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Buffalo, NY, United States

Founded in 1887, SUNY Buffalo Law School, the State University of New York is a graduate professional school at the University at Buffalo. It is part of the State University of New York system and is the SUNY system's only law school. U.S. News & World Report ranks the University at Buffalo Law School 100th in the nation for 2014. However, many lesser known sites rank the Law School much higher. The University at Buffalo Law School is No. 1 in Thomson Reuter's "Super Lawyers" ranking of law graduates practicing in Upstate New York, which includes 54 of the 62 counties in New York State. This is in addition to the UB Law School's 2010 national ranking, where it placed 48th out of the 180 law schools in the country that produced Super Lawyers, a measure which examines "twelve indicators of professional achievement". Also, Malcolm Gladwell, in the New Yorker Magazine, devised a formula that ranks UB within the top 50 whereas Reuters ranks UB Law as 48th overall in the nation.According to SUNY Buffalo Law School's 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 60.5% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation. Wikipedia.


This work introduces a novel, facile and straightforward approach to produce cyclic-RGD-peptide-conjugated type II CdTe/CdS quantum dot (QD) formulation for pancreatic tumor targeting and imaging in live animals. The ultra-small QDs were prepared by a hot colloidal synthesis method. Phospholipid micelles were then used to encapsulate the QDs, allowing them to be stably dispersed in biological fluids and able to conjugate with cyclic-RGD peptides. The QD complex had shown low cytotoxicity on Panc-1 human pancreatic cancer cell lines. In addition, the tissue sections and biodistribution of QD complexes were imaged and analyzed in mice bearing pancreatic tumor xenografts, confirming specific tumor targeting. These studies support further evaluation of type II QDs as potential probes for early pancreatic cancer assessment and detection. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP. Source


Rideout T.C.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Current Opinion in Lipidology | Year: 2011

Purpose of review: There is substantial interindividual variation in the response of blood lipids to dietary therapies. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent developments in identifying patient-specific factors that contribute to the significant heterogeneity of responsiveness in lipids to dietary changes and consumption of dietary bioactive compounds. Recent findings: Recent findings suggest that a variety of patient-specific physiological, pathological, environmental, and genetic factors influence the effectiveness of dietary lipid-lowering therapies. Summary: Although genetic markers of responsiveness will revolutionize future personalized nutrition therapies, current research priorities should emphasize the identification of readily accessible metabolic biomarkers of responsiveness in patient subgroups. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Ruyechan W.T.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2010

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the causative agent of chickenpox and shingles. During productive infection the complete VZV proteome consisting of some 68 unique gene products is expressed through interaction of a small number of viral transcriptional activators with the general transcription apparatus of the host cell. Recent work has shown that the major viral transactivator, commonly designated the IE62 protein, interacts with the human Mediator of transcription. This interaction requires direct contact between the MED25 subunit of Mediator and the acidic N-terminal transactivation domain of IE62. A second cellular factor, host cell factor-1, has been shown to be the common element in two mechanisms of activation of the promoter driving expression of the gene encoding IE62. Finally, the ubiquitous cellular transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and YY1 have been shown to interact with sequences near the VZV origin of DNA replication and in the case of Sp1/Sp3 to influence replication efficiency. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010. Source


Cody V.,Hauptman Woodward Medical Research Institute | Cody V.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Pace J.,Hauptman Woodward Medical Research Institute
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2011

Structural data are reported for five antifolates, namely 2,4-diamino-6-[5′-(5-carboxypentyloxy)-2′-methoxybenzyl] -5-methylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine, (1), and the 5′-[3-(ethoxycarbonyl) propoxy]-, (2), 5′-[3-(ethoxycarbonyl)butoxy]-, (3), 5′-[3- (ethoxycarbonyl)pentyloxy]-, (4), and 5′-benzyloxy-, (5), derivatives, which are potent and selective for Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase (pcDHFR). Crystal structures are reported for their ternary complexes with NADPH and pcDHFR refined to between 1.4 and 2.0 Å resolution and for that of 3 with human DHFR (hDHFR) to 1.8 Å resolution. These data reveal that the carboxylate of the-carboxyalkoxy side chain of 1, the most potent inhibitor in this series, forms ionic interactions with the conserved Arg75 in the substrate-binding pocket of pcDHFR, whereas the less potent ethyl esters of 2-4 bind with variable side-chain conformations. The benzyloxy side chain of 5 makes no contact with Arg75 and is the least active inhibitor in this series. These structural results suggest that the weaker binding of this series compared with that of their pyrimidine homologs in part arises from the flexibility observed in their side-chain conformations, which do not optimize intermolecular contact to Arg75. Structural data for the binding of 3 to both hDHFR and pcDHFR reveals that the inhibitor binds in two different conformations, one similar to each of the two conformations observed for the parent pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine, piritrexim (PTX), bound to hDHFR. The structure of the pcDHFR complex of 4 reveals disorder in the side-chain orientation; one orientation has the-carboxy-alkoxy side chain positioned in the folate-binding pocket similar to the others in this series, while the second orientation occupies a new site near the nicotinamide ring of NADPH. This alternate binding site has not been observed in other DHFR structures. Structural data for the pcDHFR complex of 5 show that its benzyl side chain forms intermolecular van der Waals interactions with Phe69 in the binding pocket that could account for its enhanced binding selectivity compared with the other analogs in this series. © 2011 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - all rights reserved. Source


Ren K.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Wang Q.,Wuhan University
IEEE Wireless Communications | Year: 2013

Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA), which is considered as the core technology of hierarchical access model of dynamic spectrum access (DSA), has been extensively researched recently. Most of the existing OSA protocols, albeit theoretically sound with almost optimal performance, have to require the preknowledge of static known distributions under stochastic channels. These assumptions, however, make them impractical for more general application scenarios where channel statistics may not be readily available a priori and channel availabilities cannot be modeled as a stochastic process due to malicious jamming. More seriously, the existing OSA protocols are subject to malicious jamming attacks. That is, a cognitive jammer can always disrupt the legitimate network communication by leveraging the publicly-available channel statistic information to effectively jam the channels and thus lead to serious spectrum underutilization. In this article, we first present an in-depth overview of the existing spectrum sensing and access protocols under stochastic channels, achieving almost optimal performance in jamming- free scenarios. We then analyze the vulnerabilities of these protocols to malicious jamming attacks. Finally, we discuss spectrum sensing and access protocols under non-stochastic channels and show their robustness and resilience against various malicious jamming attacks. © 2002-2012 IEEE. Source


Hemmer D.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Combinatorial Theory. Series A | Year: 2011

We prove that certain permutation characters for the symmetric group Σn decompose in a manner that is independent of n for large n. This result is a key ingredient in the recent work of T. Church and B. Farb, who obtain a "representation stability" theorem for the character of Σn acting on the cohomology Hp(Pn,C) of the pure braid group Pn. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source


Background: The US Preventive Services Task Force updated mammography recommendations in 2009, recommending against routine screening for women ages 40-49 and reducing recommended frequency for women 50+. The recommendation changes were highly controversial and created conflicting recommendations across professional organizations. This study examines overall awareness of the changes, accuracy of knowledge about changes, factors related to both overall awareness and accuracy, sources of knowledge about changes, and attitudes about the new recommendations. Method. National telephone survey of 508 women, half aged 40-49 and half 50+, conducted one year after the update (November/December 2010; cooperation rate was 36%). Measures include awareness, accuracy, source of knowledge, interactions with providers, and attitudes about the changes. Results: Fewer than half of women were aware of the guideline changes. Younger, more educated, and higher income women were more aware. Of those who were aware, only 12% correctly reported both change in age and frequency. Accuracy was not associated with demographics. The majority learned of changes through the media and the majority had negative attitudes about the changes. Conclusions: Despite widespread coverage of the recommendation changes, overall awareness in the relevant population is low. Increasing awareness and addressing attitudes about the changes is necessary to ensure the use of recommendations to impact screening behavior. © 2012 Kiviniemi and Hay; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Baizer J.S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2014

The cerebral cortex is greatly expanded in the human brain.There is a parallel expansion of the cerebellum, which isinterconnected with the cerebral cortex.We have asked if there are accompanying changes in the organization of pre-cerebellar brainstem structures.We have examined the cytoarchitectonic and neurochemical organization of the human medulla and pons. We studied human cases from the Witelson Normal Brain Collection, analyzing Nissl sections and sections processed for immunohistochemistry for multiple markers including the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin, non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein, and the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase. We have also compared the neurochemical organization of the human brainstem to that of several other species including the chimpanzee, macaque and squirrel monkey, cat, and rodent, again using Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry. We found that there are major differences in the human brainstem, ranging from relatively subtle differences in the neurochemical organization of structures found in each of the species studied to the emergence of altogether new structures in the human brainstem. Two aspects of human cortical organization, individual differences and left-right asymmetry, are also seen in the brainstem (principal nucleus of the inferior olive) and the cerebellum (the dentate nucleus). We suggest that uniquely human motor and cognitive abilities derive from changes at all levels of the central nervous system, including the cerebellum and brainstem, and not just the cerebral cortex. © 2014 Baizer. Source


Wang J.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Scutari G.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Palomar D.P.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2011

Cognitive radio (CR) systems improve the spectral efficiency by allowing the coexistence in harmony of primary users (PUs), the legacy users, with secondary users (SUs). This coexistence is built on the premises that no SU can generate interference higher than some prescribed limits against PUs. The system design based on perfect channel state information (CSI) can easily end up violating the interference limits in a realistic situation where CSI may be imperfect. In this paper, we propose a robust design of CR systems, composed of multiple PUs and multiple noncooperative SUs, in either single-input single-output (SISO) frequency-selective channels or more general multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels. We formulate the design of the SU network as a noncooperative game, where the SUs compete with each other over the resources made available by the PUs, by maximizing their own information rates subject to the transmit power and robust interference constraints. Following the philosophy of the worst-case robustness, we take explicitly into account the imperfectness of SU-to-PU CSI by adopting proper interference constraints that are robust with respect to the worst channel errors. Relying on the variational inequality theory, we study the existence and uniqueness properties of the Nash equilibria of the resulting robust games, and devise totally asynchronous and distributed algorithms along with their convergency properties. We also propose efficient numerical methods, based on decomposition techniques, to compute the robust transmit strategy for each SU. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Chung D.D.L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Carbon | Year: 2014

Exfoliated graphite is obtained by the rapid heating of acid-intercalated graphite flakes. It exhibits a cellular microstructure, with about 60 graphite layers in the cell wall. The recently reported extraordinarily strong viscous behavior of the exfoliated graphite and its cement-matrix composite has been explained in this paper in terms of an interface-derived viscous mechanism, which is in contrast to the well-known bulk viscous deformation mechanism that rubber exhibits. The interfacial mechanism is associated with the dynamic sliding at low amplitudes between the graphite layers in the cell wall of exfoliated graphite during dynamic loading in the elastic regime. The ease of sliding is enabled by the loosening of the interlayer interface that has occurred during exfoliation, in which the cell wall extends greatly like a balloon due to extensive sliding between the graphite layers in the cell wall. The viscous behavior is consistent with the well-known resiliency of flexible graphite, which is a sheet made by greatly compressing exfoliated graphite without a binder. In the cement-matrix composite, the exfoliated graphite is sandwiched with sufficient tightness by the cement matrix in the microstructure of the composite, thereby providing constrained-layer damping in the microscale. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Whether the addition of stenting to intracranial aneurysm coil embolization results in benefit in terms of occlusion rates or additional risk in terms of periprocedural adverse events is not clear. To report retrospectively analyzed results of endovascular aneurysm treatment comparing stent-assisted coiling with coiling without stents at our hospital from 2005 to 2009. In this retrospectively reviewed case series, aneurysms were grouped as intent-to-treat or initially treated with stent-assisted coiling (A) vs coiling alone (B) or as-treated-those that ultimately received a stent (C) or not (D). Complication and occlusion rates were compared between groups. Some patients crossed from group B to C after receiving stent placement at a later treatment following the initial therapeutic modality (without a stent). In 459 patients, 489 aneurysms were treated by group as follows: A = 181, B = 308, C = 225, and D = 264. In stent groups (A and C), there were significantly lower frequencies of ruptured aneurysms (A vs B = 11% vs 62%, P < .001; C vs D = 20.4% vs 62.5%, P < .001) and more giant aneurysms (A vs B = 7.3% vs 1.0%, P = .001; C vs D = 5.9% vs 1.1%, P < .001). There was no statistically significant difference in permanent event-related morbidity (A vs B = 4.4% vs 4.2%, P = 1.0; C vs D = 4.4% vs 4.2%, P = 1.0). Average angiographic follow-up after last treatment was 18.2 ± 15 months (median = 14). Higher rates of complete occlusion at last angiographic follow-up were observed in stented aneurysms (A vs B = 64.6% vs 49.7%, P = .001; C vs D = 62.7% vs 48.9%, P = .003). Stent-assisted aneurysm treatment resulted in higher total occlusion rates than non-stent-assisted treatment, with acceptable, comparable periprocedural event rates. Source


Li S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Proceedings of the Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms | Year: 2016

In the capacitated κ-median (CKM) problem, we are given a set F of facilities, each facility i ∈ F with a capacity Ui, a set C of clients, a metric d over FUC and an integer κ. The goal is to open κ facilities in F and connect the clients C to the open facilities such that each facility i is connected by at most Ui clients, so as to minimize the total connection cost. In this paper, we give the first constant approximation for CKM, that only violates the cardinality constraint by a factor of 1 + ∈. This generalizes the result of [Lil5], which only works for the uniform capacitated case. Moreover, the approximation ratio we obtain is O(1/2∈log 1/∈), which is an exponential improvement over the ratio of exp (O(1/2∈)) in [Lil5]. The natural LP relaxation for the problem, which almost all previous algorithms for CKM are based on, has unbounded integrality gap even if (2-∈)κ facilities can be opened. We introduce a novel configuration LP for the problem, that overcomes this integrality gap. On the downside, each facility may be opened twice by our algorithm. Source


Lee S.,University of California at San Diego | Ballow M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

The immune system consists of a complex array of immunocompetent cells and inflammatory mediators that exist in complex networks. These components interact through cascades and feedback circuits, maintaining physiologic inflammation and immunosurveillance. In various autoimmune conditions, a foreign or auto-antigen may upset this fine balance, leading to dysregulated immunity, persistent inflammation, and ultimately pathologic sequelae. In recent years, there has been tremendous progress delineating the specific components of the immune system that contribute to normal immunity and specific disease states. With this greater understanding of pathogenesis coupled with advances in biotechnology, many immunomodulatory agents, commonly called biologic agents, have been introduced. The 2 most common classes of biologic agents are monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. These agents can inhibit targets with exquisite specificity to optimize outcomes and minimize toxicity. B cells contribute significantly to the initiation and perpetuation of the immune responses. B cells not only can produce potentially pathologic autoantibodies and proinflammatory cytokines but also can present antigens to T cells and provide costimulatory signals essential for T-cell activation, clonal expansion, and effector function. This review focuses on biologic agents targeting B cells in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Source


Poulin M.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Holman E.A.,University of California at Irvine
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2013

Providing help or support to others buffers the associations between stress and physical health. We examined the function of the neurohormone oxytocin as a biological mechanism for this stress-buffering phenomenon. Participants in a longitudinal study completed a measure of charitable behavior, and over the next two years provided assessments of stressful life events and physician-diagnosed physical ailments. Results indicated that charitable behavior buffered the associations between stressful events and new-onset ailments among individuals with the AA/AG genotypes of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) variant rs53576, but not among those with the GG genotype. These results suggest that oxytocin function may significantly affect health and may help explain the associations between prosocial behavior and health. More broadly, these findings are consistent with a role for the caregiving behavioral system in health and well-being. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Serwacki M.L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
International journal of yoga therapy | Year: 2012

