified a sap8Δ/Δ mutant with reduced MAPK signaling along with defects in biofilm formation, thereby suggesting that Sap8 potentially serves as a major regulator of Msb2 processing. We further show that loss of either Msb2 (msb2Δ/Δ) or Sap8 (sap8Δ/Δ) resulted in higher C. albicans surface β-glucan exposure and msb2Δ/Δ showed attenuated virulence in a murine model of oral candidiasis. Thus, Sap-mediated proteolytic cleavage of Msb2 is required for activation of the Cek1 MAPK pathway in response to environmental cues including those that induce germination. Inhibition of Msb2 processing at the level of Saps may provide a means of attenuating MAPK signaling and reducing C. albicans virulence.

Flickinger R.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Development Growth and Differentiation | Year: 2015

AT-rich repetitive DNA sequences become late replicating during cell differentiation. Replication timing is not correlated with LINE density in human cells (Ryba et al. 2010). However, short and properly spaced runs of oligo dA or dT present in nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs) of the genome are good candidates for elements of AT-rich repetitive late replicating DNA. MAR attachment to the nuclear matrix is negatively regulated by chromatin binding of H1 histone, but this is counteracted by H1 phosphorylation, high mobility group proteins or, indirectly, core histone acetylation. Fewer MAR attachments correlates positively with longer average DNA loop size, longer replicons and an increase of late replicating DNA. © 2014 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

Matott L.S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation | Year: 2012

Pump-and-treat systems can prevent the migration of groundwater contaminants and candidate systems are typically evaluated with groundwater models. Such models should be rigorously assessed to determine predictive capabilities and numerous tools and techniques for model assessment are available. While various assessment methodologies (e.g., model calibration, uncertainty analysis, and Bayesian inference) are well-established for groundwater modeling, this paper calls attention to an alternative assessment technique known as screening-level sensitivity analysis (SLSA). SLSA can quickly quantify first-order (i.e., main effects) measures of parameter influence in connection with various model outputs. Subsequent comparisons of parameter influence with respect to calibration vs. prediction outputs can suggest gaps in model structure and/or data. Thus, while SLSA has received little attention in the context of groundwater modeling and remedial system design, it can nonetheless serve as a useful and computationally efficient tool for preliminary model assessment. To illustrate the use of SLSA in the context of designing groundwater remediation systems, four SLSA techniques were applied to a hypothetical, yet realistic, pump-and-treat case study to determine the relative influence of six hydraulic conductivity parameters. Considered methods were: Taguchi design-of-experiments (TDOE); Monte Carlo statistical independence (MCSI) tests; average composite scaled sensitivities (ACSS); and elementary effects sensitivity analysis (EESA). In terms of performance, the various methods identified the same parameters as being the most influential for a given simulation output. Furthermore, results indicate that the background hydraulic conductivity is important for predicting system performance, but calibration outputs are insensitive to this parameter (K BK). The observed insensitivity is attributed to a nonphysical specified-head boundary condition used in the model formulation which effectively "staples" head values located within the conductivity zone. Thus, potential strategies for improving model predictive capabilities include additional data collection targeting the K BK parameter and/or revision of model structure to reduce the influence of the specified head boundary. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

Wang X.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Swihart M.T.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2015

We show how indium incorporation can effect the size, morphology, crystal structure, and optical properties of CIS nanocrystals (NCs) and demonstrate a robust methodology for preparing monodisperse plasmonic and nonplasmonic CIS NCs. In contrast with previous methods of producing CIS nanocrystals exhibiting localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), which employed expensive and hazardous bis(trimethylsilyl) sulfide, we employ sulfur dissolved in oleic acid as the sulfur donor in combination with appropriate cation precursors to allow production of monodisperse CIS NCs with broad variation of the Cu:In ratio in the products. The crystal phase of the CIS NCs is determined not only by the reactivity of the ligands but also by the cation composition. The LSPR shifted to longer wavelengths with increasing In content until it vanished, while the band gap of the CIS NCs decreased linearly from 2.1 to 1.2 eV. The manipulation of optical properties of CIS NCs with controlled and well-defined size, shape, and phase may open up new possibilities for applying I-III-VI materials in solution-processed optoelectronic devices. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Yan X.,Zhejiang University | Cook T.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Wang P.,Zhejiang University | Huang F.,Zhejiang University | Stang P.J.,University of Utah
Nature Chemistry | Year: 2015

Light-emitting materials, especially those with tunable wavelengths, attract considerable attention for applications in optoelectronic devices, fluorescent probes, sensors and so on. Many species evaluated for these purposes either emit as a dilute solution or on aggregation, with the former often self-quenching at high concentrations, and the latter falling dark when aggregation is disrupted. Here we preserve emissive behaviour at both low-and high-concentration regimes for two discrete supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs). These tetragonal prismatic SCCs are self-assembled on mixing a metal acceptor, Pt(PEt 3) 2 (OSO 2 CF 3) 2, with two organic donors, a pyridyl-decorated tetraphenylethylene and one of two benzene dicarboxylate species. The rigid organization of these fluorescence-active ligands imparts an emissive behaviour to dilute solutions of the resulting assemblies. Furthermore, on aggregation the prisms exhibit variable-wavelength visible-light emission, including rare white-light emission in tetrahydrofuran. The favourable photophysical properties and solvent-dependent aggregation behaviour provide a means to tune emission wavelengths. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Kussius C.L.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Popescu G.K.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Glutamate-gated channels mediate fundamental brain processes, yet the mechanisms by which the neurotransmitter controls channel activation are incompletely understood. Structural studies revealed that the agonist has the critical role of bridging the divide between two flexible extracellular lobes and solidified the view that agonist-induced cleft-closure drives further isomerizations, which eventually open the channel. Within the glutamate receptor family, NMDA-sensitive channels are unique in their requirement that both glycine and glutamate bind to homologous regions on GluN1 and GluN2 subunits, respectively, before the channel can open. To study the gating reaction in separation from agonist binding and dissociation, we characterized the kinetic mechanism of individual NMDA receptors whose ligand-binding clefts were locked shut by disulfide bridges engineered across lobes. We found that locking GluN1 domains had no observable consequences on receptor activity, whereas locking GluN2A domains increased channel activity without reducing the number of resolvable kinetic states. Based on these results, we suggest that glutamate but not glycine activates NMDA receptors with submaximal efficacy. Low glutamate efficacy may represent a mechanism by which the neurotransmitter maintains control over receptor kinetics despite sharing with glycine the task of activation. Copyright © 2010 the authors.

Prisciandaro J.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Roberts J.E.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2011

Background Although psychiatric diagnostic systems have conceptualized mania as a discrete phenomenon, appropriate latent structure investigations testing this conceptualization are lacking. In contrast to these diagnostic systems, several influential theories of mania have suggested a continuous conceptualization. The present study examined whether mania has a continuous or discrete latent structure using a comprehensive approach including taxometric, information-theoretic latent distribution modeling (ITLDM) and predictive validity methodologies in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study.Method Eight dichotomous manic symptom items were submitted to a variety of latent structural analyses, including factor analyses, taxometric procedures and ITLDM, in 10105 ECA community participants. In addition, a variety of continuous and discrete models of mania were compared in terms of their relative abilities to predict outcomes (i.e. health service utilization, internalizing and externalizing disorders, and suicidal behavior).Results Taxometric and ITLDM analyses consistently supported a continuous conceptualization of mania. In ITLDM analyses, a continuous model of mania demonstrated 6.52:1 odds over the best-fitting latent class model (LCM) of mania. Factor analyses suggested that the continuous structure of mania was best represented by a single latent factor. Predictive validity analyses demonstrated a consistent superior ability of continuous models of mania relative to discrete models.Conclusions The present study provided three independent lines of support for a continuous conceptualization of mania. The implications of a continuous model of mania are discussed. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

Li Y.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Pfeifer B.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2014

The value associated with plant-derived products has spurred efforts to engineer new production routes. One such option is heterologous biosynthesis which requires reconstitution of a biosynthetic pathway in a host that provides both innate and developed cellular advantages relative to the native producer. This review will summarize success to date in heterologously producing plant-derived isoprenoid products when using hosts such as E. coli and yeast. The article will also address the significant challenges that face such efforts, the approaches that have been used to overcome obstacles, and the tools of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology being applied both in the course of establishing heterologous biosynthesis and optimizing final production metrics. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Lonie D.C.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Zurek E.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2011

The implementation and testing of XtalOpt, an evolutionary algorithm for crystal structure prediction, is outlined. We present our new periodic displacement (ripple) operator which is ideally suited to extended systems. It is demonstrated that hybrid operators, which combine two pure operators, reduce the number of duplicate structures in the search. This allows for better exploration of the potential energy surface of the system in question, while simultaneously zooming in on the most promising regions. A continuous workflow, which makes better use of computational resources as compared to traditional generation based algorithms, is employed. Various parameters in XtalOpt are optimized using a novel benchmarking scheme. XtalOpt is available under the GNU Public License, has been interfaced with various codes commonly used to study extended systems, and has an easy to use, intuitive graphical interface. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tian L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2010

In diagnostic studies, we often need to combine several markers to increase the diagnostic accuracy. This paper addresses the problem of confidence interval estimation of partial area under receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the combined marker based on the optimal linear combination proposed by Su and Liu (1993). The proposed approach is developed using the concepts of generalized inference. Numerical study demonstrates that the proposed approach generally can provide reasonable confidence intervals via a few straightforward simulation steps. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pan F.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Nagi R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2010