The objective of this research was to examine the evidence for delivering yoga-based interventions in schools. An electronic literature search was conducted to identify peer-reviewed, published studies in which yoga and a meditative component (breathing practices or meditation) were taught to youths in a school setting. Pilot studies, single cohort, quasi-experimental, and randomized clinical trials were considered. quality was evaluated and summarized. Results: Twelve published studies were identified. Samples for which yoga was implemented as an intervention included youths with autism, intellectual disability, learning disability, and emotional disturbance, as well as typically developing youths. Although effects of participating in school-based yoga programs appeared to be beneficial for the most part, methodological limitations, including lack of randomization, small samples, limited detail regarding the intervention, and statistical ambiguities curtailed the ability to provide definitive conclusions or recommendations. Findings speak to the need for greater methodological rigor and an increased understanding of the mechanisms of success for school-based yoga interventions. Source


Blitshteyn S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2014

Background and purpose: Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous disorder of the autonomic nervous system that may have an autoimmune etiology. Methods: Six patients who developed new onset POTS 6 days to 2 months following human papillomavirus vaccination are reported. Results: Three patients also had neurocardiogenic syncope, and three patients were diagnosed with possible small fiber neuropathy. Symptoms in all patients improved over 3 years with pharmacotherapy and non-pharmacological measures but residual symptoms persisted. Molecular mimicry with formation of cross-reacting autoantibodies to the potential targets of the autonomic ganglia, neurons, cardiac proteins or vascular receptors is considered as a possible pathogenesis of new onset POTS after immunization. Conclusion: Correct diagnosis of POTS and awareness that POTS may occur after vaccination in young women is essential for prompt and effective management of this condition. © 2013 EFNS. Source


Kholy K.E.,Forsyth Institute | Kholy K.E.,Harvard University | Genco R.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Van Dyke T.E.,Forsyth Institute
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Oral infections are the most common diseases of mankind. Numerous reports have implicated oral infections, particularly periodontitis, as a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review we examine the epidemiology and biologic plausibility of this association with an emphasis on oral bacteria and inflammation. Longitudinal studies of incident cardiovascular events clearly show excess risk for CVD in individuals with periodontitis. It is likely that systemic exposure to oral bacteria impacts upon the initiation and progression of CVD through triggering of inflammatory processes. Given the high prevalence of periodontitis, any risk attributable to future CVD is important to public health. Unraveling the role of the oral microbiome in CVD will lead to new preventive and treatment approaches. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Weaver R.C.,University of Redlands | Bagchi-Sen S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Annals of the Association of American Geographers | Year: 2014

This article proposes an analytical framework of neighborhood decline grounded in evolutionary multilevel selection (MLS) theory. We demonstrate that MLS allows for the unification of at least two distinct theoretical approaches-the ecological and the political economy approaches-to analyzing urban change. From these developments we generate three hypotheses about intracity dynamics. The hypotheses are tested with longitudinal data using space-time regression, simulation, and spatial hedonic methods. The methodology and results reveal that qualitative neighborhood change is endogenously determined through the actions of neighborhood households, but such that household actions and neighborhood sociospatial organization are shaped by externally driven sorting processes. Further, household behaviors are highly dependent on microlevel neighborhood contexts. These findings suggest that existing schools of neighborhood change are not mutually exclusive. Rather, their interplay at multiple spatial resolutions showcases the hierarchical and evolutionary nature of cities. Such insights can be usefully incorporated into urban policy discourses. © 2014 © 2014 by Association of American Geographers. Source


Foraker S.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Murphy G.L.,New York University
Journal of Memory and Language | Year: 2012

Words like church are polysemous, having two related senses (a building and an organization). Three experiments investigated how polysemous senses are represented and processed during sentence comprehension. On one view, readers retrieve an underspecified, core meaning, which is later specified more fully with contextual information. On another view, readers retrieve one or more specific senses. In a reading task, context that was neutral or biased towards a particular sense preceded a polysemous word. Disambiguating material consistent with only one sense followed, in a second sentence (Experiment 1) or the same sentence (Experiments 2 and 3). Reading the disambiguating material was faster when it was consistent with that context, and dominant senses were committed to more strongly than subordinate senses. Critically, following neutral context, the continuation was read more quickly when it selected the dominant sense, and the degree of sense dominance partially explained the reading time advantage. Similarity of the senses also affected reading times. Across experiments, we found that sense selection may not be completed immediately following a polysemous word but is completed at a sentence boundary. Overall, the results suggest that readers select an individual sense when reading a polysemous word, rather than a core meaning. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Li J.-X.,State University of New York at Buffalo
ACS Chemical Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Cocaine addiction remains a clinical challenge with no effective pharmacotherapy available. Trace amine associated receptor (TAAR) 1 represents a promising drug target for the modulation of dopaminergic system and stimulant abuse. This Viewpoint discusses the emerging data which strongly suggest that TAAR 1 functions as a molecular "brake" that controls the addiction-related effects of cocaine and could be a novel drug target for the development of efficacious pharmacotherapy to treat cocaine addiction. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source


Autschbach J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Srebro M.,Jagiellonian University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

ConspectusKohn-Sham theory (KST) is the "workhorse" of numerical quantum chemistry. This is particularly true for first-principles calculations of ground- and excited-state properties for larger systems, including electronic spectra, electronic dynamic and static linear and higher order response properties (including nonlinear optical (NLO) properties), conformational or dynamic averaging of spectra and response properties, or properties that are affected by the coupling of electron and nuclear motion.This Account explores the sometimes dramatic impact of the delocalization error (DE) and possible benefits from the use of long-range corrections (LC) and "tuning" of functionals in KST calculations of molecular ground-state and response properties. Tuning refers to a nonempirical molecule-specific determination of adjustable parameters in functionals to satisfy known exact conditions, for instance, that the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) should be equal to the negative vertical ionization potential (IP) or that the energy as a function of fractional electron numbers should afford straight-line segments. The presentation is given from the viewpoint of a chemist interested in computations of a variety of molecular optical and spectroscopic properties and of a theoretician developing methods for computing such properties with KST. In recent years, the use of LC functionals, functional tuning, and quantifying the DE explicitly have provided valuable insight regarding the performance of KST for molecular properties.We discuss a number of different molecular properties, with examples from recent studies from our laboratory and related literature. The selected properties probe different aspects of molecular electronic structure. Electric field gradients and hyperfine coupling constants can be exquisitely sensitive to the DE because it affects the ground-state electron density and spin density distributions. For π-conjugated molecules, it is shown how the DE manifests itself either in too strong or too weak delocalization of localized molecular orbitals (LMOs). Optical rotation is an electric-magnetic linear response property that is calculated in a similar fashion as the electric polarizability, but it is more sensitive to approximations and can benefit greatly from tuning and small DE. Hyperpolarizabilities of π-conjugated "push-pull" systems are examples of NLO properties that can be greatly improved by tuning of range-separated exchange (RSE) functionals, in part due to improved charge-transfer excitation energies. On-going work on band gap predictions is also mentioned. The findings may provide clues for future improvements of KST because different molecular properties exhibit varying sensitivity to approximations in the electronic structure model. The utility of analyzing molecular properties and the impact of the DE in terms of LMOs, representing "chemists orbitals" such as individual lone pairs and bonds, is highlighted. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source


Park E.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology | Year: 2012

123I-labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane (123I-FP-CIT) was approved for clinical use in 2011 by the Food and Drug Administration. 123I-FP-CIT is a radioligand for brain dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging that is useful for the differential diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) and other diseases that mimic PD. The sensitivity and specificity of 123I-FP-CIT SPECT for PD diagnosis are more than 90% and equivalent to those of other DAT SPECT methods. In the near future, the clinical indications of DAT imaging are expected to be broadened; for example, including treatment response assessment, disease progression monitoring, and early diagnosis of premotor PD in each individual patient. © 2012 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc. Source


Vishwanath A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Health Communication | Year: 2014

Despite a rise in the incidence of juvenile diabetes globally, little research has focused on public perceptions regarding its patients. The need to evaluate whether the public holds stigmatizing views is pressing when one considers the relatively young age of the patients of the disease. The current study extends the attribution theoretic framework to evaluate public stigma regarding juvenile diabetes. The findings suggest that a large percentage of individuals misattribute the causes of the disease and believe it is relatively rare and that its patients are personally responsible for contracting it. Individuals often utilize pejorative terms describing juvenile diabetes as a disease afflicting children who are lazy, unhealthy, fat, obese, lacking exercise, and having eating disorders. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Mastronarde N.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Van Der Schaar M.,University of California at Los Angeles
IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing | Year: 2013

We consider the problem of energy-efficient point-to-point transmission of delay-sensitive data (e.g., multimedia data) over a fading channel. Existing research on this topic utilizes either physical-layer centric solutions, namely power-control and adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), or system-level solutions based on dynamic power management (DPM); however, there is currently no rigorous and unified framework for simultaneously utilizing both physical-layer centric and system-level techniques to achieve the minimum possible energy consumption, under delay constraints, in the presence of stochastic and a priori unknown traffic and channel conditions. In this paper, we propose such a framework. We formulate the stochastic optimization problem as a Markov decision process (MDP) and solve it online using reinforcement learning (RL). The advantages of the proposed online method are that 1) it does not require a priori knowledge of the traffic arrival and channel statistics to determine the jointly optimal power-control, AMC, and DPM policies; 2) it exploits partial information about the system so that less information needs to be learned than when using conventional reinforcement learning algorithms; and 3) it obviates the need for action exploration, which severely limits the adaptation speed and runtime performance of conventional reinforcement learning algorithms. Our results show that the proposed learning algorithms can converge up to two orders of magnitude faster than a state-of-the-art learning algorithm for physical layer power-control and up to three orders of magnitude faster than conventional reinforcement learning algorithms. © 2002-2012 IEEE. Source


Doukas D.J.,University of Louisville | McCullough L.B.,Baylor College of Medicine | Wear S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Academic Medicine | Year: 2012

Medical education accreditation organizations require medical ethics and humanities education to develop professionalism in medical learners, yet there has never been a comprehensive critical appraisal of medical education in ethics and humanities. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) I Workshop, convened in May 2010, undertook the first critical appraisal of the definitions, goals, and objectives of medical ethics and humanities teaching. The authors describe assembling a national expert panel of educators representing the disciplines of ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This panel was tasked with describing the major pedagogical goals of art, ethics, history, and literature in medical education, how these disciplines should be integrated with one another in medical education, and how they could be best integrated into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The authors present the recommendations resulting from the PRIME I discussion, centered on three main themes. The major goal of medical education in ethics and humanities is to promote humanistic skills and professional conduct in physicians. Patient-centered skills enable learners to become medical professionals, whereas critical thinking skills assist learners to critically appraise the concept and implementation of medical professionalism. Implementation of a comprehensive medical ethics and humanities curriculum in medical school and residency requires clear direction and academic support and should be based on clear goals and objectives that can be reliably assessed. The PRIME expert panel concurred that medical ethics and humanities education is essential for professional development in medicine. © 2012 Association American Medical Colleges. Unauthorized reproduction of the artical is prohibited. Source


Kozlowski L.T.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Science and Engineering Ethics | Year: 2016

In light of the widespread existence of financial and non-financial issues that contribute to the appearance or fact of conflict of interest, it is proposed that conflict of interest should generally be assumed, no matter the source of financial support or the expressed declarations of conflicts and even with respect to one’s own work. No new model is advanced for modification of peer-review processes or for elaboration of author declarations of interest. Researchers should be assessing the quality of published work as best they can and make their own decisions on the appropriate use of the work. While some apparent sources of conflict are likely more obvious and serious than others, even subtler biases can influence scientific reports. Ignoring peer-reviewed contributions because of conflict-of-interest concerns is discouraged. Listening skeptically to all sources, including yourself, is encouraged. © 2015, The Author(s). Source


Autschbach J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2014

This article outlines some basic concepts of relativistic quantum chemistry and recent developments of relativistic methods for the calculation of the molecular properties that define the basic parameters of magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques, i.e. nuclear magnetic resonance shielding, indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling and electric field gradients (nuclear quadrupole coupling), as well as with electron paramagnetic resonance g-factors and electron-nucleus hyperfine coupling. Density functional theory (DFT) has been very successful in molecular property calculations, despite a number of problems related to approximations in the functionals. In particular, for heavy-element systems, the large electron count and the need for a relativistic treatment often render the application of correlated wave function ab initio methods impracticable. Selected applications of DFT in relativistic calculation of magnetic resonance parameters are reviewed. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source


Vishwanath A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication | Year: 2015

While research has linked social media phishing susceptibility to individual Facebook habits, the underlying process by which habits lead to victimization and the extent to which it explains e-mail-based phishing remains unclear. The study compared the antecedents and consequences of e-mail habits and cognitive processing on the outcome of a simulated phishing attack. E-mail habits were rooted in stable personality dimensions of conscientiousness and emotional stability, while cognitive processing was premised on contextual information adequacy considerations. Interestingly, habits and processing jointly influenced the outcome of the attack: Systematic processing attenuated phishing susceptibility by a small factor; the cumulative effects of heuristic processing and e-mail habits, however, caused a fourfold increase in likely victimization, overwhelming any advantage from detailed processing. © 2015 International Communication Association. Source


Ciancio S.G.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J. : 1995) | Year: 2011

This review summarizes research that has assessed the effectiveness of various antimicrobial-containing dentifrices in preventing and/or reducing a number of oral health problems facing our patients today. The results of these studies indicate that, when compared with a conventional fluoride dentifrice, the triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice is the one with the most evidence to support its ability to deliver significant oral health benefits with no adverse effects. The benefits maybe summarized as follows: improved levels ofsupragingival plaque control; improved gingival health; reducedlikelihood of gingivitis progressing to periodontitis; arrest progression of periodontitis; prevention of supragingival calculus; and reduction in oral malodor. With increased interest in the association of oral health with systemic health, this dentifrice is well-positioned to help reduce the likelihood of gingivitis establishing itself and possibly developing into periodontitis (Figure 1). It also has the potential to have beneficial effects on general health because of its anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results presented in this article, it is clear that the general population can derive significant clinical benefits from the daily use of a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice. The dental profession should feel confident to recommend its use to patients to improve oral health and maintain or promote overall health. Source


Wang H.-F.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Velarde L.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Gan W.,CAS Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry | Fu L.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Annual Review of Physical Chemistry | Year: 2015

Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) can provide detailed information and understanding of the molecular composition, interactions, and orientational and conformational structure of surfaces and interfaces through quantitative measurement and analysis. In this review, we present the current status of and discuss important recent developments in the measurement of intrinsic SFG spectral lineshapes and formulations for polarization measurements and orientational analysis of SFG-VS spectra. The focus of this review is topresent a coherent description of SFG-VS and discuss the main concepts and issues that can help advance this technique as a quantitative analytical research tool for revealing the chemistry and physics of complex molecular surfaces and interfaces. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source


Borazjani I.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2013

A three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction (FSI) framework for rigid bodies has been extended to deformable soft tissue by coupling a sharp-interface immersed boundary incompressible Navier-Stokes solver for fluids with a non-linear large deformation finite element method for soft tissue. A Fung-type constitutive law is used for the soft tissue of heart valves that can capture the experimentally observed non-linear anisotropic stress-strain behavior of the heart valve tissue. The FSI solver adopts a strongly-coupled partitioned approach that is stabilized with under-relaxation and the Aitken acceleration technique. The finite element solver is verified against the benchmark experimental and numerical data for heart valve tissue while the immersed boundary solver was validated against flow measurements of a mechanical heart valve in the previous work. The capabilities of the solver are demonstrated by simulating the first fully three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction of tissue valves implanted in the aortic position during systole under physiologic flow conditions. It is observed that the flow's threefold symmetry breaks during the early systole, questioning the threefold symmetry assumption of previous simulations. The flow created by the tissue valve is compared against the mechanical heart valve under the same conditions. The flowfields, created by the tissue and mechanical valves, show drastic differences at different instances during a heartbeat cycle. Mainly, the breakdown of vortices into small-scale vortical structures right before the peak systole in mechanical heart valves is not observed in the bio-prosthetic heart valves. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Khoda A.K.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of biomechanical engineering | Year: 2011