This paper considers a supply chain design problem for a new market opportunity with uncertain demand in an agile manufacturing setting. We consider the integrated optimization of logistics and production costs associated with the supply chain members. These problems routinely occur in a wide variety of industries including semiconductor manufacturing, multi-tier automotive supply chains, and consumer appliances to name a few. There are two types of decision variables: binary variables for selection of companies to form the supply chain and continuous variables associated with production planning. A scenario approach is used to handle the uncertainty of demand. The formulation is a robust optimization model with three components in the objective function: expected total costs, cost variability due to demand uncertainty, and expected penalty for demand unmet at the end of the planning horizon. The increase of computational time with the numbers of echelons and members per echelon necessitates a heuristic. A heuristic based on a k-shortest path algorithm is developed by using a surrogate distance to denote the effectiveness of each member in the supply chain. The heuristic can find an optimal solution very quickly in some small- and medium-size cases. For large problems, a "good" solution with a small gap relative to our lower bound is obtained in a short computational time. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jha A.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Auerbach A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2010

The neuromuscular acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is an allosteric protein that alternatively adopts inactive versus active conformations (R↔R*). The R* shape has a higher agonist affinity and ionic conductance than R. To understand how agonists trigger this gating isomerization, we examined single-channel currents from adult mouse muscle AChRs that isomerize normally without agonists but have only a single site able to use agonist binding energy to motivate gating. We estimated the monoliganded gating equilibrium constant E1 and the energy change associated with the R versus R* change in affinity for agonists. AChRs with only one operational binding site gave rise to a single population of currents, indicating that the two transmitter binding sites have approximately the same affinity for the transmitter ACh. The results indicated that E1 ≈ 4.3 x 10-3 with ACh, and ≈ 1.7 x 10-4 with the partial-agonist choline. From these values and the diliganded gating equilibrium constants, we estimate that the unliganded AChR gating constant is E 0 ≈ 6.5 x 10-7. Gating changes the stability of the ligand-protein complex by ∼5.2 kcal/mol for ACh and ∼3.3 kcal/mol for choline. © 2010 by the Biophysical Society.

Keesler J.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities | Year: 2014

Research exploring the occurrence of trauma among adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) has grown over the past decade. Yet there is a dearth of literature investigating the impact of organizational factors on the trauma experience despite this population's need for organizational supports. Trauma-informed care (TIC), a systems-focused model for service delivery, is a fast-developing interest among the broader field of trauma in the general population. It recognizes the prevalence and impact of trauma, and creates a culture of safety, trustworthiness, choice, collaboration, and empowerment. The author synthesized relevant literature from both the intellectual and developmental disabilities areas and integrated this with TIC and trauma literature drawn from the general population. Explored are the implications of organizations for service delivery and the potential assimilation of TIC within I/DD organizations. The effectiveness of TIC applications and their potential barriers are discussed and related to the philosophy of quality of life and organizational culture. The author notes that some individuals with I/DD comprise a vulnerable subgroup of the population that in large part relies upon the support of organizational services to foster quality of life. Given the implications of the focus on quality of life, he posits that TIC presents as a viable response for organizations, complimenting and augmenting current efforts. © 2014 International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Pfordresher P.Q.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2012

Recent research has shown that music training enhances music-related sensorimotor associations, such as the relationship between a key press on the keyboard and its associated musical pitch (auditory feedback). Such results suggest that the role of auditory feedback in performance may be based on learned associations that are task specific. Here, results from various studies will be presented that suggest that the real state of affairs is more complex. Several recent studies have shown similar effects of altered auditory feedback during piano performance for pianists and individuals with no piano training. Other recent research suggests dramatic differences between pianists and nonmusicians concerning the influence of auditory feedback on melody switching that suggest greater influence of auditory feedback among nonmusicians than pianists. Taken together, results suggest that musical training refines preexisting sensorimotor associations. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

Barkley J.E.,Kent State University | Salvy S.-J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Roemmich J.N.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Pediatrics | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of simulated ostracism on children's physical activity behavior, time allocated to sedentary behavior, and liking of physical activity. METHODS: Nineteen children (11 boys, 8 girls; age 11.7 ± 1.3 years) completed 2 experimental sessions. During each session, children played a virtual ball-toss computer game (Cyberball). In one session, children played Cyberball and experienced ostracism; in the other session, they were exposed to the inclusion/control condition. The order of conditions was randomized. After playing Cyberball, children were taken to a gymnasium where they had free-choice access to physical and sedentary activities for 30 minutes. Children could participate in the activities, in any pattern they chose, for the entire period. Physical activity during the freechoice period was assessed via accelerometery and sedentary time via observation. Finally, children reported their liking for the activity session via a visual analog scale. RESULTS: Children accumulated 22% fewer (P < .01) accelerometer counts and 41% more (P < .04) minutes of sedentary activity in the ostracized condition (8.9 e+4 ± 4.5 e+4 counts, 11.1 ± 9.3 minutes) relative to the included condition (10.8 e+4 6 4.7 e+4 counts, 7.9 ± 7.9 minutes). Liking (8.8 ± 1.5 cm included, 8.1 ± 1.9 cm ostracized) of the activity sessions was not significantly different (P > .10) between conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Simulated ostracism elicits decreased subsequent physical activity participation in children. Ostracism may contribute to children's lack of physical activity. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Agiorgousis M.L.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | Sun Y.-Y.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | Zeng H.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Zhang S.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

Inorganic-organic hybrid perovskites are a new family of solar cell materials, which have recently been used to make solar cells with efficiency approaching 20%. Here, we report the unique defect chemistry of the prototype material, CH3NH3PbI3, based on first-principles calculation. We found that both the Pb cations and I anions in this material exhibit strong covalency as characterized by the formation of Pb dimers and I trimers with strong covalent bonds at some of the intrinsic defects. The Pb dimers and I trimers are only stabilized in a particular charge state with significantly lowered energy, which leads to deep charge-state transition levels within the band gap, in contradiction to a recent proposal that this system has only shallow intrinsic defects. Our results show that, in order to prevent the deep-level defects from being effective recombination centers, the equilibrium carrier concentrations should be controlled so that the Fermi energy is about 0.3 eV away from the band edges. Beyond this range, according to a Shockley-Read-Hall analysis, the non-equilibrium carrier lifetime will be strongly affected by the concentration of I vacancies and the anti-site defects with I occupying a CH3NH3 site. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Five non-biocidal xerogel coatings were compared to two commercial non-biocidal coatings and a silicone standard with respect to antifouling (AF)/fouling-release (FR) characteristics. The formation and release of biofilm of the marine bacterium Cellulophaga lytica, the attachment and release of the microalga Navicula incerta, and the fraction removal and critical removal stress of reattached adult barnacles of Amphibalanus amphitrite were evaluated in laboratory assays. Correlations of AF/FR performance with surface characteristics such as wettability, surface energy, elastic modulus, and surface roughness were examined. Several of the xerogel coating compositions performed well against both microfouling organisms while the commercial coatings performed less well toward the removal of microalgae. Reattached barnacle adhesion as measured by critical removal stress was significantly lower on the commercial coatings when compared to the xerogel coatings. However, two xerogel compositions showed release of 89-100% of reattached barnacles. These two formulations were also tested in the field and showed similar results.

Zhai X.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Amyes T.L.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Richard J.P.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

Values of (kcat/Km)GAP for triosephosphate isomerase-catalyzed reactions of (R)-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and k catKHPiKGA for reactions of the substrate pieces glycolaldehyde and HPO3 2- have been determined for wild-type and the following TIM mutants: I172V, I172A, L232A, and P168A (TIM from Trypanosoma brucei brucei); a 208-TGAG for 208-YGGS loop 7 replacement mutant (L7RM, TIM from chicken muscle); and, Y208T, Y208S, Y208A, Y208F and S211A (yeast TIM). A superb linear logarithmic correlation, with slope of 1.04 ± 0.03, is observed between the kinetic parameters for wild-type and most mutant enzymes, with positive deviations for L232A and L7RM. The unit slope shows that most mutations result in an identical change in the activation barriers for the catalyzed reactions of whole substrate and substrate pieces, so that the two transition states are stabilized by similar interactions with the protein catalyst. This is consistent with a role for dianions as active spectators, which hold TIM in a catalytically active caged form. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Yu Z.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Lin Q.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

Reactive yet stable alkene reporters offer a facile route to studying fast biological processes via the cycloaddition-based bioorthogonal reactions. Here, we report the design and synthesis of a strained spirocyclic alkene, spiro[2.3]hex-1-ene (Sph), for an accelerated photoclick chemistry, and its site-specific introduction into proteins via amber codon suppression using the wild-type pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNACUA pair. Because of its high ring strain and reduced steric hindrance, Sph exhibited fast reaction kinetics (k2 up to 34 000 M-1 s-1) in the photoclick chemistry and afforded rapid (<10 s) bioorthogonal protein labeling. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Ruckenstein E.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects | Year: 2012

It is suggested that superspreading of droplets of dilute aqueous solutions of siloxane surfactants over a hydrophobic surface is driven by: (i) the spreading at their leading edges of the surfactant as bilayers, (ii) the suction of water in the hydrophilic atmosphere between the two layers and (iii) the displacement of the surfactant and water by a Marangoni effect intensified by the formation of bilayers. An explanation is provided for the observation that the rate of spreading passes through a maximum at an optimum degree of surface wettability (surface hydrophobicity). © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Kozlowski L.T.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Giovino G.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Preventive Medicine Reports | Year: 2014

Objective: To assess changes in monthly smoking in its relationship to daily smoking and heavier smoking in high school seniors. Public health agencies often report only "current use" of cigarettes among youth as any use in the past 30. days, even though additional measures are collected. Monthly use is a crude and changing indicator. Methods: Results from 1975 to 2013 from Monitoring The Future Project were plotted and analyzed by linear regression. Results: From 1975 to 2013, the percentage of monthly smokers who smoked daily decreased by 29% (21.2 percentage points) and monthly smokers who smoked 10. + cigarettes/day dropped by 57% (28 percentage points); the percentage of daily smokers who smoked 10. + cigarettes/day decreased by 40% (26.5 percentage points). Conclusion: Additional measures of frequency and intensity of use of cigarettes and other tobacco/nicotine products need to be more regularly reported. These results indicate softening rather than hardening of "current smoking" and have important implications for tobacco surveillance and for tobacco research because of a) increased likelihood of quitting smoking, b) health effects of cigarette smoking, and c) similar and interacting issues related to measuring the use of all tobacco/nicotine products. © 2014.