This paper presents a novel computer-aided modeling of 3D tissue scaffolds with a controlled internal architecture. The complex internal architecture of scaffolds is biomimetically modeled with controlled micro-architecture to satisfy different and sometimes conflicting functional requirements. A functionally gradient porosity function is used to vary the porosity of the designed scaffolds spatially to mimic the functionality of tissues or organs. The three-dimensional porous structures of the scaffold are geometrically partition into functionally uniform porosity regions with a novel offsetting operation technique described in this paper. After determining the functionally uniform porous regions, an optimized deposition-path planning is presented to generate the variational internal porosity architecture with enhanced control of interconnected channel networks and continuous filament deposition. The presented methods are implemented, and illustrative examples are presented in this paper. Moreover, a sample optimized tool path for each example is fabricated layer-by-layer using a micronozzle biomaterial deposition system. Source


Balashov K.E.,The New School | Lindzen E.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Multiple Sclerosis Journal | Year: 2012

Background and objectives: It is widely accepted that typical acute demyelinating lesions in relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) exhibit vasogenic edema with increased diffusion, as demonstrated by an increased apparent diffusion coefficient on MRI. In contrast, acute ischemic lesions demonstrate cytotoxic edema with restricted diffusion. Recent reports have documented selected cases of acute demyelinating lesions exhibiting restricted diffusion (ADLRD) in MS. We aimed to assess the morphologies, distributions, signal characteristics and changes over time of nine ADLRD. An additional goal was to obtain clinical correlations and relate our findings to all previously published case reports describing ADLRD. Methods: A retrospective case series study was performed at two academic centers. MRI characteristics of nine ADLRD found in six RRMS patients were compared with typical active symptomatic contrast-enhancing lesions with increased or normal diffusion in control RRMS patients. Results: The average size of ADLRD was not significantly different from typical lesions. A periventricular location and faint signal on T2-weighted images were significantly more common for ADLRD compared with typical lesions. Two patients with ADLRD on initial MRI exhibited new ADLRD on their follow up scans. Conclusion: Our results and review of prior published cases suggest that ADLRD represent a new variant of MS lesion. The restricted diffusion that is a characteristic of ADLRD on MRI is a new challenge in the differential diagnosis of stroke in young adults. The pathogenesis of ADLRD remains to be understood. © The Author(s) 2012. Source


Gong B.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Gong B.,Beijing Normal University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2012

Through specific molecular shapes and repeating polymeric sequences, biomacromolecules encode information about both structure and function. Inspired by DNA molecules, we have conceived a strategy to encode linear molecular strands with sequences that specify intermolecular association, and we and our collaborators have supported this idea through our experimental work. This Account summarizes the design and development of a class of molecular duplexes with programmable hydrogen-bonding sequences and adjustable stabilities.The specific system involves oligoamide strands synthesized from readily available monomeric modules based on standard amide (peptide) chemistry. By covalently linking three types of basic building blocks in different orders, we create oligoamide strands with various arrangements of amide O and H atoms that provide arrays of hydrogen bonding sequences. Because one of the two edges of these molecules presents the sequences of hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors, these oligoamide strands associate via their hydrogen-bonding edges into double-stranded pairs or duplexes. Systematic studies have demonstrated the strict sequence specificity and tunable stability of this system. These structurally simple duplexes exhibit many features associated with DNA sequences such as programmable sequence specificity, shape and hydrogen-bonding complementarity, and cooperativity of multipoint interactions.Capable of specifying intermolecular associations, these duplexes have formed supramolecular structures such as β-sheets and non-covalent block copolymers and have templated chemical reactions. The incorporation of dynamic covalent interactions into these H-bonded duplexes has created association units that undergo sequence-specific association and covalent ligation in both nonpolar solvents and polar media including water. These new association units may facilitate the development of new dynamic covalent structures, and new properties are emerging from these structures. For example, we discovered hydrogen-bonded duplexes that could gelate different organic solvents, and we could tune the gelatinization by adjusting the multiple side chains attached to the duplexes. In addition, we have recently designed duplexes whose formation and dissociation are controlled by changes in external stimuli such as acidity.With their programmable specificity and tunable stability, these molecular duplexes have provided a systematic approach for the association of different structural units. Further development of this system could facilitate the creation of many supramolecular and dynamic covalent structures. Because these duplexes are easily modifiable and information is easily encoded and retrieved, this system may address some of the remaining challenges facing information-storing molecules including self-replication. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Zurek E.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Grochala W.,University of Warsaw
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2015

Experimental studies of compressed matter are now routinely conducted at pressures exceeding 1 mln atm (100 GPa) and occasionally at pressures greater than 10 mln atm (1 TPa). The structure and properties of solids that have been so significantly squeezed differ considerably from those of solids at ambient pressure (1 atm), often leading to new and unexpected physics. Chemical reactivity is also substantially altered in the extreme pressure regime. In this feature paper we describe how synergy between theory and experiment can pave the road towards new experimental discoveries. Because chemical rules-of-thumb established at 1 atm often fail to predict the structures of solids under high pressure, automated crystal structure prediction (CSP) methods are increasingly employed. After outlining the most important CSP techniques, we showcase a few examples from the recent literature that exemplify just how useful theory can be as an aid in the interpretation of experimental data, describe exciting theoretical predictions that are guiding experiment, and discuss when the computational methods that are currently routinely employed fail. Finally, we forecast important problems that will be targeted by theory as theoretical methods undergo rapid development, along with the simultaneous increase of computational power. © the Owner Societies 2015. Source


Barr A.B.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2015

In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Auerbach A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Ligand-gated ion channels are allosteric membrane proteins that isomerize between C(losed) and O(pen) conformations. A difference in affinity for ligands in the two states influences the C → O "gating" equilibrium constant. The energies associated with adult-type mouse neuromuscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel gating have been measured by using single-channel electrophysiology. Without ligands, the free energy, enthalpy and entropy of gating are ΔG0 = + 8.4, ΔH0 = + 10.9 and TΔS0 = + 2.5 kcal/mol (- 100 mV, 23 C). Many mutations throughout the protein change ΔG0, including natural ones that cause disease. Agonists and most mutations change approximately independently the ground-state energy difference; thus, it is possible to forecast and engineer AChR responses simply by combining perturbations. The free energy of the low → high affinity change for the neurotransmitter at each of two functionally equivalent binding sites is ΔGB ACh = - 5.1 kcal/mol. ΔGB ACh is set mainly by interactions of ACh with just three binding site aromatic groups. For a series of structurally related agonists, there is a correlation between the energies of low- and high-affinity binding, which implies that gating commences with the formation of the low-affinity complex. Brief, intermediate states in binding and gating have been detected. Several proposals for the nature of the gating transition-state energy landscape and the isomerization mechanism are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source


Kotov A.A.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Taylor D.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011

Background: The timescale of the origins of Daphnia O. F. Mueller (Crustacea: Cladocera) remains controversial. The origin of the two main subgenera has been associated with the breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea. This vicariance hypothesis is supported by reciprocal monophyly, present day associations with the former Gondwanaland and Laurasia regions, and mitochondrial DNA divergence estimates. However, previous multilocus nuclear DNA sequence divergence estimates at < 10 Million years are inconsistent with the breakup of Pangaea. We examined new and existing cladoceran fossils from a Mesozoic Mongolian site, in hopes of gaining insights into the timescale of the evolution of Daphnia. Results: We describe new fossils of ephippia from the Khotont site in Mongolia associated with the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary (about 145 MYA) that are morphologically similar to several modern genera of the family Daphniidae, including the two major subgenera of Daphnia, i.e., Daphnia s. str. and Ctenodaphnia. The daphniid fossils co-occurred with fossils of the predaceous phantom midge (Chaoboridae). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the main subgenera of Daphnia are likely much older than previously known from fossils (at least 100 MY older) or from nuclear DNA estimates of divergence. The results showing co-occurrence of the main subgenera far from the presumed Laurasia/Gondwanaland dispersal barrier shortly after formation suggests that vicariance from the breakup of Pangaea is an unlikely explanation for the origin of the main subgenera. The fossil impressions also reveal that the coevolution of a dipteran predator (Chaoboridae) with the subgenus Daphnia is much older than previously known - since the Mesozoic. © 2011 Kotov and Taylor; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Sethi S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Annals of the American Thoracic Society | Year: 2014

The dynamics of infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are complex, and microbiome technology has provided us with a new research tool for its better understanding. There is compartmentalization of the microbiota in the various parts of the lung. Studies of the lower airway lumen microbiota in COPD have yielded confusing results, and additional studies with scrupulous attention to prevent and account for upper airway contamination of bronchoalveolar lavage samples are required. Lung tissue microbiota has been examined in three studies, which also demonstrate varied results based on the site of sampling (bronchial mucosa, lung parenchyma), and this variation extends to sampling sites within a lobe of the lung. The Vicious Circle Hypothesis embodies how an altered lung microbiome could contribute to COPD progression. Relating microbiota composition to airway and systemic inflammation and clinical outcomes are important research questions. Although various obstacles need to be surmounted, ultimately lung microbiome studies will provide new insights into how infection contributes to COPD. Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society. Source


Mureika J.,Loyola Marymount University | Stojkovic D.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

Lower dimensionality at higher energies has manifold theoretical advantages as recently pointed out by Anchordoqui et al.. Moreover, it appears that experimental evidence may already exist for it: A statistically significant planar alignment of events with energies higher than TeV has been observed in some earlier cosmic ray experiments. We propose a robust and independent test for this new paradigm. Since (2+1)-dimensional spacetimes have no gravitational degrees of freedom, gravity waves cannot be produced in that epoch. This places a universal maximum frequency at which primordial waves can propagate, marked by the transition between dimensions. We show that this cutoff frequency may be accessible to future gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source


Abbas A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) | Year: 2010

Although anal cancer is a rare disease, its incidence is increasing in men and women worldwide. The most important risk factors are behaviors that predispose individuals to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or immunosuppression. Anal cancer is generally preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), which is most prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men. There is a general consensus that high-risk individuals may benefit from screening. Meta-analysis suggests that 80% of anal cancers could be avoided by vaccination against HPV 16/18. Nearly half of all patients with anal cancer present with rectal bleeding. Pain or sensation of a rectal mass is experienced in 30% of patients, whereas 20% have no tumor-specific symptoms. According to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, 50% of patients with anal cancer have disease localized to the anus, 29% have regional lymph node involvement or direct spread beyond the primary, and 12% have metastatic disease, while 9% have an unknown stage. Clinical staging of anal carcinoma requires a digital rectal exam and a computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Suspicious inguinal lymph nodes should be subject to pathologic confirmation by fine-needle aspiration. The 5-year relative survival rates are 80.1% for localized anal cancer, 60.7% for regional disease, and 29.4% for metastatic disease. Part 2 of this two-part review will address the treatment of anal cancer, highlighting studies of chemoradiation. Source


Mureika J.,Loyola Marymount University | Stojkovic D.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

A Reply to the Comment by Thomas P. Sotiriou, Matt Visser, and Silke Weinfurtner. © 2011 American Physical Society. Source


Guttuso Jr. T.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Experimental Brain Research | Year: 2014

Gabapentin's main clinical use is in the treatment of neuropathic pain where its binding to neuronal alpha-2/delta subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) is critical to its mechanism of action. Over the past 10 years, there have been several reports of gabapentin also having anti-nausea and anti-emetic effects in conditions including postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). In this report, a MEDLINE electronic search was performed, and relevant citations were reviewed and classified by level of evidence; a grade of recommendation was then assigned for gabapentin's use for each studied indication. Out of 33 clinical trials reviewed, 12 assessed nausea and/or vomiting (N/V) associated with gabapentin therapy as primary outcome measures. These 12 studies provided a Grade A recommendation for gabapentin use in treating PONV, a Grade B recommendation for use in treating CINV, and a Grade C recommendation for use in treating HG. Further research is needed to confirm these initial promising results, which implicate the alpha-2/delta VGCC subunit as a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of several N/V-associated clinical conditions. © 2014 Springer-Verlag. Source


Hess D.B.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Transportation | Year: 2012

The walking trip from an origin or destination to a bus stop or transit station can be a barrier to riding transit for older adults (over age 60) who may walk more slowly than others or experience declining physical mobility. This article examines the relationship between transit ridership and proximity to fixed-route transit stations using survey data for older adults in Buffalo and Erie County, New York. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics-including age, sex, race, income, possessing a driver's license, frequency of leaving home, and personal mobility limitations-are tested but do not display, in bi-variate analysis, statistically significant differences for transit riders versus non-transit riders. However, features of the built environment-including distance (actual and perceived) between home and transit stop, transit service level, population density, number of street intersections, metropolitan location, and neighborhood crime (property and violent) rate-display statistically significant differences for transit riders versus non-transit riders. Both objective and perceived walking distances to access fixed-route transit show statistically significant differences between transit riders and non-transit riders. Average walking distance from home to transit for non-transit riders-who mostly live in suburbs-is three times greater than average walking distance between home and the nearest transit stop for transit riders-who mostly live in the central city. When asked how near a bus stop is to their homes, transit riders slightly overestimate the actual distance, while non-transit riders underestimate the distance. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Mojica W.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Hawthorn L.,Georgia Regents University
BMC Genomics | Year: 2010

Background: Studies using microarray analysis of colorectal cancer have been generally beleaguered by the lack of a normal cell population of the same lineage as the tumor cell. One of the main objectives of this study was to generate a reference gene expression data set for normal colonic epithelium which can be used in comparisons with diseased tissues, as well as to provide a dataset that could be used as a baseline for studies in alternative splicing.Results: We present a dependable expression reference data set for non-neoplastic colonic epithelial cells. An enriched population of fresh colon epithelial cells were obtained from non-neoplastic, colectomy specimens and analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip EXON 1.0 ST arrays. For demonstration purposes, we have compared the data derived from these cells to a publically available set of tumor and matched normal colon data. This analysis allowed an assessment of global gene expression alterations and demonstrated that adjacent normal tissues, with a high degree of cellular heterogeneity, are not always representative of normal cells for comparison to tumors which arise from the colon epithelium. We also examined alternative splicing events in tumors compared to normal colon epithelial cells.Conclusions: The findings from this study represent the first comprehensive expression profile for non-neoplastic colonic epithelial cells reported. Our analysis of splice variants illustrate that this is a very labor intensive procedure, requiring vigilant examination of the data. It is projected that the contribution of this set of data derived from pure colonic epithelial cells will enhance studies in colon-related disease and offer a vital baseline for studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms of alternative splicing. © 2010 Mojica and Hawthorn; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Golshanara L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data | Year: 2016

In this work, we study data exchange for temporal data. There are two views associated with temporal data: the concrete temporal view, which depicts how temporal data is compactly represented and on which implementations are based, and the abstract temporal view, which defines the semantics of temporal data. Based on the chase procedure, which is a fundamental tool in relational data exchange, two new kinds of chase are proposed in this paper: the abstract chase for the abstract temporal view and the concrete chase for the concrete temporal view. While labeled nulls are suff-cient for relational data exchange, they have to be refined in temporal data exchange to keep the connection between the result produced by the concrete chase and the result of the abstract chase. We show that the concrete chase respects the semantics defined by the abstract chase and provides a foundation for query answering. © 2016 ACM. Source


Dickerson S.S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Heart & lung : the journal of critical care | Year: 2010