Furlani E.P.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Xue X.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics | Year: 2012

Magnetic particles are used to deliver gene vectors to target cells for uptake in a process known as magnetofection. Magnetic particle-based gene delivery has been successfully demonstrated for all types of nucleic acids and across a broad range of cell lines. It is well suited for multiwell culture plate systems wherein magnetic particles with surface-bound gene vectors are introduced into culture wells, and a magnetic force provided by rare-earth magnets beneath and aligned with the wells attracts the particles to the cells for uptake. In this paper, models are presented for analyzing and optimizing this process. These include closed-form equations for predicting the magnetic field and force and a drift-diffusion equation for predicting the transport and accumulation of particles in a well. The closed-form equations enable rapid parametric analysis of the spatial distribution of the field and force in a well as a function of key parameters including its dimensions, the magnet-to-well spacing, the strength of the magnet, the influence of neighboring magnets and the properties of the particles. The particle transport equation accounts for the field-induced drift of particles as well as fluidic drag and Brownian diffusion. It is solved numerically using the finite volume method. The theory is demonstrated via application to a multiwall plate magnetofection system and the impact of various factors that govern gene delivery is assessed. The models provide insight into gene delivery and are well suited for parametric analysis of particle accumulation in the wells. They enable the rational design of novel magnetofection systems. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Kiviniemi M.T.,State University of New York at Buffalo
BMC Medical Education | Year: 2014

Background: Blended learning approaches, in which in-person and online course components are combined in a single course, are rapidly increasing in health sciences education. Evidence for the relative effectiveness of blended learning versus more traditional course approaches is mixed. Method. The impact of a blended learning approach on student learning in a graduate-level public health course was examined using a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design. Exam scores and course point total data from a baseline, "traditional" approach semester (n = 28) was compared to that from a semester utilizing a blended learning approach (n = 38). In addition, student evaluations of the blended learning approach were evaluated. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in student performance under the blended learning approach (final course point total d = 0.57; a medium effect size), even after accounting for previous academic performance. Moreover, student evaluations of the blended approach were very positive and the majority of students (83%) preferred the blended learning approach. Conclusions: Blended learning approaches may be an effective means of optimizing student learning and improving student performance in health sciences courses. © 2014Kiviniemi; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hoffman S.G.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Social Studies of Science | Year: 2015

Some scholars dismiss the distinction between basic and applied science as passé, yet substantive assumptions about this boundary remain obdurate in research policy, popular rhetoric, the sociology and philosophy of science, and, indeed, at the level of bench practice. In this article, I draw on a multiple ontology framework to provide a more stable affirmation of a constructivist position in science and technology studies that cannot be reduced to a matter of competing perspectives on a single reality. The analysis is grounded in ethnographic research in the border zone of Artificial Intelligence science. I translate in-situ moments in which members of neighboring but differently situated labs engage in three distinct repertoires that render the reality of basic and applied science: partitioning, flipping, and collapsing. While the essences of scientific objects are nowhere to be found, the boundary between basic and applied is neither illusion nor mere propaganda. Instead, distinctions among scientific knowledge are made real as a matter of course. © The Author(s) 2015

Bisson L.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Gurske-DePerio J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery | Year: 2010

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the axial and sagittal geometry of the distal femur and proximal tibia in men and women with and without noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears to determine whether a difference existed in these groups. Methods: Twenty men and 20 women with noncontact ACL tears and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans of their knees were compared with 20 men and 20 women who had magnetic resonance imaging for meniscal pathology. Patients were not matched for age, weight, or height. We measured the anteroposterior dimensions of the femoral condyles, the medial-lateral width of the femur, and the angle of intersection between the transepicondylar axis and the long axis of the femoral condyles. We also measured the anteroposterior dimension of the tibial plateaus, as well as the width of the proximal tibia. Finally, the posterior tibial slope was measured for the medial and lateral tibial plateaus. All dimensional measurements were standardized and compared statistically. Results: When compared with normal men, normal women had proportionally deeper medial (3%, P = .049) and lateral (7%, P < .001) femoral condyles, as well as deeper medial tibial plateaus (5%, P = .025). There were no differences between normal women and women with ACL tears (P = .09 to .83). Men with ACL tears had deeper medial (5%, P = .04) and lateral (10%, P = .01) tibial plateaus, as well as an increased posterior slope of the lateral tibial plateau (12° vs 8°, P = .006), when compared with normal men. Conclusions: We compared normal men and women with those with noncontact ACL tears and found that women's knees were characterized by proportionally deeper medial and lateral femoral condyles, as well as deeper medial tibial plateaus. When compared with normal men, men with ACL tears had deeper medial and lateral tibial plateaus, as well as an increased posterior slope of the lateral tibial plateau. Level of Evidence: Level III, case-control study. © 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America.

Patel M.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Yang S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Stem Cell Reviews and Reports | Year: 2010

Traditionally, nuclear reprogramming of cells has been performed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into oocytes, by combining somatic and pluripotent cells together through cell fusion and through genetic integration of factors through somatic cell chromatin. All of these techniques changes gene expression which further leads to a change in cell fate. Here we discuss recent advances in generating induced pluripotent stem cells, different reprogramming methods and clinical applications of iPS cells. Viral vectors have been used to transfer transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, c-myc, Klf4, and nanog) to induce reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts, neural stem cells, neural progenitor cells, keratinocytes, B lymphocytes and meningeal membrane cells towards pluripotency. Human fibroblasts, neural cells, blood and keratinocytes have also been reprogrammed towards pluripotency. In this review we have discussed the use of viral vectors for reprogramming both animal and human stem cells. Currently, many studies are also involved in finding alternatives to using viral vectors carrying transcription factors for reprogramming cells. These include using plasmid transfection, piggyback transposon system and piggyback transposon system combined with a non viral vector system. Applications of these techniques have been discussed in detail including its advantages and disadvantages. Finally, current clinical applications of induced pluripotent stem cells and its limitations have also been reviewed. Thus, this review is a summary of current research advances in reprogramming cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Sachs F.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Physiology | Year: 2010

Mechanosensitive ion channels (MSCs) exist in all cells, but mechanosensitivity is a phenotype not a genotype. Specialized mechanoreceptors such as the hair cells of the cochlea require elaborate mechanical impedance matching to couple the channels to the external stress. In contrast, MSCs in nonspecialized cells appear activated by stress in the bilayer local to the channel-within about three lipids. Local mechanical stress can be produced by far-field tension, amphipaths, phase separations, the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix, and the adhesion energy between the membrane and a patch pipette. Understanding MSC function requires understanding the stimulus. ©2010 Int. Union Physiol. Sci/Am. Physiol. Soc.

Murphy T.F.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2015

Infections due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae result in enormous global morbidity in two clinical settings: otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recurrent otitis media affects up to 20% of children and results in hearing loss, delays in speech and language development and, in developing countries, chronic suppurative otitis media. Infections in people with COPD result in clinic and emergency room visits, hospital admissions, and respiratory failure. An effective vaccine would prevent morbidity, help control health care costs, and reduce antibiotic use, a major contributor to the global crisis in bacterial antibiotic resistance. The widespread use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is causing a relative increase in H. influenzae otitis media. The partial protection against H. influenzae otitis media induced by the pneumococcal H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine represents a proof of principle of the feasibility of a vaccine for nontypeable H. influenzae. An ideal vaccine antigen should be conserved among strains, have abundant epitopes on the bacterial surface, be immunogenic, and induce protective immune responses. Several surface proteins of H. influenzae have been identified as potential vaccine candidates and are in various stages of development. With continued research, progress toward a broadly effective vaccine to prevent infections caused by nontypeable H. influenzae is expected over the next several years. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Silvan-Cardenas J.L.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Wang L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2010

Repeatable approaches for mapping saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) at regional scales, with the ability to detect low density stands, is crucial for the species' effective control and management, as well as for an improved understanding of its current and potential future dynamics. This study had the objective of testing subpixel classification techniques based on linear and nonlinear spectral mixture models in order to identify the best possible classification technique for repeatable mapping of saltcedar canopy cover along the Forgotten River reach of the Rio Grande. The suite of methods tested were meant to represent various levels of constraints imposed in the solution as well as varying levels of classification details (species level and landscape level), sources for endmembers (space-borne multispectral image, airborne hyperspectral image and in situ spectra measurements) and mixture modes (linear and nonlinear). A multiple scattering approximation (MSA) model was proposed as a means to represent canopy (image) reflectance spectra as a nonlinear combination of subcanopy (field) reflectance spectra. The accuracy of subpixel canopy cover was assessed through a 1-m spatial-resolution hyperspectral image and field measurements. Results indicated that: 1) When saltcedar was represented by one single image spectrum (endmember), the unconstrained linear spectral unmixing with post-classification normalization produced comparable accuracy (OA=72%) to those delivered by partially and fully constrained linear spectral unmixing (63-72%) and even by nonlinear spectral unmixing (73%). 2) The accuracy of the fully constrained linear spectral unmixing method increased (from 67% to 77%) when the classes were represented with several image spectra. 3) Saltcedar canopy reflectance showed the strongest nonlinear relationship with respect to subcanopy reflectance, as indicated through a range of estimated canopy recollision probabilities. 4) Despite the considerations of these effects on canopy reflectance, the inversion of the nonlinear spectral mixing model with subcanopy reflectance (field) measurements yielded slightly lower accuracy (73%) than the linear counterpart (77%). Implications of these results for region-wide monitoring of saltcedar invasion are also discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Su W.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Matyjas J.D.,Air Force Research Lab | Batalama S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2012

In this paper, we consider a heterogeneous ad-hoc network where primary users may cooperate with cognitive radio (CR) users for the transmission of their data. We propose a new cooperation protocol that allows CR users to relay primary user signals in exchange for some spectrum. The spectrum released by primary users is used by CR users for their own data transmission. The proposed protocol maximizes the primary user power savings and the CR users' own data transmission rate. In addition, it provides more robust (potentially continuous) service for CR users, compared to the conventional practice in cognitive networks where cognitive users transmit in the spectrum holes of primary users (i.e., their service is interrupted when primary users need to transmit and no spectrum holes are available). More specifically, we propose a CR user power allocation scheme that maximizes the rate of transmission of CR user own data, for any given CR user power budget and a given bandwidth released from the primary user. Furthermore, we determine a range of possible transmission power levels that can be used by the primary user during cooperation without sacrificing its target transmission rate, and we derive a necessary condition on the quality of the channel between the primary user and the CR user that enables cooperation. Extensive numerical and simulation studies illustrate our theoretical developments and show that cooperation between a primary and CR user may lead, for example, to up to 80% savings of primary user power when compared to a noncooperation scheme at the same transmission power level. © 2011 IEEE.

Protein conformational dynamics, despite its significant anharmonicity, has been widely explored by normal mode analysis (NMA) based on atomic or coarse-grained potential functions. To account for the anharmonic aspects of protein dynamics, this study proposes, and has performed, an anharmonic NMA (ANMA) based on the Cα-only elastic network models, which assume elastic interactions between pairs of residues whose Cα atoms or heavy atoms are within a cutoff distance. The key step of ANMA is to sample an anharmonic potential function along the directions of eigenvectors of the lowest normal modes to determine the mean-squared fluctuations along these directions. ANMA was evaluated based on the modeling of anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) from a list of 83 high-resolution protein crystal structures. Significant improvement was found in the modeling of ADPs by ANMA compared with standard NMA. Further improvement in the modeling of ADPs is attained if the interactions between a protein and its crystalline environment are taken into account. In addition, this study has determined the optimal cutoff distances for ADP modeling based on elastic network models, and these agree well with the peaks of the statistical distributions of distances between Cα atoms or heavy atoms derived from a large set of protein crystal structures. © 2010 by the Biophysical Society.

Riessen H.P.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2012

Inducible defences are advantageous because they protect the prey while limiting associated fitness costs. The presence of these costs is an essential component of this conditional strategy, since their absence would favour constitutive (fixed) defences. In some cases, however, these costs have been difficult to measure because of complex interactions between the defences themselves, resultant life history changes and the organism's environment. The pond-dwelling water flea, Daphnia pulex, forms defensive neck spines in response to kairomones released by predatory larvae of the phantom midge, Chaoborus. This predator-prey interaction and the formation of these inducible defences have been well studied, but costs associated with the development of neck spines remain unclear. In this study, I address this problem by analysing the effect of Chaoborus kairomones on the life history responses (and fitness costs associated with these responses) of two clones of D. pulex that are from the same pond population, but differ greatly in their degree of neck spine development. Both D. pulex clones exhibited the same predator-induced shifts in life history: larger size at birth, reduced juvenile growth rate (producing a smaller size at maturity), delayed reproduction and a reduction in the number of neonates produced after the first clutch. Relative fitness decreased significantly and to the same degree (c. 10% reduction in r) in each clone. This observed fitness cost was not directly related to the neck spines per se since the cost was the same in both clones, despite their considerable differences in neck spine development. Rather, it appears to be indirectly related to this antipredator morphology via a combination of delayed reproduction and a set of life history trade-offs (decreased growth rate, decreased reproduction after the first clutch) for increased neonate body size, which is necessary for neck spines to be effective defences. This suite of induced responses is probably a result of local adaptation of these two D. pulex clones to their common pond environment. Costs of inducible defences do not always entail direct allocation costs associated with forming and maintaining a defence, but may also involve indirect life history responses that are specific to particular environmental situations. This local adaptation would explain the highly variable life history responses observed among D. pulex clones from different pond environments. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Grzelak E.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Errington J.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Langmuir | Year: 2010

We examine the extent to which nanoscale geometric substrate roughness influences the contact angle droplets establish on solid surfaces. Free-energy-based Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to compute contact angles and interfacial tensions of a model Lennard-Jones fluid on substrates with regular one-dimensional heterogeneities characterized by amplitudes and periodicities in the 2′25 nm range. We focus on a relatively strong surface that facilitates the formation of Wenzel droplets. Our results enable us to probe the validity of Wenzel's model at these length scales. We find that the aforementioned model predicts the evolution of the contact angle with near-quantitative accuracy over a wide range of amplitudes for substrates with periodicities larger than approximately 20 fluid diameters, or 10 nm for an argon-like system. However, below this length scale the Wenzel model provides progressively poorer estimates of the contact angle as the periodicity of the substrate features decreases. At these relatively small length scales, the Wenzel model overestimates the influence of roughness. To complete our analysis, we introduce a means to overcome sampling difficulties that arise at intermediate densities during grand canonical simulation. Specifically, we describe a two-step process that enables us to access the free energy of a system containing a thick liquid film in contact with the substrate. The process involves high-temperature grand canonical simulation followed by temperature-expanded ensemble simulation at relatively high surface density. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Xu C.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Corso J.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition | Year: 2012

Supervoxel segmentation has strong potential to be incorporated into early video analysis as superpixel segmentation has in image analysis. However, there are many plausible supervoxel methods and little understanding as to when and where each is most appropriate. Indeed, we are not aware of a single comparative study on supervoxel segmentation. To that end, we study five supervoxel algorithms in the context of what we consider to be a good supervoxel: namely, spatiotemporal uniformity, object/region boundary detection, region compression and parsimony. For the evaluation we propose a comprehensive suite of 3D volumetric quality metrics to measure these desirable supervoxel characteristics. We use three benchmark video data sets with a variety of content-types and varying amounts of human annotations. Our findings have led us to conclusive evidence that the hierarchical graph-based and segmentation by weighted aggregation methods perform best and almost equally-well on nearly all the metrics and are the methods of choice given our proposed assumptions. © 2012 IEEE.

Zhao H.,University of Alberta | Su W.,State University of New York at Buffalo
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2010

The popularity of multimedia multicast/broadcast applications over wireless networks makes it critical to address the error-prone, heterogeneous and dynamically changing nature of wireless channels. A promising solution to combat channel fading is to explore the cooperative diversity in which users may help each other forward packets. This paper investigates cooperative multicast schemes that use a maximal ratio combiner to enhance the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and provides a thorough performance analysis. Two relay selection schemes are considered: the distributed and the genie-aided cooperation schemes. We derive the closed-form formulation and the approximations of their average outage probabilities.We also analyze the optimal power allocation and relay location strategies, and show that allocating half of the total transmission power to the source minimizes the average outage probability. Our analysis and simulation results show that cooperative multicast gives better performance when more relays help forward signals. Cooperative multicast helps achieve diversity order 2, and user cooperation can significantly reduce the outage probability, especially in the high SNR region. Finally, we compare the two cooperation strategies, and show that distributed cooperative multicast is preferred since it achieves a lower outage probability without introducing extra overhead for control messages. © 2010 IEEE.