The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has proven life-saving, yet it is important to understand its psychological effects on recipients. This study examined longitudinal changes in patterns of quality-of-life (QOL) scores in the first 3 months after an implant, and determined what variables tested as predictors of patterns. This longitudinal, prospective, descriptive, correlational survey study followed 80 ICD patients, with data collection at a baseline preinsertion, and 1 and 3 months after implant. Findings revealed eight patterns of QOL change that were recoded into 3 groups: no change (44.7%), worse (20.7%), and improved (34.2%). No significant difference was evident in groups according to age at implant, gender, education, ejection fraction, number of device discharges, and comorbidities. State anxiety was significantly higher for the worsening group. This finding supports the practice of identifying and supporting patients with anxiety, which correlates with a worsening QOL. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Jerse A.E.,United Road Services | Bash M.C.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Russell M.W.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Gonorrhea occurs at high incidence throughout the world and significantly impacts reproductive health and the spread of human immunodeficiency virus. Current control measures are inadequate and seriously threatened by the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance. Progress on gonorrhea vaccines has been slow; however, recent advances justify significant effort in this area. Conserved vaccine antigens have been identified that elicit bactericidal antibodies and, or play key roles in pathogenesis that could be targeted by a vaccine-induced response. A murine genital tract infection model is available for systematic testing of antigens, immunization routes and adjuvants, and transgenic mice exist to relieve some host restrictions. Furthermore, mechanisms by which Neisseria gonorrhoeae avoids inducing a protective adaptive response are being elucidated using human cells and the mouse model. Induction of a Th1 response in mice clears infection and induces a memory response, which suggests Th1-inducing adjuvants may be key in vaccine-induced protection. Continued research in this area should include human testing and clinical studies to confirm or negate findings from experimental systems and to define protective host factors. © 2013. Source


Cullen P.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Sprague Jr. G.F.,University of Oregon
Genetics | Year: 2012

Filamentous growth is a nutrient-regulated growth response that occurs in many fungal species. In pathogens, filamentous growth is critical for host-cell attachment, invasion into tissues, and virulence. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes filamentous growth, which provides a genetically tractable system to study the molecular basis of the response. Filamentous growth is regulated by evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways. One of these pathways is a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. A remarkable feature of the filamentous growth MAPK pathway is that it is composed of factors that also function in other pathways. An intriguing challenge therefore has been to understand how pathways that share components establish and maintain their identity. Other canonical signaling pathways-rat sarcoma/protein kinase A (RAS/PKA), sucrose nonfermentable (SNF), and target of rapamycin (TOR)-also regulate filamentous growth, which raises the question of how signals from multiple pathways become integrated into a coordinated response. Together, these pathways regulate cell differentiation to the filamentous type, which is characterized by changes in cell adhesion, cell polarity, and cell shape. How these changes are accomplished is also discussed. High-throughput genomics approaches have recently uncovered new connections to filamentous growth regulation. These connections suggest that filamentous growth is a more complex and globally regulated behavior than is currently appreciated, which may help to pave the way for future investigations into this eukaryotic cell differentiation behavior. © 2012 by the Genetics Society of America. Source


Wilson J.X.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2013

Significance: Evidence is emerging that parenteral administration of high-dose vitamin C may warrant development as an adjuvant therapy for patients with sepsis. Recent Advances: Sepsis increases risk of death and disability, but its treatment consists only of supportive therapies because no specific therapy is available. The characteristics of severe sepsis include ascorbate (reduced vitamin C) depletion, excessive protein nitration in microvascular endothelial cells, and microvascular dysfunction composed of refractive vasodilation, endothelial barrier dysfunction, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Parenteral administration of ascorbate prevents or even reverses these pathological changes and thereby decreases hypotension, edema, multiorgan failure, and death in animal models of sepsis. Critical Issues: Dehydroascorbic acid appears to be as effective as ascorbate for protection against microvascular dysfunction, organ failure, and death when injected in sepsis models, but information about pharmacodynamics and safety in human subjects is only available for ascorbate. Although the plasma ascorbate concentration in critically ill and septic patients is normalized by repletion protocols that use high doses of parenteral ascorbate, and such doses are tolerated well by most healthy subjects, whether such large amounts of the vitamin trigger adverse effects in patients is uncertain. Future Directions: Further study of sepsis models may determine if high concentrations of ascorbate in interstitial fluid have pro-oxidant and bacteriostatic actions that also modify disease progression. However, the ascorbate depletion observed in septic patients receiving standard care and the therapeutic mechanisms established in models are sufficient evidence to support clinical trials of parenteral ascorbate as an adjuvant therapy for sepsis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 2129-2140. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013. Source


Nesset V.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Library and Information Science Research | Year: 2013

Two representations of a three-stage diagrammatic model that holistically depicts the research process are presented. The representations incorporate elements culled from existing information-seeking behavior and information literacy instruction research, as well as evidence gathered from a study of third grade elementary school students, as they worked to fulfill a class project's requirements. Both representations are content independent, attribute equal importance to each of the three stages, and target the K-12 educational environment. The full representation, the preparing, searching, using (PSU) model, is intended for use by instructors and more advanced students. The model identifies elements inherent within the three stages of the research process including actions, affective behaviors, impact factors, learning, and reflection. The simpler representation, the beginning, acting, telling (BAT) model, which is embedded into the PSU, presents only the three main stages and the actions associated with those stages using a familiar graphic (a bat) and a mnemonic device to visually present the basic elements of the research process to younger elementary school students. The PSU model is designed to identify and address the unique information behaviors of students (affective, cognitive, and physical) and factors that may impact the research process. As a result, the representations can be used by educators, including information professionals and teachers, to inform instruction, such as lesson planning, development of assignments, resource location and evaluation, and the use of information, to fully exploit all aspects of the research process. The PSU model can also be used to teach more sophisticated concepts to older students by introducing more complex features gradually to the BAT model. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Temple J.L.,Health Science University | Epstein L.H.,State University of New York at Buffalo
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2012

Background: Food reinforcement is an empirical index of motivation to obtain food. Higher levels of food reinforcement are associated with increased energy intake and increased body weight. Food reinforcement can vary over repeated food presentations, as people may show reduced reinforcing value if they satiate to repeated reinforcers, or they may show sensitization, or an increase in reinforcing value with repeated presentations. Over the past few years, our laboratory has been studying the impact of repeated administration of large portions of high energy density snack foods on food reinforcement. We have shown in three separate studies that the majority of non-obese individuals become satiated after 2 weeks of the same snack food administration, but that a subset of obese individuals sensitize after this same manipulation. Objective: The purpose of the study presented here was to identify predictors of reinforcer satiation or sensitization. Subjects: For the analyses presented here, we combined data sets from three previous studies for a total of 67 adult participants. Results: We found that higher body mass index (BMI) and higher baseline motivation to eat predicted sensitization, and baseline motivation to eat moderated the effects of BMI, such that higher baseline responding for food predicted sensitization in obese individuals, but satiation in non-obese individuals. Conclusions: These data suggest that repeated exposure to high energy density snack foods may result in sensitization to those foods, with similar effects as drugs of abuse in susceptible individuals, and that an individual's BMI and baseline responding act as predictors of this response. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Protein conformational dynamics, despite its significant anharmonicity, has been widely explored by normal mode analysis (NMA) based on atomic or coarse-grained potential functions. To account for the anharmonic aspects of protein dynamics, this study proposes, and has performed, an anharmonic NMA (ANMA) based on the Cα-only elastic network models, which assume elastic interactions between pairs of residues whose Cα atoms or heavy atoms are within a cutoff distance. The key step of ANMA is to sample an anharmonic potential function along the directions of eigenvectors of the lowest normal modes to determine the mean-squared fluctuations along these directions. ANMA was evaluated based on the modeling of anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) from a list of 83 high-resolution protein crystal structures. Significant improvement was found in the modeling of ADPs by ANMA compared with standard NMA. Further improvement in the modeling of ADPs is attained if the interactions between a protein and its crystalline environment are taken into account. In addition, this study has determined the optimal cutoff distances for ADP modeling based on elastic network models, and these agree well with the peaks of the statistical distributions of distances between Cα atoms or heavy atoms derived from a large set of protein crystal structures. © 2010 by the Biophysical Society. Source


Yoo E.-H.,State University of New York at Buffalo
International Journal of Geographical Information Science | Year: 2014

Mosquito surveillance programs provide a primary means of understanding mosquito vector population dynamics for the risk assessment of human exposure to West Nile virus (WNv). The lack of spatial coverage and missing observations in mosquito surveillance data often challenge our efforts to predict this vector-borne disease and implement control measures. We developed a WNv mosquito abundance prediction model in which local meteorological and environmental data were synthesized with entomological data in a generalized linear mixed modeling framework. The discrete nature of mosquito surveillance data is accommodated by a Poisson distributional assumption, and the site-specific random effects of the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) capture any fluctuation unexplained by a general trend. The proposed Poisson GLMMs efficiently account for the nested structure of mosquito surveillance data and incorporate the temporal correlation between observations obtained at each trap by a first-order autoregressive model. In the case study, Bayesian inference of the proposed models is illustrated using a subset of mosquito surveillance data in the Greater Toronto Area. The relevance of the proposed GLMM tailored to WNv mosquito surveillance data is highlighted by the comparison of model performance in the presence of inevitable but quantifiable uncertainties. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


Feng Q.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Current Topics in Membranes | Year: 2014

All organisms need to sense temperature in order to survive and adapt. But how they detect and perceive temperature remains poorly understood. Recent discoveries of thermal Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels have shed light on the problem and unravel molecular entities for temperature detection and transduction in mammals. Thermal TRP channels belong to the large family of transient receptor potential channels. They are directly activated by heat or cold in physiologically relevant temperature ranges, and the activation is exquisitely sensitive to temperature changes. Thermodynamically, this strong temperature dependence of thermal channels occurs due to large enthalpy and entropy changes associated with channel opening. Thus understanding how the channel proteins obtain their exceptionally large energetics is central toward determining functional mechanisms of thermal TRP channels. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive review on critical issues and challenges facing the problem, with emphases on underlying biophysical and molecular mechanisms. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Qin F.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Single-channel recording provides high resolution information on gating mechanisms of ion channels that are generally difficult to obtain from macroscopic measurements. Analysis of the data, however, has proven to be challenging. Early approaches rely on half-amplitude threshold detection to idealize the record into dwell-times, followed by fitting duration histograms to resolve kinetics. More recent analyses exploit explicit modeling of the data to improve the idealization accuracy. The dwell-time fitting has also evolved into direct fitting of dwell-time sequences using the maximum likelihood approach while taking account of effects of missed events. Finally, hidden Markov modeling provides an ultimate approach by which both single channel amplitudes and kinetics are analyzed simultaneously without the need of idealization. The progress in theory, along with the advance in computing power as well as the development of user-friendly software, has transformed single-channel analysis, once a specialty task, now readily accessible to a broader community of scientists. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Yun J.-H.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Kim J.,Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
Materials Letters | Year: 2012

Two different transparent conductive oxide (TCO) materials formed of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) were applied for photoelectric devices. The electrical and optical properties were investigated for the single layer of an AZO film, an ITO film, and the multilayer stacks of AZO/ITO films. The AZO film offers a higher transparency of 80.8% than that of ITO, which is 75.3%. For the electrical conductivity, the ITO film showed better performances yielding a lower resistivity of 1.53 × 10 -4 ω cm and a higher mobility of 42 cm 2/Vs than those of AZO film, which were 9.23 × 10 -4 ω cm and 15.4 cm 2/Vs, respectively. The double stacks of AZO/ITO films showed an enhanced optical transmittance of 79% with improved electrical performances, shown in a resistivity of 3.54 × 10 -4 ω cm and a mobility of 37.6 cm 2/Vs. Photoelectric devices were fabricated by depositing three-different types of TCO films on an n-Si substrate. The AZO-coated junction (AZO/n-Si) provided higher current values compared to those of the ITO-coated junction (ITO/n-Si). An enhanced current profile was achieved from the double TCO film junctions (ITO/AZO/n-Si). Under light illumination, the single AZO-coated device provided the highest response. A 33.7 ratio of photocurrent to dark current was achieved. However, the single ITO-coated device showed a low photoresponse ratio of 6.41. Multilayer stacks of TCO films have advantages in that they can achieve higher optical transparency with better electrical conductivity compared to the case of using a single TCO layer. This may provide useful schemes in TCO-embedding photoelectric applications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Sondheimer A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Academic Psychiatry | Year: 2015

An ethical responsibility exists, currently unaddressed, for mandated psychiatry residency training with college student populations. Such training brings numerous potential benefits, including exposure to specific disorders and administrative structures. As well, individual cases pose ethical dilemmas unique to this developmental stage, which segues seamlessly from that of adolescence. Relevant case illustrations are employed. Likewise, psychiatric education oversight bodies are urged to fulfill their ethical obligations to provide pertinent training. © 2015 Academic Psychiatry. Source


Bianco P.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Methods | Year: 2016

During DNA replication, forks often stall and require restart. One mechanism for restart requires that the fork be moved in a direction opposite to that of replication. This reaction is known as fork regression. For this reaction to occur, the enzyme must couple unwinding of the nascent heteroduplex fork arms to the rewinding of nascent strands ahead of itself and to the parental duplex in its wake. As the arms of the fork are complementary, this reaction is isoenergetic making it challenging to study. To overcome this, a novel adaptation of magnetic tweezers was developed by the Croquette group. Here, a 1200. bp hairpin was attached at opposite ends to a flow cell surface and a magnetic bead. By manipulating the bead with the magnets, force can be applied to unwind the hairpin or alternatively, released to allow the hairpin to rewind. This adaptation was used to study fork regression by RecG. The results show that this is an efficient regression enzyme, able to work against a large opposing force. Critically, it couples DNA unwinding to duplex rewinding and in the process, can displace bound proteins from fork arms. © 2016. Source


Cullen P.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Cold Spring Harbor Protocols | Year: 2015

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways that regulate diverse processes in eukaryotes. One such pathway regulates filamentous growth, a nutrient limitation response in budding yeast and other fungal species. This protocol describes three assays used to measure the activity of the filamentous growth pathway. First, western blotting for phosphorylated (activated) MAPKs (PMAPKs; Slt2p, Kss1p, Fus3p, and Hog1p) provides a measure of MAPK activity in yeast and other fungal species. Second, the PGU1 gene is a transcriptional target of the filamentous growth pathway. Cells that undergo filamentous growth secrete Pgu1p, an endopolygalacturonase that degrades the plant-specific polysaccharide pectin. We describe an assay that measures secreted pectinase activity, which reflects an active filamentous growth pathway. Finally, in yeast, two mucin-like glycoproteins, Msb2 and Flo11, regulate filamentous growth. Secretion of the processed and shed glycodomain of Msb2 is an indicator of MAPK activity. Flo11, the major adhesion molecule that controls filamentous growth and biofilm/mat formation, is also shed from cells. Detecting shed mucins with epitope-tagged versions of the proteins (secretion profiling) provides information about the regulation of filamentous growth across fungal species. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Source


Sethi S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2010

The normal lung has several defence mechanisms to deal with microorganisms. Lower respiratory infections in the absence of lung disease are therefore relatively infrequent as compared with upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adults. In the setting of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lower respiratory tract infections, both acute and chronic, occur with increased frequency. As these infections contribute considerably to the clinical course of the patient with COPD, they constitute a significant comorbidity in COPD. Recurrent acute infections by bacterial and/or viral pathogens are now clearly linked with the occurrence of exacerbations of COPD. In addition, the occurrence of pneumonia in COPD has received considerable recent attention as it appears to be increased by the use of inhaled corticosteroids. The role of chronic infection in the pathogenesis of COPD is an active area of research with several different types of pathogens potentially implicated. Additionally, COPD patients with HIV infection have a more rapidly progressive decline in lung function than non-HIV-infected patients. Enhanced understanding of the host-pathogen interaction is needed to better prevent and treat respiratory tract infection in COPD. Copyright©ERS 2010. Source