Wardell J.D.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Read J.P.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2013

Social learning mechanisms, such as descriptive norms for drinking behavior (norms) and positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs), play a major role in college student alcohol use. According to the principle of reciprocal determinism (Bandura, 1977), norms and PAEs should be reciprocally associated with alcohol use, each influencing one another over time. However, the nature of these prospective relationships for college students is in need of further investigation. This study provided the first examination of the unique reciprocal associations among norms, PAEs, and drinking together in a single model. PAEs become more stable with age, whereas norms are likely to be more dynamic upon college entry. Thus, we hypothesized that alcohol use would show stronger reciprocal associations with norms than with PAEs for college students. Students (N = 557; 67% women) completed online measures of PAEs, norms, and quantity and frequency of alcohol use in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. Reciprocal associations were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel design. PAEs had unidirectional influences on frequency and quantity of alcohol use, with no prospective effects from alcohol use to PAEs. Reciprocal associations were observed between norms and alcohol use, but only for quantity and not for frequency. Specifically, drinking quantity prospectively predicted quantity norms and quantity norms prospectively predicted drinking quantity. This effect was observed across both years in the model. These findings support the reciprocal determinism hypothesis for norms but not for PAEs in college students and may help to inform norm-based interventions. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

Gupta S.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Auerbach A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2011

The temperature dependence of agonist binding and channel gating were measured for wild-type adult neuromuscular acetylcholine receptors activated by acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, or choline. With acetylcholine, temperature changed the gating rate constants (Q 10 ≈ 3.2) but had almost no effect on the equilibrium constant. The enthalpy change associated with gating was agonist-dependent, but for all three ligands it was approximately equal to the corresponding free-energy change. The equilibrium dissociation constant of the resting conformation (K d), the slope of the rate-equilibrium free-energy relationship (Φ), and the acetylcholine association and dissociation rate constants were approximately temperature-independent. In the mutant αG153S, the choline association and dissociation rate constants were temperature-dependent (Q 10 ≈ 7.4) but K d was not. By combining two independent mutations, we were able to compensate for the catalytic effect of temperature on the decay time constant of a synaptic current. At mouse body temperature, the channel-opening and-closing rate constants are ∼400 and 16 ms∼ -1. We hypothesize that the agonist dependence of the gating enthalpy change is associated with differences in ligand binding, specifically to the open-channel conformation of the protein. © 2011 by the Biophysical Society.

Smith J.D.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Psychonomic Bulletin and Review | Year: 2014

The article explores-from a utility/adaptation perspective-the role of prototype and exemplar processes in categorization. The author surveys important category tasks within the categorization literature from the perspective of the optimality of applying prototype and exemplar processes. Formal simulations reveal that organisms will often (not always!) receive more useful signals about category belongingness if they average their exemplar experience into a prototype and use this as the comparative standard for categorization. This survey then provides the theoretical context for considering the evolution of cognitive systems for categorization. In the article's final sections, the author reviews recent research on the performance of nonhuman primates and humans in the tasks analyzed in the article. Diverse species share operating principles, default commitments, and processing weaknesses in categorization. From these commonalities, it may be possible to infer some properties of the categorization ecology these species generally experienced during cognitive evolution. © 2013 Psychonomic Society, Inc.

Srihari S.N.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Proceedings of the International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, ICDAR | Year: 2011

Identifying unusual or unique characteristics of an observed sample in useful in forensics in general and handwriting analysis in particular. Rarity is formulated as the probability of letter formations characterized by a set of features. Modeling the distribution as a probabilistic graphical model several probabilities are inferred: the probability of random correspondence (PRC) as a measure of the discriminatory power of the characteristics, conditional PRC associated with a given sample and the probability of finding a similar one within tolerance in a database of given size. Using the most commonly occurring letter pair "th" and characteristics specified by questioned document examiners, the highest probability formation and low probability formations in a database are determined. Computational issues in scaling the methods are discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

Autic I.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Dery H.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Nature Materials | Year: 2011

Versatile room-temperature control of spin currents without a net charge flow is making new inroads into the new methods to transfer and process information. Researchers chose spin pumping as an effective alternative way to generate spin currents. The spin and orbital motion are not independent and are coupled because the electron spin interacts with a relativistic magnetic field. Although the average speed of electrons is modest, individually they can move at relativistic speeds while they are scattered through the crystal that produces the spin-orbit coupling. The spin-orbit coupling leads to asymmetry in scattering exhibiting that the opposite spins moving in opposite directions are deflected towards the same edge of the region. As a result, the spin current yields a charge imbalance measured by a voltage. The spin-orbit coupling in a ferromagnet usually makes its lattice an efficient sink for the angular momentum carried by magnons.

Kuo S.-M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Advances in Nutrition | Year: 2013

Fiber intake is critical for optimal health. This review covers the anti-inflammatory roles of fibers using results from human epidemiological observations, clinical trials, and animal studies. Fiber has body weight-related anti-inflammatory activity. With its lower energy density, a diet high in fiber has been linked to lower body weight, alleviating obesity-induced chronic inflammation evidenced by reduced amounts of inflammatory markers in human and animal studies. Body weight-unrelated anti-inflammatory activity of fiber has also been extensively studied in animal models in which the type and amount of fiber intake can be closely monitored. Fermentable fructose-, glucose-, and galactose-based fibers as well as mixed fibers have shown systemic and local intestinal anti-inflammatory activities when plasma inflammatory markers and tissue inflammation were examined. Similar anti-inflammatory activities have also been demonstrated in some human studies that controlled total fiber intake. The anti-inflammatory activities of synbiotics (probiotics plus fiber) were reviewed as well, but there was no convincing evidence indicating higher efficacy of synbiotics compared with that of fiber alone. Adverse effects have not been observed with the amount of fiber intake or supplementation used in studies, although patients with Crohn's disease may be more sensitive to inulin intake. Several possible mechanisms that may mediate the body weight-unrelated anti-inflammatory activity of fibers are discussed based on the in vitro and in vivo evidence. Fermentable fibers are known to affect the intestinal microbiome. The immunomodulatory role of the intestinal microbiome and/or microbial metabolites could contribute to the systemic and local anti-inflammatory activities of fibers. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.

Yong K.-T.,Nanyang Technological University | Law W.-C.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Hu R.,Nanyang Technological University | Ye L.,Chinese PLA General Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

Tremendous research efforts have been devoted to fabricating high quality quantum dots (QDs) for applications in biology and medicine. Much of this research was pursued with an ultimate goal of using QDs in clinical applications. However, a great deal of concern has been voiced about the potential hazards of QDs due to their heavy-metal content. Many studies have demonstrated toxicity of various QDs in cell culture studies. However, in a smaller number of studies using small animal models (mice and rats), no abnormal behaviour or tissue damage was noticed over periods of months after the systemic administration of QDs. Nevertheless, the correlation of these results with the potential for negative effects of QD on humans remains unclear. Many urgent questions must be answered before the QDs community moves into the clinical research phase. This review provides an overview of the toxicity assessment of QDs, ranging from cell culture studies to animal models and discusses their findings. Guidelines for using various nonhuman primate models for QD toxicity studies are highlighted. This review article is intended to promote the awareness of current developments of QD applications in biology, the potential toxicity of QDs, and approaches to minimizing toxicity. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Pihlblad M.S.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Schaefer D.P.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Cornea | Year: 2013

Purpose: The association between floppy eyelid syndrome and keratoconus (KCN) has been well established, but the converse relationship has not yet been examined and is the objective of this study. The study also investigates the prevalence of obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in KCN patients. Methods: A prospective case-control study of KCN patients with age-, sex-, race-, and body mass index-matched controls was conducted at the Ross Eye Institute, Buffalo, NY. Fifteen patients were enrolled in each group. Extensive eyelid laxity measurements were performed on both groups. Complete medical/ophthalmic history and Epworth Sleepiness Scales were completed on 50 KCN patients and were compared with the normal population. Results: Increased eyelid measurements of the vertical lid pull, lower lid pull, medial canthal tendon distraction, and palpebral width were found in the KCN group compared with the matched control group (P = 0.001, 0.005, 0.04, and 0.01, respectively), and a more rubbery tarsus (P = 0.03), increased corneal diameter (P = 0.02), and increased exophthalmometry measurements (P = 0.01) were also found. The prevalence of OSA (24%, 14/50) and obesity (52%, 26/50) were higher in the KCN patients versus the normal population. Conclusions: KCN patients have increased laxity to their eyelids, along with a more rubbery tarsus, which may be along the spectrum of floppy eyelid syndrome. KCN patients had a high prevalence of OSA and obesity. The high prevalence of OSA in KCN patients is an important association that carries an increased risk of death from any cause and stroke. © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Poulin M.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Health Psychology | Year: 2014

Objective: The purpose of these studies was to examine the role of positive views of other people in predicting stress-buffering effects of volunteering on mortality and psychological distress. Method: In Study 1, stressful life events, volunteering, and hostile cynicism assessed in a baseline Detroit-area survey (N = 846) predicted survival over a 5-year period, adjusting for relevant covariates. In Study 2, stressful life events, volunteering, and world benevolence beliefs assessed in a baseline national survey (N = 1,157) predicted psychological distress over a 1-year period, adjusting for distress at baseline. Results: In Study 1, a Cox proportional hazard model indicated that for individuals low in cynicism, stress predicted mortality at low levels of volunteering but not at high levels of volunteering. This effect was not present among those high in cynicism. In Study 2, multiple regression analysis revealed that among individuals high in world benevolence beliefs, stress predicted elevated distress at low levels of volunteering but not at high levels of volunteering. This effect was absent for those lower in world benevolence beliefs. Conclusions: Consistent with prior research on helping behavior, these studies indicate that helping behavior can buffer the effects of stress on health. However, the results of these studies indicate that stress-buffering effects of volunteering are limited to individuals with positive views of other people. Not all individuals may benefit from volunteering, and health-promotion efforts seeking to draw on health benefits of helping behavior may need to target their approach accordingly. © 2013 American Psychological Association.

A new hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) clinical variant of Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) has emerged over the last decade. Our goal is to identify new mechanisms, which increase the virulence hvKP. It has been shown that hvKP strains produce more biofilm than "classical" stains of K. pneumoniae, therefore we hypothesized that biofilm formation may contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic infection. To test this hypothesis, transposon mutants of the model pathogen hvKP1 were generated and screened for decreased production of biofilm. Three mutant constructs with disruptions in glnA [putatively encodes glutamine synthetase, hvKP1 glnA:: EZ::TN < KAN-2 > (glnA::Tn)], sucD [putatively encodes succinyl-CoA synthase α subunit, hvKP1 sucD:: EZ::TN < KAN-2 > (sucD::Tn)], and tag [putatively encodes transcriptional antiterminator of glycerol uptake operon, hvKP1 tag:: EZ::TN < KAN-2 > (tag::Tn)] were chosen for further characterization and use in biologic studies. Quantitative assays performed in rich laboratory medium and human ascites confirmed the phenotype and a hypermucoviscosity assay established that capsule production was not affected. However, compared with its wild-type parent, neither planktonic cells nor biofilms of glnA::Tn, sucD::Tn and tag::Tn displayed a change to the bactericidal activity of 90% human serum. Likewise, when assessed in a rat subcutaneous abscess model, the growth and survival of glnA::Tn, sucD::Tn and tag::Tn in abscess fluid was similar to hvKP1. In this report we identify three new genes that contribute to biofilm formation in hvKP1. However, decreased biofilm production due to disruption of these genes does not affect the sensitivity of these mutant constructs to 90% human serum when in planktonic form or within a biofilm. Further, their virulence in an in vivo abscess model was unaffected.

Jornet J.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Akyildiz I.F.,Georgia Institute of Technology
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2013

Nanonetworks, i.e., networks of nano-sized devices, are the enabling technology of long-awaited applications in the biological, industrial and military fields. For the time being, the size and power constraints of nano-devices limit the applicability of classical wireless communication in nanonetworks. Alternatively, nanomaterials can be used to enable electromagnetic (EM) communication among nano-devices. In this paper, a novel graphene-based nano-antenna, which exploits the behavior of Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) waves in semi-finite size Graphene Nanoribbons (GNRs), is proposed, modeled and analyzed. First, the conductivity of GNRs is analytically and numerically studied by starting from the Kubo formalism to capture the impact of the electron lateral confinement in GNRs. Second, the propagation of SPP waves in GNRs is analytically and numerically investigated, and the SPP wave vector and propagation length are computed. Finally, the nano-antenna is modeled as a resonant plasmonic cavity, and its frequency response is determined. The results show that, by exploiting the high mode compression factor of SPP waves in GNRs, graphene-based plasmonic nano-antennas are able to operate at much lower frequencies than their metallic counterparts, e.g., the Terahertz Band for a one-micrometer-long ten-nanometers-wide antenna. This result has the potential to enable EM communication in nanonetworks. © 1983-2012 IEEE.

Amyes T.L.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Richard J.P.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Linus Pauling proposed that the large rate accelerations for enzymes are caused by the high specificity of the protein catalyst for binding the reaction transition state. The observation that stable analogues of the transition states for enzymatic reactions often act as tight-binding inhibitors provided early support for this simple and elegant proposal. We review experimental results that support the proposal that Pauling's model provides a satisfactory explanation for the rate accelerations for many heterolytic enzymatic reactions through high-energy reaction intermediates, such as proton transfer and decarboxylation. Specificity in transition state binding is obtained when the total intrinsic binding energy of the substrate is significantly larger than the binding energy observed at the Michaelis complex. The results of recent studies that aimed to characterize the specificity in binding of the enolate oxygen at the transition state for the 1,3-isomerization reaction catalyzed by ketosteroid isomerase are reviewed. Interactions between pig heart succinyl-coenzyme A:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase (SCOT) and the nonreacting portions of coenzyme A (CoA) are responsible for a rate increase of 3 × 10 12-fold, which is close to the estimated total 5 × 10 13-fold enzymatic rate acceleration. Studies that partition the interactions between SCOT and CoA into their contributing parts are reviewed. Interactions of the protein with the substrate phosphodianion group provide an ∼12 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for the reactions catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase, orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase, and α-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase. The interactions of these enzymes with the substrate piece phosphite dianion provide a 6-8 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for reaction of the appropriate truncated substrate. Enzyme activation by phosphite dianion reflects the higher dianion affinity for binding to the enzyme-transition state complex compared with that of the free enzyme. Evidence is presented that supports a model in which the binding energy of the phosphite dianion piece, or the phosphodianion group of the whole substrate, is utilized to drive an enzyme conformational change from an inactive open form EO to an active closed form EC, by closure of a phosphodianion gripper loop. Members of the enolase and haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase superfamilies use variable capping domains to interact with nonreacting portions of the substrate and sequester the substrate from interaction with bulk solvent. Interactions of this capping domain with the phenyl group of mandelate have been shown to activate mandelate racemase for catalysis of deprotonation of α-carbonyl carbon. We propose that an important function of these capping domains is to utilize the binding interactions with nonreacting portions of the substrate to activate the enzyme for catalysis. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Liu B.,University of Science and Technology of China | Yan Z.,University of Science and Technology of China | Chen C.,State University of New York at Buffalo
IEEE Wireless Communications | Year: 2013

Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) is a promising low power technology that enables the communications between body area sensor nodes and a central coordinator. It targets at many applications in e-Health services. In WBAN, different data sources generate time-varying traffic. Large traffic volume may result in intolerant latency and thus it is extremely important that the most significant data can always be delivered in a real-time fashion. Besides, data transmission may suffer from deep fading and packets loss due to the dynamic on-body channel induced by movements and surrounding environment. Hence, energy-efficient medium access control (MAC) is crucially needed to allocate transmission bandwidth and to ensure reliable transmission considering WBAN contexts, i.e., time-varying human and environment conditions. To improve both efficiency and reliability, we investigate the challenges in the development of WBAN MAC design. Furthermore, based on the traffic nature and channel status, we introduce a context-aware MAC protocol to meet time-varying requirements of WBAN. We have demonstrated that the proposed protocol is able to reduce latency, energy consumption, and packet loss rate, as well as to achieve a reasonable trade-off between efficiency and reliability. © 2013 IEEE.

Crane C.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Testa M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Emotion (Washington, D.C.) | Year: 2014

Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate-partner aggression (IPA) using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner-aggression perpetration among participating men and women, as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both actor and partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among both women who reported high levels of anger and men, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive women. Previously aggressive men and women consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high levels of actors' anger experiences. Results emphasize the importance of both actor and partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

Baxter J.C.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Sutton M.D.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2012

The ATP-bound form of the Escherichia coli DnaA protein binds 'DnaA boxes' present in the origin of replication (oriC) and operator sites of several genes, including dnaA, to co-ordinate their transcription with initiation of replication. The Hda protein, together with the β sliding clamp, stimulates the ATPase activity of DnaA via a process termed regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA), to regulate the activity of DnaA in DNA replication. Here, we used the mutant dnaN159 strain, which expresses the β159 clamp protein, to gain insight into how the actions of Hda are co-ordinated with replication. Elevated expression of Hda impeded growth of the dnaN159 strain in a Pol II- and Pol IV-dependent manner, suggesting a role for Hda managing the actions of these Pols. In a wild-type strain, elevated levels of Hda conferred sensitivity to nitrofurazone, and suppressed the frequency of -1 frameshift mutations characteristic of Pol IV, while loss of hda conferred cold sensitivity. Using the dnaN159 strain, we identified 24 novel hda alleles, four of which supported E.coli viability despite their RIDA defect. Taken together, these findings suggest that although one or more Hda functions are essential for cell viability, RIDA may be dispensable. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Raines D.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
International journal of nursing education scholarship | Year: 2013

This retrospective study explores the work activities of graduates from an accelerated, second-degree BSN program. There is documented growth in the number of accelerated, second-degree programs and the number of graduates from these programs. However, there are no published studies of whether or not these graduates are members of the workforce 5 years following graduation. This retrospective study found that the majority of the graduates are employed in nursing, and a large percentage have earned or are pursuing advanced degrees in nursing.

Leo R.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Dewani S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Sexual Medicine | Year: 2013

Introduction. Antidepressants have often been recommended as a potential treatment for the management of vulvodynia. However, review of the evidence supporting this recommendation has not been systematically assessed. Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of antidepressant pharmacotherapy in the treatment of vulvodynia. Main Outcome Measures. An assessment of the methodological quality of published reports addressing the utility of antidepressants in the treatment of vulvodynia was undertaken. Several secondary outcomes generated in the existing literature were also examined. Methods. A comprehensive search of the available literature was conducted. Results. The search yielded 13 published reports, i.e., 2 randomized controlled trials, 1 quasi-experimental trial, 7 non-experimental studies, and 3 case reports. A number of methodological shortcomings were identified in several of the reports with respect to study design including lack of clear inclusion/exclusion criteria, small sample sizes, lack of comparison groups, insufficient blinding, among others. The vast majority of studies utilized tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). Evidence supporting the benefits of TCAs studied to date was limited, i.e., based largely upon descriptive reports but unsubstantiated by randomized controlled trials. There were no systematic investigations into the comparative efficacy of different antidepressant classes in the treatment of vulvodynia. Conclusion. There is insufficient evidence to support the recommendation of antidepressant pharmacotherapy in the treatment of vulvodynia. Although some vulvodynia-afflicted patients derive symptom relief from antidepressants, additional research is required to identify those characteristics that would predict those patients for whom antidepressants are more likely to be effective. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

Zhang X.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Chomicki J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Proceedings - International Conference on Data Engineering | Year: 2011

We propose a logic + SQL framework for set preferences. Candidate best sets are represented using profiles consisting of scalar features. This reduces set preferences to tuple preferences over set profiles. We propose two optimization techniques: superpreference and M-relation. Superpreference targets dominated profiles. It reduces the input size by filtering out tuples not belonging to any best k-subset. M-relation targets repeated profiles. It consolidates tuples that are exchangeable with regard to the given set preference, and therefore avoids redundant computation of the same profile. We show the results of an experimental study that demonstrates the efficacy of the optimizations. © 2011 IEEE.