Warren R.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Chick L.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Global Change Biology | Year: 2013

Rapid climate change may prompt species distribution shifts upward and poleward, but species movement in itself is not sufficient to establish climate causation. Other dynamics, such as disturbance history, may prompt species distribution shifts resembling those expected from rapid climate change. Links between species distributions, regional climate trends and physiological mechanism are needed to convincingly establish climate-induced species shifts. We examine a 38-year shift (1974-2012) in an elevation ecotone between two closely related ant species, Aphaenogaster picea and A. rudis. Even though A. picea and A. rudis are closely related with North American distributions that sometimes overlap, they also exhibit local- and regional-scale differences in temperature requirements so that A. rudis is more southerly and inhabits lower elevations whereas A. picea is more northerly and inhabits high elevations. We find considerable movement by the warm-habitat species upward in elevation between 1974 and 2012 with A. rudis, replacing the cold-habitat species, A. picea, along the southern edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain in north Georgia, USA. Concomitant with the distribution shifts, regional mean and maximum temperatures remain steady (1974-2012), but minimum temperatures increase. We collect individuals from the study sites and subject them to thermal tolerance testing in a controlled setting and find that maximum and minimum temperature acclimatization occurs along the elevation gradient in both species, but A. rudis consistently becomes physiologically incapacitated at minimum and maximum temperatures 2 °C higher than A. picea. These results indicate that rising minimum temperatures allow A. rudis to move upward in elevation and displace A. picea. Given that Aphaenogaster ants are the dominant woodland seed dispersers in eastern deciduous forests, and that their thermal tolerances drive distinct differences in temperature-cued synchrony with early blooming plants, these climate responses not only impact ant-ant interactions, but might have wide implications for ant-plant interactions. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Bradford P.G.,State University of New York at Buffalo
BioFactors | Year: 2013

Turmeric has been long recognized for its anti-inflammatory and health-promoting properties. Curcumin is one of the principal anti-inflammatory and healthful components of turmeric comprising 2-8% of most turmeric preparations. Experimental evidence supports the activity of curcumin in promoting weight loss and reducing the incidence of obesity-related diseases. With the discovery that obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade metabolic inflammation, phytochemicals like curcumin which have anti-inflammatory activity are being intensely investigated. Recent scientific research reveals that curcumin directly interacts with white adipose tissue to suppress chronic inflammation. In adipose tissue, curcumin inhibits macrophage infiltration and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation induced by inflammatory agents. Curcumin reduces the expression of the potent proinflammatory adipokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), and it induces the expression of adiponectin, the principal anti-inflammatory agent secreted by adipocytes. Curcumin also has effects to inhibit adipocyte differentiation and to promote antioxidant activities. Through these diverse mechanisms curcumin reduces obesity and curtails the adverse health effects of obesity. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source


Morrow J.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Metal ions in life sciences | Year: 2012

Luminescent lanthanide (Ln(III)) ions are valuable spectroscopic probes for metal ion binding sites in nucleic acids. In this chapter, we briefly review Ln(III) luminescence and the information available from these experiments. An emphasis is placed on direct excitation Eu(III) spectroscopy as a tool. Eu(III) excitation spectroscopy is used to show that solutions containing micromolar Eu(III), 100 mM NaCl, and 20 mM MES buffer contain predominantly a mononuclear Eu(III) aqua complex and an Eu(III) hydroxide complexes. The binding of these species to various RNA and DNA sequences are monitored by using Eu(III) excitation spectroscopy. Eu(III) luminescence lifetime data shows that the Eu(III) ion typically loses 1-3 water molecules to form innersphere complexes with RNA and DNA that contain tandem base pair mismatches or hairpin loops. In addition, early studies that used nucleobase-sensitized Eu(III) or Tb(III) luminescence within transfer RNA or in the hammerhead ribozyme are presented. Luminescence resonance energy transfer studies are shown to be useful for determining distances between bound Ln(III) ion and organic fluorophores or between two different Ln(III) ions. To supplement luminescence data, the binding sites of paramagnetic Ln(III) ions are determined by monitoring the chemical shifts of nucleotide protons. Binding sites are identified by following the protons that are influenced by the Ln(III) pseudo-contact shift. Source


Meredith M.A.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Allman B.L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Neural Plasticity | Year: 2012

Numerous investigations of cortical crossmodal plasticity, most often in congenital or early-deaf subjects, have indicated that secondary auditory cortical areas reorganize to exhibit visual responsiveness while the core auditory regions are largely spared. However, a recent study of adult-deafened ferrets demonstrated that core auditory cortex was reorganized by the somatosensory modality. Because adult animals have matured beyond their critical period of sensory Development and plasticity, it was not known if adult-deafening and early-deafening would generate the same crossmodal results. The present study used young, ototoxically-lesioned ferrets (n = 3) that, after maturation (avg. =173 days old), showed significant hearing Deficits (avg. threshold=72dB SPL). Recordings from single-units (n = 132) in core auditory cortex showed that 72 were activated by somatosensory stimulation (compared to 1 in hearing controls). In addition, tracer injection into early hearing-impaired core auditory cortex labeled essentially the same auditory cortical and thalamic projection sources as seen for injections in the hearing controls, indicating that the functional reorganization was not the result of new or latent projections to the cortex. These data, along with similar observations from adult-deafened and adult hearing-impaired animals, support the recently proposed brainstem theory for crossmodal plasticity induced by hearing loss. © Copyright 2012 M. Alex Meredith and Brian L. Allman. Source


Bostwick W.,Northern Illinois University | Hequembourg A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2014

A growing body of evidence indicates disproportionate rates of mental health disorders among bisexual women compared to both heterosexual and lesbian women. Such disparities are often attributed to stressors related to minority status, including experiences of prejudice and discrimination. Prior research has made little distinction between the prejudicial experiences of bisexual groups as compared to lesbian/gay groups. Based on qualitative data gathered in focus groups with 10, predominantly White, bisexual-identified women, which occurred in a large city in the USA, we posit that differences in prejudicial experiences do exist for bisexual groups, and that such differences reside in the realms of the epistemic, yet have very real implications for bisexual women's daily lived experiences. We discuss everyday slights and insults, also known as microaggressions, reported by the participants vis-à-vis their bisexual identity. These bisexual-specific microaggressions include hostility; denial/dismissal; unintelligibility; pressure to change; lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender legitimacy; dating exclusion; and hypersexuality. We consider how such microaggressions may adversely impact mental health and well-being and may assist in explaining the mental health disparities among bisexual women. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source


Lippes J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Contraception | Year: 2015

Dr. Jaime Zipper, the Chilean inventor of the quinacrine method of nonsurgical permanent contraception, was aware that when chest surgeons injected quinacrine into the pleural cavity to treat and prevent reoccurrence of pleural effusion, it resulted in the formation of fibrous adhesions between the lung and costal pleura. Zipper thought that a similar scarring effect could occur in the fallopian tubes if quinacrine was instilled into the uterine cavity. A series of refinements of the methodology culminated in the use of a modified Copper T intrauterine device inserter tube as a delivery system to introduce seven quinacrine pellets into the uterus. This approach with quinacrine sterilization (QS) was introduced into clinical practice in several countries, and a national clinical trial of over 50,000 women was conducted in Vietnam. However, in 1993, the World Health Organization raised concerns that quinacrine might be carcinogenic. This resulted in abandonment of QS in Vietnam and other countries. Subsequent epidemiologic data from extensive human studies do not support an increase in cancer risk. This paper reviews the history, limitations and clinical potential of QS. © 2015 The Author. Source


Pang J.-S.,Enterprise Systems | Scutari G.,State University of New York at Buffalo
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2013

In this paper, we propose a novel class of Nash problems for Cognitive Radio (CR) networks composed of multiple primary users (PUs) and secondary users (SUs) wherein each SU (player) competes against the others to maximize his own opportunistic throughput by choosing jointly the sensing duration, the detection thresholds, and the vector power allocation over a multichannel link. In addition to power budget constraints, several (deterministic or probabilistic) interference constraints can be accommodated in the proposed general formulation, such as constraints on the maximum individual/aggregate (probabilistic) interference tolerable from the PUs. To keep the optimization as decentralized as possible, global interference constraints, when present, are imposed via pricing; the prices are thus additional variables to be optimized. The resulting players' optimization problems are nonconvex and there are price clearance conditions associated with the nonconvex global interference constraints to be satisfied by the equilibria of the game, which make the analysis of the proposed game a challenging task; none of classical results in the game theory literature can be successfully applied. To deal with the nonconvexity of the game, we introduce a relaxed equilibrium concept $-$ the Quasi-Nash Equilibrium (QNE)-and study its main properties, performance, and connection with local Nash equilibria. Quite interestingly, the proposed game theoretical formulations yield a considerable performance improvement with respect to current centralized and decentralized designs of CR systems, which validates the concept of QNE. © 1991-2012 IEEE. Source


Kidonakis N.,Kennesaw State University | Gonsalves R.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We present results for W-boson production at large transverse momentum at LHC and Tevatron energies. We calculate complete next-to-leading-order QCD corrections and higher-order soft-gluon corrections to the differential cross section. The soft-gluon contributions are resummed at next-to-next-to-leading- logarithm accuracy via the two-loop soft anomalous dimensions. Both next-to-leading-order and approximate next-to-next-to-leading-order p T distributions are presented. Our numerical results are in good agreement with recent data from the LHC. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Gottlieb P.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Channels (Austin, Tex.) | Year: 2012

Piezo ion channels have been found to be essential for mechanical responses in cells. These channels were first shown to exist in Neuro2A cells, and the gene was identified by siRNAs that diminished the mechanical response. Piezo channels are approximately 2500 amino acids long, have between 24-32 transmembrane regions, and appear to assemble into tetramers and require no other proteins for activity. They have a reversal potential around 0 mV and show voltage dependent inactivation. The channel is constitutively active in liposomes, indicating that no cytoskeletal elements are required. Heterologous expression of the Piezo protein can create mechanical sensitivity in otherwise insensitive cells.   Piezo1 currents in outside-out patches were blocked by the extracellular MSC inhibitor peptide GsMTx4. Both enantiomeric forms of GsMTx4 inhibited channel activity in a manner similar to endogenous mechanical channels. Piezo1 can adopt a tonic (non-inactivating) form with repeated stimulation. The transition to the non-inactivating form generally occurs in large groups of channels, indicating that the channels exist in domains, and once the domain is compromised, the members simultaneously adopt new properties. Piezo proteins are associated with physiological responses in cells, such as the reaction to noxious stimulus of Drosophila larvae. Recent work measuring cell crowding, shows that Piezo1 is essential for the removal of extra cells without apoptosis. Piezo1 mutations have also been linked to the pathological response of red blood cells in a genetic disease called Xerocytosis. These finding suggest that Piezo1 is a key player in cells' responses to mechanical stimuli. Source


Chemler S.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2011

Copper(II) carboxylates and chiral copper(II) triflate· bis(oxazoline) complexes promote and catalyze intramolecular alkene carboamination, diamination and aminooxygenation reactions, creating an array of nitrogen heterocycles. High diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity can be achieved in these transformations. This account reviews the discovery and development of these useful and interesting reactions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Tulowiecki S.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2014

Researchers have long utilized the vegetation data within presettlement land survey records (PLSRs) to understand past forest composition in North America. PLSRs typically contain two datasets: bearing-tree (BT) data and line-description (LD) data. BT data are records of the trees that surveyors blazed adjacent to survey monuments, whereas LD data provide descriptions of tree species that surveyors observed along survey lines. Recently, studies have applied BT data to develop species distribution models (SDMs). SDMs create predictions of species distributions, based upon the modeled relationship between species presence and absence records, and environmental variables. Despite the applications of BT data in SDMs, the value of LD data for developing SDMs has not been explored. This study compares SDMs trained from LD data versus BT data, using PLSRs that were created ca. 1799-1814 CE in Chautauqua County, New York State. Using consensus modeling techniques, this study finds that despite positional uncertainty issues, LD data produce SDMs with better predictive performance than BT data, and more adequately generalize to independent datasets. Moreover, a comparable amount of data can be collected from LD data as from BT data, in order to develop models with greater predictive ability. This study challenges the use of BT data in SDMs, and suggests that modeling past species distributions can be accomplished more effectively using LD data. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kopwitthaya A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Nanotechnology | Year: 2010

In this contribution, we report the use of a PEGylated gold nanorods formulation as a colored dye for tumor labeling in vivo. We have demonstrated that the nanorod-targeted tumor site can be easily differentiated from the background tissues by the 'naked eye' without the need of sophisticated imaging instruments. In addition to tumor labeling, we have also performed in vivo toxicity and biodistribution studies of PEGylated gold nanorods in vivo by using BALB/c mice as the model. In vivo toxicity studies indicated no mortality or adverse effects or weight changes in BALB/c mice treated with PEGylated gold nanorods. This finding will provide useful guidelines in the future development of diagnostic probes for cancer diagnosis, optically guided tumor surgery, and lymph node mapping applications. Source


Smith J.D.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Psychonomic Bulletin and Review | Year: 2014

The article explores-from a utility/adaptation perspective-the role of prototype and exemplar processes in categorization. The author surveys important category tasks within the categorization literature from the perspective of the optimality of applying prototype and exemplar processes. Formal simulations reveal that organisms will often (not always!) receive more useful signals about category belongingness if they average their exemplar experience into a prototype and use this as the comparative standard for categorization. This survey then provides the theoretical context for considering the evolution of cognitive systems for categorization. In the article's final sections, the author reviews recent research on the performance of nonhuman primates and humans in the tasks analyzed in the article. Diverse species share operating principles, default commitments, and processing weaknesses in categorization. From these commonalities, it may be possible to infer some properties of the categorization ecology these species generally experienced during cognitive evolution. © 2013 Psychonomic Society, Inc. Source


Raines D.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
International journal of nursing education scholarship | Year: 2013

This retrospective study explores the work activities of graduates from an accelerated, second-degree BSN program. There is documented growth in the number of accelerated, second-degree programs and the number of graduates from these programs. However, there are no published studies of whether or not these graduates are members of the workforce 5 years following graduation. This retrospective study found that the majority of the graduates are employed in nursing, and a large percentage have earned or are pursuing advanced degrees in nursing. Source


Pfordresher P.Q.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2012

Recent research has shown that music training enhances music-related sensorimotor associations, such as the relationship between a key press on the keyboard and its associated musical pitch (auditory feedback). Such results suggest that the role of auditory feedback in performance may be based on learned associations that are task specific. Here, results from various studies will be presented that suggest that the real state of affairs is more complex. Several recent studies have shown similar effects of altered auditory feedback during piano performance for pianists and individuals with no piano training. Other recent research suggests dramatic differences between pianists and nonmusicians concerning the influence of auditory feedback on melody switching that suggest greater influence of auditory feedback among nonmusicians than pianists. Taken together, results suggest that musical training refines preexisting sensorimotor associations. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences. Source


Ruckenstein E.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects | Year: 2012

It is suggested that superspreading of droplets of dilute aqueous solutions of siloxane surfactants over a hydrophobic surface is driven by: (i) the spreading at their leading edges of the surfactant as bilayers, (ii) the suction of water in the hydrophilic atmosphere between the two layers and (iii) the displacement of the surfactant and water by a Marangoni effect intensified by the formation of bilayers. An explanation is provided for the observation that the rate of spreading passes through a maximum at an optimum degree of surface wettability (surface hydrophobicity). © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Poulin M.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Health Psychology | Year: 2014

Objective: The purpose of these studies was to examine the role of positive views of other people in predicting stress-buffering effects of volunteering on mortality and psychological distress. Method: In Study 1, stressful life events, volunteering, and hostile cynicism assessed in a baseline Detroit-area survey (N = 846) predicted survival over a 5-year period, adjusting for relevant covariates. In Study 2, stressful life events, volunteering, and world benevolence beliefs assessed in a baseline national survey (N = 1,157) predicted psychological distress over a 1-year period, adjusting for distress at baseline. Results: In Study 1, a Cox proportional hazard model indicated that for individuals low in cynicism, stress predicted mortality at low levels of volunteering but not at high levels of volunteering. This effect was not present among those high in cynicism. In Study 2, multiple regression analysis revealed that among individuals high in world benevolence beliefs, stress predicted elevated distress at low levels of volunteering but not at high levels of volunteering. This effect was absent for those lower in world benevolence beliefs. Conclusions: Consistent with prior research on helping behavior, these studies indicate that helping behavior can buffer the effects of stress on health. However, the results of these studies indicate that stress-buffering effects of volunteering are limited to individuals with positive views of other people. Not all individuals may benefit from volunteering, and health-promotion efforts seeking to draw on health benefits of helping behavior may need to target their approach accordingly. © 2013 American Psychological Association. Source


Hoffman S.G.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Social Studies of Science | Year: 2015

Some scholars dismiss the distinction between basic and applied science as passé, yet substantive assumptions about this boundary remain obdurate in research policy, popular rhetoric, the sociology and philosophy of science, and, indeed, at the level of bench practice. In this article, I draw on a multiple ontology framework to provide a more stable affirmation of a constructivist position in science and technology studies that cannot be reduced to a matter of competing perspectives on a single reality. The analysis is grounded in ethnographic research in the border zone of Artificial Intelligence science. I translate in-situ moments in which members of neighboring but differently situated labs engage in three distinct repertoires that render the reality of basic and applied science: partitioning, flipping, and collapsing. While the essences of scientific objects are nowhere to be found, the boundary between basic and applied is neither illusion nor mere propaganda. Instead, distinctions among scientific knowledge are made real as a matter of course. © The Author(s) 2015 Source


Garrett-Sinha L.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2013

The Ets1 transcription factor is a member of the Ets gene family and is highly conserved throughout evolution. Ets1 is known to regulate a number of important biological processes in normal cells and in tumors. In particular, Ets1 has been associated with regulation of immune cell function and with an aggressive behavior in tumors that express it at high levels. Here we review and summarize the general features of Ets1 and describe its roles in immunity and autoimmunity, with a focus on its roles in B lymphocytes. We also review evidence that suggests that Ets1 may play a role in malignant transformation of hematopoietic malignancies including B cell malignancies. © 2013 Springer Basel. Source


Andrade R.,Wayne State University | Haj-Dahmane S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
ACS Chemical Neuroscience | Year: 2013

The dorsal raphe nucleus contains one of the largest groups of serotonergic neurons in the mammalian brain and is the main site of origin of the serotonergic projection to the cerebral cortex. Early electrophysiological studies suggested that serotonergic neurons in this cell group formed a homogeneous cell class. More recent studies however have reported heterogeneity among the core anatomical and electrophysiological properties of these neurons, thus raising the possibility that serotonergic neurons of this cell group may form two or more distinct cell classes. In this Viewpoint, we review these findings and suggest ways to look at cellular heterogeneity among serotonergic neurons. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source


Auerbach A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2010

Acetylcholine receptor-channels are allosteric proteins that isomerize ('gate') between conformations that have a low vs. high affinity for the transmitter and conductance for ions. In order to comprehend the mechanism by which the affinity and conductance changes are linked it is of value to know the magnitude, timing and distribution of energy flowing through the system. Knowing both the di- and unliganded gating equilibrium constants (E2 and E0) is a foundation for understanding the AChR gating mechanism and for engineering both the ligand and the protein to operate in predictable ways. In adult mouse neuromuscular receptors activated by acetylcholine, E2= 28 and E0≈ 6.5 × 10-7. At each (equivalent) transmitter binding site acetylcholine provides ∼5.2 kcal mol-1 to motivate the isomerization. The partial agonist choline provides ∼3.3 kcal mol-1. The relative time of a residue's gating energy change is revealed by the slope of its rate-equilibrium constant relationship. A map of this parameter suggests that energy propagates as a conformational cascade between the transmitter binding sites and the gate region. Although gating energy changes are widespread throughout the protein, some residues are particularly sensitive to perturbations. Several specific proposals for the structural events that comprise the gating conformational cascade are discussed. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 The Physiological Society. Source


Sachs F.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Physiology | Year: 2010

Mechanosensitive ion channels (MSCs) exist in all cells, but mechanosensitivity is a phenotype not a genotype. Specialized mechanoreceptors such as the hair cells of the cochlea require elaborate mechanical impedance matching to couple the channels to the external stress. In contrast, MSCs in nonspecialized cells appear activated by stress in the bilayer local to the channel-within about three lipids. Local mechanical stress can be produced by far-field tension, amphipaths, phase separations, the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix, and the adhesion energy between the membrane and a patch pipette. Understanding MSC function requires understanding the stimulus. ©2010 Int. Union Physiol. Sci/Am. Physiol. Soc. Source


Atilla-Gokcumen G.E.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Atilla-Gokcumen G.E.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Muro E.,Kings College London | Relat-Goberna J.,Kings College London | And 7 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2014

Although massive membrane rearrangements occur during cell division, little is known about specific roles that lipids might play in this process. We report that the lipidome changes with the cell cycle. LC-MS-based lipid profiling shows that 11 lipids with specific chemical structures accumulate in dividing cells. Using AFM, we demonstrate differences in the mechanical properties of live dividing cells and their isolated lipids relative to nondividing cells. In parallel, systematic RNAi knockdown of lipid biosynthetic enzymes identified enzymes required for division, which highly correlated with lipids accumulated in dividing cells. We show that cells specifically regulate the localization of lipids to midbodies, membrane-based structures where cleavage occurs. We conclude that cells actively regulate and modulate their lipid composition and localization during division, with both signaling and structural roles likely. This work has broader implications for the active and sustained participation of lipids in basic biology. © 2014 The Authors. Source


Zhao H.,University of Alberta | Su W.,State University of New York at Buffalo
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2010

The popularity of multimedia multicast/broadcast applications over wireless networks makes it critical to address the error-prone, heterogeneous and dynamically changing nature of wireless channels. A promising solution to combat channel fading is to explore the cooperative diversity in which users may help each other forward packets. This paper investigates cooperative multicast schemes that use a maximal ratio combiner to enhance the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and provides a thorough performance analysis. Two relay selection schemes are considered: the distributed and the genie-aided cooperation schemes. We derive the closed-form formulation and the approximations of their average outage probabilities.We also analyze the optimal power allocation and relay location strategies, and show that allocating half of the total transmission power to the source minimizes the average outage probability. Our analysis and simulation results show that cooperative multicast gives better performance when more relays help forward signals. Cooperative multicast helps achieve diversity order 2, and user cooperation can significantly reduce the outage probability, especially in the high SNR region. Finally, we compare the two cooperation strategies, and show that distributed cooperative multicast is preferred since it achieves a lower outage probability without introducing extra overhead for control messages. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Perception of external stimuli and generation of an appropriate response are crucial for host colonization by pathogens. In pathogenic fungi, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate dimorphism, biofilm/mat formation, and virulence. Signaling mucins, characterized by a heavily glycosylated extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a small cytoplasmic domain, are known to regulate various signaling pathways. In Candida albicans, the mucin Msb2 regulates the Cek1 MAPK pathway. We show here that Msb2 is localized to the yeast cell wall and is further enriched on hyphal surfaces. A msb2Δ/Δ strain formed normal hyphae but had biofilm defects. Cek1 (but not Mkc1) phosphorylation was absent in the msb2Δ/Δ mutant. The extracellular domain of Msb2 was shed in cells exposed to elevated temperature and carbon source limitation, concomitant with germination and Cek1 phosphorylation. Msb2 shedding occurred differentially in cells grown planktonically or on solid surfaces in the presence of cell wall and osmotic stressors. We further show that Msb2 shedding and Cek1 phosphorylation were inhibited by addition of Pepstatin A (PA), a selective inhibitor of aspartic proteases (Saps). Analysis of combinations of Sap protease mutants identified a sap8Δ/Δ mutant with reduced MAPK signaling along with defects in biofilm formation, thereby suggesting that Sap8 potentially serves as a major regulator of Msb2 processing. We further show that loss of either Msb2 (msb2Δ/Δ) or Sap8 (sap8Δ/Δ) resulted in higher C. albicans surface β-glucan exposure and msb2Δ/Δ showed attenuated virulence in a murine model of oral candidiasis. Thus, Sap-mediated proteolytic cleavage of Msb2 is required for activation of the Cek1 MAPK pathway in response to environmental cues including those that induce germination. Inhibition of Msb2 processing at the level of Saps may provide a means of attenuating MAPK signaling and reducing C. albicans virulence. Source


Donnelly K.T.,State University of New York at Buffalo
The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation | Year: 2011

To provide item analyses, estimates of temporal reliability and internal consistency, and examination of the sensitivity and specificity of a traumatic brain injury-screening tool. Five hundred veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan enrolled in the study, approximately half of whom (248) volunteered. The remaining 252 participants were referred to Veteran Affairs (VA) neuropsychology or polytrauma clinics. This psychometric study constitutes part of a larger 4-year, multisite prospective cohort study of veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Five VA medical centers and one VA outpatient clinic. Veteran traumatic brain injury screening tool (VATBIST), a structured diagnostic interview for traumatic brain injury; a military-oriented posttraumatic stress disorder checklist. The VATBIST appeared to have high-internal consistency (0.77) and test-retest reliability (0.80), high sensitivity (0.94) and moderate specificity (0.59). Diagnostic odds ratios for the screening tool ranged from 12.6 for the total sample to 24, when veterans with probable posttraumatic stress disorder were excluded from analysis. The VATBIST appears to be a reliable and valid instrument. The presence of significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, however, reduces the accuracy of the measure and highlights the need for careful clinical follow-up of persons who screen positive. Source


Wagmiller R.L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Child Development Perspectives | Year: 2015

Economic deprivation during childhood adversely affects achievement in adolescence and early adulthood. Economically disadvantaged children tend to achieve less than their more advantaged peers on a variety of measures of educational and socioeconomic achievement. Researchers recognize that what matters for achievement is not merely exposure to economic deprivation during childhood but also the temporal dynamics of deprivation. Recent studies have found that the effects of childhood economic disadvantage on achievement depend on the timing of deprivation (early childhood vs. middle or late childhood), the sequencing of deprivation (whether family income is rising or falling), and the overall duration of exposure to deprivation. In this article, I describe conceptual and methodological advances in understanding the temporal dynamics of childhood economic disadvantage, and address the implications of these improvements for our knowledge of how deprivation affects children's achievement. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development. Source


Richard J.P.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyzes the stereospecific 1,2-proton shift at dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to give (R)-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate through a pair of isomeric enzyme-bound cis-enediolate phosphate intermediates. The chemical transformations that occur at the active site of TIM were well understood by the early 1990s. The mechanism for enzyme-catalyzed isomerization is similar to that for the nonenzymatic reaction in water, but the origin of the catalytic rate acceleration is not understood. We review the results of experimental work that show that a substantial fraction of the large 12 kcal/mol intrinsic binding energy of the nonreacting phosphodianion fragment of TIM is utilized to activate the active site side chains for catalysis of proton transfer. Evidence is presented that this activation is due to a phosphodianion-driven conformational change, the most dramatic feature of which is closure of loop 6 over the dianion. The kinetic data are interpreted within the framework of a model in which activation is due to the stabilization by the phosphodianion of a rare, desolvated, loop-closed form of TIM. The dianion binding energy is proposed to drive the otherwise thermodynamically unfavorable desolvation of the solvent-exposed active site. This reduces the effective local dielectric constant of the active site, to enhance stabilizing electrostatic interactions between polar groups and the anionic transition state, and increases the basicity of the carboxylate side chain of Glu-165 that functions to deprotonate the bound carbon acid substrate. A rebuttal is presented to the recent proposal [Samanta, M., Murthy, M. R. N., Balaram, H., and Balaram, P. (2011) ChemBioChem 12, 1886-1895] that the cationic side chain of K12 functions as an active site electrophile to protonate the carbonyl oxygen of DHAP. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Velagapudi S.P.,Scripps Research Institute | Velagapudi S.P.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Gallo S.M.,Buffalo Center of Excellence | Disney M.D.,Scripps Research Institute
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2014

Oligonucleotides are designed to target RNA using base pairing rules, but they can be hampered by poor cellular delivery and nonspecific stimulation of the immune system. Small molecules are preferred as lead drugs or probes but cannot be designed from sequence. Herein, we describe an approach termed Inforna that designs lead small molecules for RNA from solely sequence. Inforna was applied to all human microRNA hairpin precursors, and it identified bioactive small molecules that inhibit biogenesis by binding nuclease-processing sites (44% hit rate). Among 27 lead interactions, the most avid interaction is between a benzimidazole (1) and precursor microRNA-96. Compound 1 selectively inhibits biogenesis of microRNA-96, upregulating a protein target (FOXO1) and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Apoptosis is ablated when FOXO1 mRNA expression is knocked down by an siRNA, validating compound selectivity. Markedly, microRNA profiling shows that 1 only affects microRNA-96 biogenesis and is at least as selective as an oligonucleotide. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Bartlett M.S.,University of California at San Diego | Littlewort G.C.,University of California at San Diego | Frank M.G.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Lee K.,University of Toronto
Current Biology | Year: 2014

In highly social species such as humans, faces have evolved to convey rich information for social interaction, including expressions of emotions and pain [1-3]. Two motor pathways control facial movement [4-7]: a subcortical extrapyramidal motor system drives spontaneous facial expressions of felt emotions, and a cortical pyramidal motor system controls voluntary facial expressions. The pyramidal system enables humans to simulate facial expressions of emotions not actually experienced. Their simulation is so successful that they can deceive most observers [8-11]. However, machine vision may be able to distinguish deceptive facial signals from genuine facial signals by identifying the subtle differences between pyramidally and extrapyramidally driven movements. Here, we show that human observers could not discriminate real expressions of pain from faked expressions of pain better than chance, and after training human observers, we improved accuracy to a modest 55%. However, a computer vision system that automatically measures facial movements and performs pattern recognition on those movements attained 85% accuracy. The machine system's superiority is attributable to its ability to differentiate the dynamics of genuine expressions from faked expressions. Thus, by revealing the dynamics of facial action through machine vision systems, our approach has the potential to elucidate behavioral fingerprints of neural control systems involved in emotional signaling. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Murphy T.F.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2015

Infections due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae result in enormous global morbidity in two clinical settings: otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recurrent otitis media affects up to 20% of children and results in hearing loss, delays in speech and language development and, in developing countries, chronic suppurative otitis media. Infections in people with COPD result in clinic and emergency room visits, hospital admissions, and respiratory failure. An effective vaccine would prevent morbidity, help control health care costs, and reduce antibiotic use, a major contributor to the global crisis in bacterial antibiotic resistance. The widespread use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is causing a relative increase in H. influenzae otitis media. The partial protection against H. influenzae otitis media induced by the pneumococcal H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine represents a proof of principle of the feasibility of a vaccine for nontypeable H. influenzae. An ideal vaccine antigen should be conserved among strains, have abundant epitopes on the bacterial surface, be immunogenic, and induce protective immune responses. Several surface proteins of H. influenzae have been identified as potential vaccine candidates and are in various stages of development. With continued research, progress toward a broadly effective vaccine to prevent infections caused by nontypeable H. influenzae is expected over the next several years. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Valentine G.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Hirano N.,Tohoku University
Geology | Year: 2010