Leo R.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Sexual Medicine | Year: 2013

Introduction: Anticonvulsants have increasingly been invoked in the treatment of vulvodynia. However, the evidence supporting this treatment approach has not been systematically assessed. Aim: The study aims to evaluate the efficacy of anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy in the treatment of vulvodynia. Methods: A comprehensive search of the available literature was conducted. Main Outcome Measure: An assessment of the methodological quality of published reports addressing the utility of anticonvulsants in the treatment of vulvodynia was undertaken. Results: The search yielded nine published reports, i.e., one open-label trial, six nonexperimental studies, and two case reports. A number of methodological shortcomings were identified in several of the reports with respect to study design, including small sample sizes, lack of placebo or other comparison groups, inadequate outcome measures, among others. The vast majority of studies employed gabapentin. Evidence supporting the benefit of anticonvulsants studied to date was limited, i.e., based predominantly upon descriptive/observational reports. There were no systematic investigations into the comparative efficacy of different anticonvulsant agents in the treatment of vulvodynia. Conclusion: Although some vulvodynia-afflicted patients derive symptom relief from anticonvulsants, there is, as yet, insufficient evidence to support the recommendation of anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy in the treatment of vulvodynia. Additional investigations, employing randomized controlled trials, are warranted. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

Poltis R.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Stojkovic D.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

The decay of nontopological electroweak strings may leave an observable imprint in the Universe today in the form of primordial magnetic fields. Protogalaxies preferentially tend to form with their axis of rotation parallel to an external magnetic field, and, moreover, an external magnetic field produces torque which tends to align the galaxy axis with the magnetic field. We demonstrate that the shape of a magnetic field left over from two looped electroweak strings can explain the observed nontrivial alignment of quasar polarization vectors and make predictions for future observations. ©2010 The American Physical Society.

Zurek E.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Grochala W.,University of Warsaw
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2015

Experimental studies of compressed matter are now routinely conducted at pressures exceeding 1 mln atm (100 GPa) and occasionally at pressures greater than 10 mln atm (1 TPa). The structure and properties of solids that have been so significantly squeezed differ considerably from those of solids at ambient pressure (1 atm), often leading to new and unexpected physics. Chemical reactivity is also substantially altered in the extreme pressure regime. In this feature paper we describe how synergy between theory and experiment can pave the road towards new experimental discoveries. Because chemical rules-of-thumb established at 1 atm often fail to predict the structures of solids under high pressure, automated crystal structure prediction (CSP) methods are increasingly employed. After outlining the most important CSP techniques, we showcase a few examples from the recent literature that exemplify just how useful theory can be as an aid in the interpretation of experimental data, describe exciting theoretical predictions that are guiding experiment, and discuss when the computational methods that are currently routinely employed fail. Finally, we forecast important problems that will be targeted by theory as theoretical methods undergo rapid development, along with the simultaneous increase of computational power. © the Owner Societies 2015.

Proctor D.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2013

This study quantifies the proximal articular surface shape of metatarsal (MT) 4 and MT 5 using three-dimensional morphometrics. Humans and apes are compared to test whether they have significantly different shapes that are skeletal correlates to comparative lateral foot function. In addition, shod and unshod humans are compared to test for significant differences in surface shape. The MT 4 fossils OH 8, Stw 628, and AL 333-160, and the MT 5 fossils AL 333-13, AL 333-78, OH 8, and Stw 114/115 are compared with humans and apes to assess whether they bear greater similarities to humans, which would imply a relatively stable lateral foot, or to apes, which would imply a flexible foot with a midfoot break. Apes have a convex curved MT 4 surface, and humans have a flat surface. The MT 4 fossils show greater similarity to unshod humans, suggesting a stable lateral foot. Unshod humans have a relatively flatter MT 4 surface compared with shod humans. There is much overlap in MT 5 shape between humans and apes, with more similarity between humans and Gorilla. The fossil MT 5 surfaces are generally flat, most similar to humans and Gorilla. Because of the high degree of shape overlap between humans and apes, one must use caution in interpreting lateral foot function from the proximal MT 5 surface alone. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Nasief N.N.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Hangauer D.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

The thermodynamic consequences of systematic modifications in a ligand side chain that binds in a shallow hydrophobic pocket, in the presence and absence of a neighboring ligand carboxylate group, were evaluated using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Data revealed that the carboxylate significantly changes the relative thermodynamic signatures of these modifications, likely via altering the H-bonding/organization status of the hydration waters both in the unbound and the bound states. This carboxylate group was found to be proenthalpic, antientropic in some cases, and antienthalpic, proentropic in others. A remarkable enthalpy-entropy compensation relationship was also observed, reflecting the fact that the hydrophobic effect is governed by the thermodynamic status of the associated aqueous environment. This study could improve our understanding of the hydrophobic effect and may enhance our ability to design potent ligands that are capable of modulating biological processes. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Bolton J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Rzayev J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Macromolecules | Year: 2014

Polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate)-polylactide (PS-PMMA-PLA) triblock bottlebrush copolymer with nearly symmetric volume fractions was synthesized by grafting from a symmetrical triblock backbone and the resulting melt was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. The copolymer backbone was prepared by sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of solketal methacrylate (SM), 2-(bromoisobutyryl)ethyl methacrylate (BIEM), and 5-(trimethylsilyl)-4-pentyn-1-ol methacrylate (TPYM). PMMA branches were grafted by atom transfer radical polymerization from the poly(BIEM) segment, PS branches were grafted by RAFT polymerization from the poly(TPYM) block after installment of the RAFT agents, while PLA side chains were grafted from the deprotected poly(SM) block. The resulting copolymer was found to exhibit a lamellae morphology with a domain spacing of 79 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that PMMA was preferentially mixing with PS while phase separating from PLA domains. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Rane K.S.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Errington J.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2014

We study the liquid-vapor saturation properties of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) belonging to the homologous series 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Cnmim][NTf2]) using Monte Carlo simulation. We examine the effect of temperature and cation alkyl chain length n on the saturated densities, vapor pressures, and enthalpies of vaporization. These properties are explicitly calculated for temperatures spanning from 280 to 1000 K for RTILs with n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. We also explore how the identity of the anion influences saturation properties. Specifically, we compare results for [C4mim][NTf2] with those for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim] [BF4]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 4mim][PF6]). Simulations are completed with a recently developed realistic united-atom force field. A combination of direct grand canonical and isothermal-isobaric temperature expanded ensemble simulations are used to construct phase diagrams. Our results are compared with experimental data and Gibbs ensemble simulation data. Overall, we find good agreement between our results and those measured experimentally. We find that the vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization show a strong dependence on the size of the alkyl chain at low temperatures, whereas no particular trend is observed at high temperatures. Finally, we also discuss the effect of temperature on liquid phase nanodomains observed in RTILs with large hydrophobic groups. We do not observe a drastic change in liquid phase structure upon variation of the temperature, which suggests there is not a sharp phase transition between a nanostructured and homogeneous liquid, as has been suggested in earlier studies. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Andolina C.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Morrow J.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2011

Dinuclear lanthanide(III) complexes of the macrocycles 1,4-bis[1-4,7,10- tris(carbamoylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane]-m-xylene (1) and 1,3-bis[1-4,7,10-tris(carbamoylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane]-p-xylene (2) with LnIII = EuIII, TbIII were prepared. Studies using direct excitation (7F0 → 5D0) europium(III) luminescence spectroscopy show that several anions including phosphate, methylphosphate, double-stranded DNA, a DNA hairpin loop, and fluoride bind to both EuIII centers in Eu 2(1) in solutions at pH 7.0, 0.100 M NaNO3. Recovered luminescence lifetime data is consistent with replacement of water ligands by these anions. There are distinct changes in the relative intensities of Eu III emission peaks for complexes of Eu2(1) and Eu 2(2) with phosphate, fluoride, carbonate, and phosphate ester ligands. This suggests that the EuIII dinuclear complexes show promise as ratiometric sensors for these anions. In contrast, the emission peak ratios for the Tb2(1) and Tb2(2) complex show a lower response upon binding of each anionic ligand. Luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) studies with mixed EuIII/NdIII complexes show that the phosphate complexes of Ln2(1) or Ln2(2) both have LnIII-LnIII internuclear distances of 7.7±0.9 Å and the methylphosphate complexes of Ln2(1) and Ln 2(2) have internuclear distances of 7.8±0.6 and 8.0±0.7 Å, respectively. LRET experiments also show the two lanthanide ion centers in Ln2(2) are 8.4±0.5 Å apart when bound to GC rich duplex DNA. None of the other anions (carbonate, fluoride, DNA hairpins) form complexes that show measurable energy transfer between the lanthanide ions, which is consistent with intranuclear distances >8 Å. Dinuclear EuIII or TbIII complexes bind to a series of biologically relevant anions with concomitant loss of water ligands. Anion binding induces characteristic changes in emission peak intensities for EuIII analogs. A few anions promote luminescence resonance energy transfer between EuIII and NdIII centers. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Tekpinar M.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Zheng W.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2013

Hemoglobin (Hb), an oxygen-binding protein composed of four subunits (α1, α2, β1, and β2), is a well-known example of allosteric proteins that are capable of cooperative ligand binding. Despite decades of studies, the structural basis of its cooperativity remains controversial. In this study, we have integrated coarse-grained (CG) modeling, all-atom simulation, and structural data from X-ray crystallography and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), aiming to probe dynamic properties of the two structural states of Hb (T and R state) and the transitions between them. First, by analyzing the WAXS data of unliganded and liganded Hb, we have found that the structural ensemble of T or R state is dominated by one crystal structure of Hb with small contributions from other crystal structures of Hb. Second, we have used normal mode analysis to identify two distinct quaternary rotations between the α1β1 and α2β2 dimer, which drive the transitions between T and R state. We have also identified the hot-spot residues whose mutations are predicted to greatly change these quaternary motions. Third, we have generated a CG transition pathway between T and R state, which predicts a clear order of quaternary and tertiary changes involving α and β subunits in Hb. Fourth, we have used the accelerated molecular dynamics to perform an all-atom simulation starting from the T state of Hb, and we have observed a transition toward the R state of Hb. Further analysis of crystal structural data and the all-atom simulation trajectory has corroborated the order of quaternary and tertiary changes predicted by CG modeling. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Paderes M.C.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Chemler S.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011

A new protocol for diastereoselective copper-catalyzed intramolecular alkene aminooxygenation, which provides methyleneoxy-functionalized disubstituted pyrrolidines and five-membered cyclic ureas from the corresponding γ-alkenylsulfonamides and N-allylureas, is reported. In addition, some success was achieved in enantioselective desymmetrizations reactions. We discovered that the level of enantioselectivity and diastereoselectivity could be tuned by choice of copper(II) ligands and substrate N-substituent. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Valentine G.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research | Year: 2012

Monogenetic basaltic volcanoes record complex eruption processes and the relationships between those processes and shallow plumbing are poorly understood. This paper explores these relationships, building upon earlier studies of exposed shallow plumbing (in the upper hundreds of meters of crust) beneath volcanoes produced by magmatic eruption processes and those produced by phreatomagmatic processes, such as scoria cones and maars, respectively. Eruptive facies and xenolith abundances are described at three scoria cones and at tephra rings around two maars in the San Francisco Volcanic Field (Arizona, USA). Well-constrained subvolcanic sedimentary stratigraphy provides constraints on the depths of origin of xenoliths of different types. Sedimentary xenolith contents at scoria cones are <10 -3 and commonly <10 -4 (volume fraction of xenoliths) and are composed almost entirely of fragments from the uppermost sedimentary formation (Kaibab Formation, depth interval ~50-200m). These xenolith contents are consistent with conduits or dikes that widen mainly in the uppermost tens of meters of the crust, as observed at exposed plumbing systems of eroded scoria cones. Sedimentary xenolith contents in tephra ring deposits at one of the studied maar volcanoes also are typically <10 -3 (volume fraction) and the remaining fraction is dominated by clasts of pre-maar volcanic rocks that formed an ~50 thick surface layer over the sedimentary formations; the second studied maar has much higher xenolith contents but this also appears to be dominated by the shallowest unit. The maars' tephra ring deposits contain xenoliths from all of the major sedimentary units beneath the volcanoes (to depths of ~1200m) but the abundances and proportions of xenoliths are not consistent with the volumes of sub-volcanic units that would be disrupted assuming dimensions that are commonly observed in exposed maar plumbing systems (diatremes). These differences illustrate the different mechanisms for conduit/dike widening in magmatic versus phreatomagmatic eruptions. Namely, ascending eruptive mixtures driven by magmatic volatiles widen their relatively shallow conduits by erosion and mechanical failure of the walls and ejection of the resulting xenoliths. Maar-forming eruptions produce wide and deep diatremes mainly by mechanical disruption of country rock during many discrete magma-water explosions at varying depths in the subsurface. Deep explosions cause debris jets that may not erupt, and the disrupted country rock and juvenile material gradually churns and mixes within the diatreme. Only a small fraction of the debris is ejected from the crater by especially strong and/or shallow explosions, to form tephra ring deposits. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Hu K.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Chung D.D.L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Carbon | Year: 2011

Polyol-ester-based carbon black pastes are used to either coat or penetrate flexible graphite, thereby increasing the thermal contact conductance of flexible graphite between copper surfaces. Paste penetration by up to an effective paste thickness (the volume of the penetrated paste divided by the geometric area of the flexible graphite) of 5 μm increases the conductance by up to 350%, 98% and 36% for thicknesses of 50, 130 and 300 μm, respectively. Paste coating up to 10 μm increases the conductance by up to 200%, 120% and 65% for thicknesses of 50, 130 and 300 μm, respectively. The paste penetration is more effective than the paste coating in enhancing the conductance, when the thickness is below 130 μm. At thickness ≥130 μm, paste penetration and paste coating are similarly effective. These results stem from the relatively low interfacial thermal resistivity provided by paste penetration and the relatively high through-thickness thermal conductivity provided by paste coating. Paste penetration decreases the thermal conductivity of flexible graphite, but paste coating does not affect the conductivity. Both penetration and coating decrease the interfacial resistivity. The highest thermal contact conductance is 1.4 × 105 W/m2 K, as provided by paste-penetrated flexible graphite of thickness 26 μm. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rosch K.S.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Hawk L.W.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Psychophysiology | Year: 2013

Rewards have been shown to improve behavior and cognitive processes implicated in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the information-processing mechanisms by which these improvements occur remain unclear. We examined the effect of performance-based rewards on ERPs related to processing of the primary task stimuli, errors, and feedback in children with ADHD and typically developing controls. Participants completed a flanker task containing blocks with and without performance-based rewards. Children with ADHD showed reduced amplitude of ERPs associated with processing of the flanker stimuli (P3) and errors (ERN, Pe), but did not differ in feedback-processing (FRN). Rewards enhanced flanker-related P3 amplitude similarly across groups and error-related Pe amplitude differentially for children with ADHD. These findings suggest that rewards may improve cognitive deficits in children with ADHD through enhanced processing of relevant stimuli and increased error evaluation. © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

Dey-Rao R.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Sinha A.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Genomics | Year: 2015

Major gaps remain regarding pathogenetic mechanisms underlying clinical heterogeneity in lupus erythematosus (LE). As systemic changes are likely to underlie skin specific manifestation, we analyzed global gene expression in peripheral blood of a small cohort of chronic cutaneous LE (CCLE) patients and healthy individuals. Unbiased hierarchical clustering distinguished patients from controls revealing a "disease" based signature. Functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) highlight enrichment of interferon related immune response and apoptosis signatures, along with other key pathways. There is a 26% overlap of the blood and lesional skin transcriptional profile from a previous analysis by our group. We identified four transcriptional "hot spots" at chromosomal regions harboring statistically increased numbers of DEGs which offer prioritized potential loci for downstream fine mapping studies in the search for CCLE specific susceptibility loci. Additionally, we uncover evidence to support both shared and distinct mechanisms for cutaneous and systemic manifestations of lupus. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Guttuso Jr. T.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Maturitas | Year: 2013

Stellate ganglion block (SGB) has been used for over 70 years to treat various cervical pain syndromes. Over the past 8 years, 4 different groups have reported on SGB's effects on hot flashes from unblinded, open-label trials. Review of these studies has shown markedly disparate results in terms of the magnitude of hot flash reduction from Baseline with one trial showing a 90% reduction in hot flashes and 3 other trials showing 28-44% reductions in hot flashes. The inconsistencies in these results in addition to the known potentially large (>50%) placebo effects that can occur in randomized controlled hot flash clinical trials make it difficult to render any conclusions regarding the efficacy of SGB for hot flashes at this time. A randomized controlled trial, including a sham saline treatment arm, needs to be performed to properly assess SGB's effects on hot flashes, Methodological challenges with such a study design are addressed and several suggestions are proposed to manage these challenges. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Richard J.P.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyzes the stereospecific 1,2-proton shift at dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to give (R)-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate through a pair of isomeric enzyme-bound cis-enediolate phosphate intermediates. The chemical transformations that occur at the active site of TIM were well understood by the early 1990s. The mechanism for enzyme-catalyzed isomerization is similar to that for the nonenzymatic reaction in water, but the origin of the catalytic rate acceleration is not understood. We review the results of experimental work that show that a substantial fraction of the large 12 kcal/mol intrinsic binding energy of the nonreacting phosphodianion fragment of TIM is utilized to activate the active site side chains for catalysis of proton transfer. Evidence is presented that this activation is due to a phosphodianion-driven conformational change, the most dramatic feature of which is closure of loop 6 over the dianion. The kinetic data are interpreted within the framework of a model in which activation is due to the stabilization by the phosphodianion of a rare, desolvated, loop-closed form of TIM. The dianion binding energy is proposed to drive the otherwise thermodynamically unfavorable desolvation of the solvent-exposed active site. This reduces the effective local dielectric constant of the active site, to enhance stabilizing electrostatic interactions between polar groups and the anionic transition state, and increases the basicity of the carboxylate side chain of Glu-165 that functions to deprotonate the bound carbon acid substrate. A rebuttal is presented to the recent proposal [Samanta, M., Murthy, M. R. N., Balaram, H., and Balaram, P. (2011) ChemBioChem 12, 1886-1895] that the cationic side chain of K12 functions as an active site electrophile to protonate the carbonyl oxygen of DHAP. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

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