We compare two intraplate, Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic fields in different tectonic settings - the central Basin and Range and the northwest Pacific Ocean. Both fields are characterized by widely scattered, small-volume, alkali basaltic volcanoes; within the fields, each volcano apparently originates from a separate, volatile-enriched parental melt from the upper mantle. There is no evidence at either field for locally anomalous heat flow or ongoing introduction of new fluids into the upper mantle such as might occur above a subducting slab. We conclude that the volcanic fields reflect deformation-driven collection of already existing partial melts in a heterogeneous upper mantle. Deformation-driven melt collection may be an important mechanism for other diffuse intraplate volcanic fields, and this is consistent with a tectonically controlled, low-flux end member for intraplate fields where magmatism is a passive response to regional deformation. Differences in the degree of fractionation and contamination between the two fields are inferred to be related to flexure-induced vertical variations in the orientation of principal stresses in the northwest Pacific Ocean, which cause stalling of ascending dikes in the lithosphere. © 2010 Geological Society of America. Source


Guttuso Jr. T.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Maturitas | Year: 2013

Stellate ganglion block (SGB) has been used for over 70 years to treat various cervical pain syndromes. Over the past 8 years, 4 different groups have reported on SGB's effects on hot flashes from unblinded, open-label trials. Review of these studies has shown markedly disparate results in terms of the magnitude of hot flash reduction from Baseline with one trial showing a 90% reduction in hot flashes and 3 other trials showing 28-44% reductions in hot flashes. The inconsistencies in these results in addition to the known potentially large (>50%) placebo effects that can occur in randomized controlled hot flash clinical trials make it difficult to render any conclusions regarding the efficacy of SGB for hot flashes at this time. A randomized controlled trial, including a sham saline treatment arm, needs to be performed to properly assess SGB's effects on hot flashes, Methodological challenges with such a study design are addressed and several suggestions are proposed to manage these challenges. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Valentine G.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research | Year: 2012

Monogenetic basaltic volcanoes record complex eruption processes and the relationships between those processes and shallow plumbing are poorly understood. This paper explores these relationships, building upon earlier studies of exposed shallow plumbing (in the upper hundreds of meters of crust) beneath volcanoes produced by magmatic eruption processes and those produced by phreatomagmatic processes, such as scoria cones and maars, respectively. Eruptive facies and xenolith abundances are described at three scoria cones and at tephra rings around two maars in the San Francisco Volcanic Field (Arizona, USA). Well-constrained subvolcanic sedimentary stratigraphy provides constraints on the depths of origin of xenoliths of different types. Sedimentary xenolith contents at scoria cones are <10 -3 and commonly <10 -4 (volume fraction of xenoliths) and are composed almost entirely of fragments from the uppermost sedimentary formation (Kaibab Formation, depth interval ~50-200m). These xenolith contents are consistent with conduits or dikes that widen mainly in the uppermost tens of meters of the crust, as observed at exposed plumbing systems of eroded scoria cones. Sedimentary xenolith contents in tephra ring deposits at one of the studied maar volcanoes also are typically <10 -3 (volume fraction) and the remaining fraction is dominated by clasts of pre-maar volcanic rocks that formed an ~50 thick surface layer over the sedimentary formations; the second studied maar has much higher xenolith contents but this also appears to be dominated by the shallowest unit. The maars' tephra ring deposits contain xenoliths from all of the major sedimentary units beneath the volcanoes (to depths of ~1200m) but the abundances and proportions of xenoliths are not consistent with the volumes of sub-volcanic units that would be disrupted assuming dimensions that are commonly observed in exposed maar plumbing systems (diatremes). These differences illustrate the different mechanisms for conduit/dike widening in magmatic versus phreatomagmatic eruptions. Namely, ascending eruptive mixtures driven by magmatic volatiles widen their relatively shallow conduits by erosion and mechanical failure of the walls and ejection of the resulting xenoliths. Maar-forming eruptions produce wide and deep diatremes mainly by mechanical disruption of country rock during many discrete magma-water explosions at varying depths in the subsurface. Deep explosions cause debris jets that may not erupt, and the disrupted country rock and juvenile material gradually churns and mixes within the diatreme. Only a small fraction of the debris is ejected from the crater by especially strong and/or shallow explosions, to form tephra ring deposits. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Riessen H.P.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2012

Inducible defences are advantageous because they protect the prey while limiting associated fitness costs. The presence of these costs is an essential component of this conditional strategy, since their absence would favour constitutive (fixed) defences. In some cases, however, these costs have been difficult to measure because of complex interactions between the defences themselves, resultant life history changes and the organism's environment. The pond-dwelling water flea, Daphnia pulex, forms defensive neck spines in response to kairomones released by predatory larvae of the phantom midge, Chaoborus. This predator-prey interaction and the formation of these inducible defences have been well studied, but costs associated with the development of neck spines remain unclear. In this study, I address this problem by analysing the effect of Chaoborus kairomones on the life history responses (and fitness costs associated with these responses) of two clones of D. pulex that are from the same pond population, but differ greatly in their degree of neck spine development. Both D. pulex clones exhibited the same predator-induced shifts in life history: larger size at birth, reduced juvenile growth rate (producing a smaller size at maturity), delayed reproduction and a reduction in the number of neonates produced after the first clutch. Relative fitness decreased significantly and to the same degree (c. 10% reduction in r) in each clone. This observed fitness cost was not directly related to the neck spines per se since the cost was the same in both clones, despite their considerable differences in neck spine development. Rather, it appears to be indirectly related to this antipredator morphology via a combination of delayed reproduction and a set of life history trade-offs (decreased growth rate, decreased reproduction after the first clutch) for increased neonate body size, which is necessary for neck spines to be effective defences. This suite of induced responses is probably a result of local adaptation of these two D. pulex clones to their common pond environment. Costs of inducible defences do not always entail direct allocation costs associated with forming and maintaining a defence, but may also involve indirect life history responses that are specific to particular environmental situations. This local adaptation would explain the highly variable life history responses observed among D. pulex clones from different pond environments. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


A new hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) clinical variant of Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) has emerged over the last decade. Our goal is to identify new mechanisms, which increase the virulence hvKP. It has been shown that hvKP strains produce more biofilm than "classical" stains of K. pneumoniae, therefore we hypothesized that biofilm formation may contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic infection. To test this hypothesis, transposon mutants of the model pathogen hvKP1 were generated and screened for decreased production of biofilm. Three mutant constructs with disruptions in glnA [putatively encodes glutamine synthetase, hvKP1 glnA:: EZ::TN < KAN-2 > (glnA::Tn)], sucD [putatively encodes succinyl-CoA synthase α subunit, hvKP1 sucD:: EZ::TN < KAN-2 > (sucD::Tn)], and tag [putatively encodes transcriptional antiterminator of glycerol uptake operon, hvKP1 tag:: EZ::TN < KAN-2 > (tag::Tn)] were chosen for further characterization and use in biologic studies. Quantitative assays performed in rich laboratory medium and human ascites confirmed the phenotype and a hypermucoviscosity assay established that capsule production was not affected. However, compared with its wild-type parent, neither planktonic cells nor biofilms of glnA::Tn, sucD::Tn and tag::Tn displayed a change to the bactericidal activity of 90% human serum. Likewise, when assessed in a rat subcutaneous abscess model, the growth and survival of glnA::Tn, sucD::Tn and tag::Tn in abscess fluid was similar to hvKP1. In this report we identify three new genes that contribute to biofilm formation in hvKP1. However, decreased biofilm production due to disruption of these genes does not affect the sensitivity of these mutant constructs to 90% human serum when in planktonic form or within a biofilm. Further, their virulence in an in vivo abscess model was unaffected. Source


Anker A.E.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Progress in transplantation (Aliso Viejo, Calif.) | Year: 2010

Current knowledge regarding the barriers to organ donation relies on 3 data sources: potential donor families, hospital staff, and members of the general public. The current study complements these findings by interviewing organ procurement coordinators about their experiences during the familial consent process. To characterize organ procurement coordinators' reports of barriers to obtaining familial consent for donation. Structured, face-to-face interviews. One hundred and two organ procurement coordinators recruited from a national sample of 16 organ procurement organizations. Interviews were content analyzed to describe coordinators' experiences with families who decline donation. Manifest coding was used to determine the frequency with which particular barriers were identified by coordinators. Coordinators' reports of barriers were compared with organizational conversion rates to determine which barriers were associated with performance as an organization. Organ procurement coordinators revealed 16 distinct barriers in 4 overlying categories: concerns regarding decedents' wishes, structural barriers to donation, unsupportive belief systems, and lack of public education. Three reported barriers could be used to differentiate between high- and low-performance organizations: (1) familial concerns over bodily disfigurement, (2) failure of families to understand brain death, and (3) families' cultural/racial background. These results supplement existing reports of barriers to donation and are discussed in terms of shaping future public education efforts and request processes to improve conversion rates. Source


Lin H.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering | Year: 2014

The widespread application of membrane gas separation systems in recent years results from the development of effective process designs and high performance membrane materials. This has led to low-cost and energy-efficient processes. This review highlights three new developments in membrane technology that further enhance the technology's competitiveness. First, the development of sweep/countercurrent designs that integrate membrane units into process trains with high energy efficiency, especially for separations with low feed-to-permeate pressure ratios, are discussed. Second, the development of process designs that balance permeability and selectivity to achieve maximum efficiency are considered. Finally, recent studies of thin-film membrane stability are reviewed. The decrease in membrane permeability overtime is a problem that continues to limit membrane processes. However, because the causes of the decline are now better understood, cures may be possible. Source


Tian L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2010

In diagnostic studies, we often need to combine several markers to increase the diagnostic accuracy. This paper addresses the problem of confidence interval estimation of partial area under receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the combined marker based on the optimal linear combination proposed by Su and Liu (1993). The proposed approach is developed using the concepts of generalized inference. Numerical study demonstrates that the proposed approach generally can provide reasonable confidence intervals via a few straightforward simulation steps. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Matott L.S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation | Year: 2012

Pump-and-treat systems can prevent the migration of groundwater contaminants and candidate systems are typically evaluated with groundwater models. Such models should be rigorously assessed to determine predictive capabilities and numerous tools and techniques for model assessment are available. While various assessment methodologies (e.g., model calibration, uncertainty analysis, and Bayesian inference) are well-established for groundwater modeling, this paper calls attention to an alternative assessment technique known as screening-level sensitivity analysis (SLSA). SLSA can quickly quantify first-order (i.e., main effects) measures of parameter influence in connection with various model outputs. Subsequent comparisons of parameter influence with respect to calibration vs. prediction outputs can suggest gaps in model structure and/or data. Thus, while SLSA has received little attention in the context of groundwater modeling and remedial system design, it can nonetheless serve as a useful and computationally efficient tool for preliminary model assessment. To illustrate the use of SLSA in the context of designing groundwater remediation systems, four SLSA techniques were applied to a hypothetical, yet realistic, pump-and-treat case study to determine the relative influence of six hydraulic conductivity parameters. Considered methods were: Taguchi design-of-experiments (TDOE); Monte Carlo statistical independence (MCSI) tests; average composite scaled sensitivities (ACSS); and elementary effects sensitivity analysis (EESA). In terms of performance, the various methods identified the same parameters as being the most influential for a given simulation output. Furthermore, results indicate that the background hydraulic conductivity is important for predicting system performance, but calibration outputs are insensitive to this parameter (K BK). The observed insensitivity is attributed to a nonphysical specified-head boundary condition used in the model formulation which effectively "staples" head values located within the conductivity zone. Thus, potential strategies for improving model predictive capabilities include additional data collection targeting the K BK parameter and/or revision of model structure to reduce the influence of the specified head boundary. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation © 2011, National Ground Water Association. Source


Curtis A.B.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Worley S.J.,Lancaster General Hospital | Adamson P.B.,Oklahoma Foundation for Cardiovascular Research | Chung E.S.,Heart and Vascular Center at Christ Hospital | And 4 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular pacing restores an adequate heart rate in patients with atrioventricular block, but high percentages of right ventricular apical pacing may promote left ventricular systolic dysfunction. We evaluated whether biventricular pacing might reduce mortality, morbidity, and adverse left ventricular remodeling in such patients. METHODS: We enrolled patients who had indications for pacing with atrioventricular block; New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I, II, or III heart failure; and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 50% or less. Patients received a cardiac-resynchronization pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (the latter if the patient had an indication for defibrillation therapy) and were randomly assigned to standard right ventricular pacing or biventricular pacing. The primary outcome was the time to death from any cause, an urgent care visit for heart failure that required intravenous therapy, or a 15% or more increase in the left ventricular end-systolic volume index. RESULTS: Of 918 patients enrolled, 691 underwent randomization and were followed for an average of 37 months. The primary outcome occurred in 190 of 342 patients (55.6%) in the right-ventricular-pacing group, as compared with 160 of 349 (45.8%) in the biventricular-pacing group. Patients randomly assigned to biventricular pacing had a significantly lower incidence of the primary outcome over time than did those assigned to right ventricular pacing (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% credible interval, 0.60 to 0.90); results were similar in the pacemaker and ICD groups. Left ventricular lead-related complications occurred in 6.4% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Biventricular pacing was superior to conventional right ventricular pacing in patients with atrioventricular block and left ventricular systolic dysfunction with NYHA class I, II, or III heart failure. (Funded by Medtronic; BLOCK HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00267098.) Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Jornet J.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Akyildiz I.F.,Georgia Institute of Technology
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications | Year: 2013

Nanonetworks, i.e., networks of nano-sized devices, are the enabling technology of long-awaited applications in the biological, industrial and military fields. For the time being, the size and power constraints of nano-devices limit the applicability of classical wireless communication in nanonetworks. Alternatively, nanomaterials can be used to enable electromagnetic (EM) communication among nano-devices. In this paper, a novel graphene-based nano-antenna, which exploits the behavior of Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) waves in semi-finite size Graphene Nanoribbons (GNRs), is proposed, modeled and analyzed. First, the conductivity of GNRs is analytically and numerically studied by starting from the Kubo formalism to capture the impact of the electron lateral confinement in GNRs. Second, the propagation of SPP waves in GNRs is analytically and numerically investigated, and the SPP wave vector and propagation length are computed. Finally, the nano-antenna is modeled as a resonant plasmonic cavity, and its frequency response is determined. The results show that, by exploiting the high mode compression factor of SPP waves in GNRs, graphene-based plasmonic nano-antennas are able to operate at much lower frequencies than their metallic counterparts, e.g., the Terahertz Band for a one-micrometer-long ten-nanometers-wide antenna. This result has the potential to enable EM communication in nanonetworks. © 1983-2012 IEEE. Source


Detty M.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Photochemistry and Photobiology | Year: 2012

This article is a highlight of the paper by Anquez et al. in this issue of Photochemistry and Photobiology and describes the potential benefits of direct excitation of molecular oxygen to produce singlet oxygen ( 1O 2) rather than using a photosensitizer. Due to its simplicity, the direct excitation of molecular oxygen can potentially overcome problems associated with systemic administration of dyes, such as skin photosensitivity and the clearance of free sensitizer from the body. However, concerns associated with the technique include indiscriminate generation of extracellular and intracellular 1O 2, the difficulty of controlling necrotic vs apoptotic cell death and the possible consequences of thermal effects. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology. Source


Liu B.,University of Science and Technology of China | Yan Z.,University of Science and Technology of China | Chen C.,State University of New York at Buffalo
IEEE Wireless Communications | Year: 2013

Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) is a promising low power technology that enables the communications between body area sensor nodes and a central coordinator. It targets at many applications in e-Health services. In WBAN, different data sources generate time-varying traffic. Large traffic volume may result in intolerant latency and thus it is extremely important that the most significant data can always be delivered in a real-time fashion. Besides, data transmission may suffer from deep fading and packets loss due to the dynamic on-body channel induced by movements and surrounding environment. Hence, energy-efficient medium access control (MAC) is crucially needed to allocate transmission bandwidth and to ensure reliable transmission considering WBAN contexts, i.e., time-varying human and environment conditions. To improve both efficiency and reliability, we investigate the challenges in the development of WBAN MAC design. Furthermore, based on the traffic nature and channel status, we introduce a context-aware MAC protocol to meet time-varying requirements of WBAN. We have demonstrated that the proposed protocol is able to reduce latency, energy consumption, and packet loss rate, as well as to achieve a reasonable trade-off between efficiency and reliability. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Chelnis J.G.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | Year: 2012

Urrets-Zavalia syndrome is a surgical complication in which the pupil remains fixed and dilated after a procedure. It is believed to be caused by brief periods of high intraocular pressure. Although the syndrome was originally associated with penetrating keratoplasty, it has subsequently been associated with other procedures. We report the case of a 13-year-old boy with congenital glaucoma who developed Urrets-Zavalia syndrome after goniotomy. After 2 years of follow-up, the pupil remained fixed and dilated in that eye. To our knowledge this is the first case of Urrets-Zavalia syndrome to be reported following goniotomy and the first to occur in a child. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Yan X.,Zhejiang University | Cook T.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Wang P.,Zhejiang University | Huang F.,Zhejiang University | Stang P.J.,University of Utah
Nature Chemistry | Year: 2015

Light-emitting materials, especially those with tunable wavelengths, attract considerable attention for applications in optoelectronic devices, fluorescent probes, sensors and so on. Many species evaluated for these purposes either emit as a dilute solution or on aggregation, with the former often self-quenching at high concentrations, and the latter falling dark when aggregation is disrupted. Here we preserve emissive behaviour at both low-and high-concentration regimes for two discrete supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs). These tetragonal prismatic SCCs are self-assembled on mixing a metal acceptor, Pt(PEt 3) 2 (OSO 2 CF 3) 2, with two organic donors, a pyridyl-decorated tetraphenylethylene and one of two benzene dicarboxylate species. The rigid organization of these fluorescence-active ligands imparts an emissive behaviour to dilute solutions of the resulting assemblies. Furthermore, on aggregation the prisms exhibit variable-wavelength visible-light emission, including rare white-light emission in tetrahydrofuran. The favourable photophysical properties and solvent-dependent aggregation behaviour provide a means to tune emission wavelengths. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Fu Y.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Guo G.,West Virginia University | Huang T.S.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2010

Human age, as an important personal trait, can be directly inferred by distinct patterns emerging from the facial appearance. Derived from rapid advances in computer graphics and machine vision, computer-based age synthesis and estimation via faces have become particularly prevalent topics recently because of their explosively emerging real-world applications, such as forensic art, electronic customer relationship management, security control and surveillance monitoring, biometrics, entertainment, and cosmetology. Age synthesis is defined to rerender a face image aesthetically with natural aging and rejuvenating effects on the individual face. Age estimation is defined to label a face image automatically with the exact age (year) or the age group (year range) of the individual face. Because of their particularity and complexity, both problems are attractive yet challenging to computer-based application system designers. Large efforts from both academia and industry have been devoted in the last a few decades. In this paper, we survey the complete state-of-the-art techniques in the face image-based age synthesis and estimation topics. Existing models, popular algorithms, system performances, technical difficulties, popular face aging databases, evaluation protocols, and promising future directions are also provided with systematic discussions. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Srihari S.N.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Proceedings of the International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, ICDAR | Year: 2011

Identifying unusual or unique characteristics of an observed sample in useful in forensics in general and handwriting analysis in particular. Rarity is formulated as the probability of letter formations characterized by a set of features. Modeling the distribution as a probabilistic graphical model several probabilities are inferred: the probability of random correspondence (PRC) as a measure of the discriminatory power of the characteristics, conditional PRC associated with a given sample and the probability of finding a similar one within tolerance in a database of given size. Using the most commonly occurring letter pair "th" and characteristics specified by questioned document examiners, the highest probability formation and low probability formations in a database are determined. Computational issues in scaling the methods are discussed. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Flickinger R.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Development Growth and Differentiation | Year: 2015

AT-rich repetitive DNA sequences become late replicating during cell differentiation. Replication timing is not correlated with LINE density in human cells (Ryba et al. 2010). However, short and properly spaced runs of oligo dA or dT present in nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs) of the genome are good candidates for elements of AT-rich repetitive late replicating DNA. MAR attachment to the nuclear matrix is negatively regulated by chromatin binding of H1 histone, but this is counteracted by H1 phosphorylation, high mobility group proteins or, indirectly, core histone acetylation. Fewer MAR attachments correlates positively with longer average DNA loop size, longer replicons and an increase of late replicating DNA. © 2014 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists. Source


Tanaka C.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Neurobiology of aging | Year: 2012

The biological mechanisms that give rise to age-related hearing loss (ARHL) are still poorly understood. However, there is growing recognition that oxidative stress may be an important factor. To address this issue, we measured the changes in the expression of cochlear oxidative stress and antioxidant defense-related genes in young (2 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old (21-25 months old) Fischer 344/NHsd (F344/NHsd) rats and compared gene expression changes with ARHL. A quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction array revealed a significant age-related downregulation of only 1 gene, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1, and upregulation of 12 genes: 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase; aminoadipate-semialdehyde synthase; cytoglobin; dual oxidase 2; glutathione peroxidase 3; glutathione peroxidase 6; glutathione S-transferase, kappa 1; glutathione reductase; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) dehydrogenase, quinone 1; solute carrier Family 38, Member 5; thioredoxin interacting protein; and vimentin. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between gene expression and auditory function in 8 genes. Our results identified specific subsets of oxidative stress genes that appear to play an important role in ARHL in the Fischer 344/NHsd rat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Cook T.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Stang P.J.,University of Utah
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2015

Researchers discuss the latest developments in the preparation and chemistry of metallacycles and metallacages via coordination. Researchers emphasize on results that have been reported over a period of time. The discussion is organized in a way that highlights both the interdisciplinary nature of the field as well as its maturation from studies that defined structural and synthetic methodologies, to more recent efforts to expand structural complexity and explore functional systems for a suite of applications. A number of excellent reviews also provide further insight into specific areas of the chemistry of metallacycles and cages. Some of these reviews focus on a class of building blocks, including acceptors or donors. Source


Seigel G.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Molecular Vision | Year: 2014

The R28 retinal precursor cell line was established 20 years ago, originating from a postnatal day 6 rat retinal culture immortalized with the 12S E1A (NP-040507) gene of the adenovirus in a replication-incompetent viral vector. Since that time, R28 cells have been characterized and used for a variety of in vitro and in vivo studies of retinal cell behavior, including differentiation, neuroprotection, cytotoxicity, and light stimulation, as well as retinal gene expression and neuronal function. While no cell culture is equivalent to the intact eye, R28 cells continue to provide an important experimental system for the study of many retinal processes. © 2014 Molecular Vision. Source


Free S.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Advances in Genetics | Year: 2013

The composition and organization of the cell walls from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Neurospora crassa, and Cryptococcus neoformans are compared and contrasted. These cell walls contain chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan, β-1,6-glucan, mixed β-1,3-/β-1,4-glucan, α-1,3-glucan, melanin, and glycoproteins as major constituents. A comparison of these cell walls shows that there is a great deal of variability in fungal cell wall composition and organization. However, in all cases, the cell wall components are cross-linked together to generate a cell wall matrix. The biosynthesis and properties of each of the major cell wall components are discussed. The chitin and glucans are synthesized and extruded into the cell wall space by plasma membrane-associated chitin synthases and glucan synthases. The glycoproteins are synthesized by ER-associated ribosomes and pass through the canonical secretory pathway. Over half of the major cell wall proteins are modified by the addition of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. The cell wall glycoproteins are also modified by the addition of O-linked oligosaccharides, and their N-linked oligosaccharides are extensively modified during their passage through the secretory pathway. These cell wall glycoprotein posttranslational modifications are essential for cross-linking the proteins into the cell wall matrix. Cross-linking the cell wall components together is essential for cell wall integrity. The activities of four groups of cross-linking enzymes are discussed. Cell wall proteins function as cross-linking enzymes, structural elements, adhesins, and environmental stress sensors and protect the cell from environmental changes. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Autschbach J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

This perspective article discusses some broadly-known and some less broadly-known consequences of Einsteins special relativity in quantum chemistry, and provides a brief outline of the theoretical methods currently in use, along with a discussion of recent developments and selected applications. The treatment of the electron correlation problem in relativistic quantum chemistry methods, and expanding the reach of the available relativistic methods to calculate all kinds of energy derivative properties, in particular spectroscopic and magnetic properties, requires on-going efforts. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. Source


Zheng W.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

This study aims to model a minimal dynein motor domain capable of motor function, which consists of the linker domain, six AAA modules (AAA1-AAA6), coiled coil stalk, and C-terminus domain. To this end, we have used the newly solved X-ray structures of dynein motor domain to perform a coarse-grained modeling of dyneins post- and pre-powerstroke conformation and the conformational transition between them. First, we have used normal mode analysis to identify a single normal mode that captures the coupled motions of AAA1-AAA2 closing and linker domain rotation, which enables the ATP-driven recovery stroke of dynein. Second, based on the post-powerstroke conformation solved crystallographically, we have modeled dyneins pre-powerstroke conformation by computationally inducing AAA1-AAA2 closing and sliding of coiled coil stalk, and the resulting model features a linker domain near the pre-powerstroke position and a slightly tilted stalk. Third, we have modeled the conformational transition from pre- to post-powerstroke conformation, which predicts a clear sequence of structural events that couple microtubule binding, powerstroke and product release, and supports a signaling path from stalk to AAA1 via AAA3 and AAA4. Finally, we have found that a closed AAA3-AAA4 interface (compatible with nucleotide binding) is essential to the mechano-chemical coupling in dynein. Our modeling not only offers unprecedented structural insights to the motor function of dynein as described by past single-molecule, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and electron microscopy studies, but also provides new predictions for future experiments to test. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. Source


Dlugos C.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Cerebellum | Year: 2015

Uncomplicated alcoholics suffer fromdiscretemotor dysfunctions that become more pronounced with age. These deficits involve the structure and function of Purkinje neurons (PN), the sole output neurons from the cerebellar cortex. This review focuses on alterations to the PN dendritic arbor in the adult and aging Fischer 344 rat following lengthy alcohol consumption. It describes seminal studies using the Golgi-Cox method which proposed a model for ethanol-induced dendritic regression. Subsequent ultrastructural studies of PN dendrites showed dilation of the extensive smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) which preceded and accompanied dendritic regression. The component of the SER that was most affected by ethanol was the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase pump (SERCA) responsible for resequestration of calcium into the SER. Ethanol-induced decreases in SERCA pump levels, similar to the finding of SER dilation, preceded and occurred concomitantly with dendritic regression. Discrete ethanol-induced deficits in balance also accompanied these decreases. Ethanolinduced ER stress within the SER of PN dendrites was proposed as an underlying cause of dendritic regression. It was recently shown that increased activation of caspase 12, inherent to the ER, occurred in PN of acute slices in ethanol-fed rats and was most pronounced following 40 weeks of ethanol treatment. These findings shed new light into alcohol-induced disruption in PN dendrites providing a new model for the discrete but critical changes in motor function in aging, adult alcoholics. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015. Source


Han J.E.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

We study electrons in a tight-binding lattice driven by a dc electric field with their energy dissipated through on-site fermionic thermostats. Due to the translational invariance in the transport direction, the problem can be block diagonalized. We solve this time-dependent quadratic problem and demonstrate that the problem has a well-defined steady state. The steady-state occupation number shows that the Fermi surface shifts at small fields by the drift velocity, in agreement with the Boltzmann transport theory, but it then deviates significantly at high fields due to strong nonlinear effect. Despite the lack of momentum scattering, the conductivity takes the same form as the semiclassical Ohmic expression from the relaxation-time approximation. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Wang P.,Harvard University | Shim J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Bertoldi K.,Harvard University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

We investigate the effects of geometric and material nonlinearities introduced by deformation on the linear dynamic response of two-dimensional phononic crystals. Our analysis not only shows that deformation can be effectively used to tune the band gaps and the directionality of the propagating waves, but also reveals how geometric and material nonlinearities contribute to the tunable response of phononic crystals. Our numerical study provides a better understanding of the tunable response of phononic crystals and opens avenues for the design of systems with optimized properties and enhanced tunability. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


Intracranial aneurysm initiation is poorly understood, although hemodynamic insult is believed to play an important role in triggering the pathology. It has recently been found in a rabbit model that while macrophages are absent during hemodynamic aneurysm initiation, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are elevated and co-localize with smooth muscle cells (SMCs). This study investigates whether SMCs play a mechanistic role in aneurysm initiation triggered by hemodynamics. Aneurysmal damage was induced at the basilar terminus via bilateral common carotid artery ligation in rabbits (n = 45, plus 7 sham controls). 16 ligated rabbits were treated with doxycycline to inhibit MMPs, 7 received clodronate liposomes to deplete circulating monocytes, and the rest received no drug. Effects of the treatments on aneurysm development were assessed histologically 5 days and 6 months after ligation. MMP production and expression of inflammatory markers by SMCs was monitored by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Treatment with doxycycline attenuated aneurysmal development examined at 5 days and 6 months, suggesting that MMPs contribute to aneurysm initiation. However, systemic depletion of macrophages did not decrease MMPs or suppress aneurysmal development. Immunofluorescence showed that during aneurysm initiation MMP-2 and MMP-9 were distributed in SMCs, and in situ hybridization indicated that they were transcribed by SMCs. In regions of early aneurysmal lesion, SMCs exhibited decreased expression of smooth muscle actin and increased NF-κB and MCP-1 expressions. During aneurysm initiation triggered by hemodynamics, SMCs rather than macrophages are responsible for MMP production that is critical for aneurysmal lesion development. These SMCs exhibit proinflammatory behavior. Source


Hartkamp J.,University of Manchester | Carpenter B.,University of Manchester | Roberts S.G.E.,University of Manchester | Roberts S.G.E.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Molecular Cell | Year: 2010

The Wilms' tumor suppressor protein WT1 functions as a transcriptional regulator of genes controlling growth, apoptosis, and differentiation. It has become clear that WT1 can act as an oncogene in many tumors, primarily through the inhibition of apoptosis. Here, we identify the serine protease HtrA2 as a WT1 binding partner and find that it cleaves WT1 at multiple sites following the treatment of cells with cytotoxic drugs. Ablation of HtrA2 activity either by chemical inhibitor or by siRNA prevents the proteolysis of WT1 under apoptotic conditions. Moreover, the apoptosis-dependent cleavage of WT1 is defective in HtrA2 knockout cells. Proteolysis of WT1 by HtrA2 causes the removal of WT1 from its binding sites at gene promoters, leading to alterations in gene regulation that enhance apoptosis. Our findings provide insights into the function of HtrA2 in the regulation of apoptosis and the oncogenic activities of WT1. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Rudra A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2011

It has been known since [Zyablov and Pinsker, 1982] that a random q-ary code of rate 1-Hq(ρ )- ε (where 0 < ρ < 1-1/q, ε > 0 is small enough and Hq(̇) is the q-ary entropy function) with high probability is a (ρ, 1/ε )-list decodable code (that is, every Hamming ball of radius at most ρn has at most 1/ε codewords in it). In this paper, the "converse" result is proven. In particular, it is proven that for every 0 < ρ < 1-1/q, a random code of rate 1-Hq(ρ)- ε, with high probability, is not a (ρ, L)-list decodable code for any L ≤ c/ε, where c is some constant that depends only on ρ and q. A similar lower bound is also shown for random linear codes. Previously, such a tight lower bound on the list size was only known for the case when ρ ≥ 1-1/q-O(√ε) for small enough ε < 0 [Blinovsky, 1986, 2005, 2008; Guruswami and Vadhan, 2005]. A lower bound is known for all constant 0 < ρ < 1-1/q independent of ε, though the lower bound is asymptotically weaker than our bound [Blinovsky, 1986, 2005, 2008]. These results, however, are not subsumed by ours as these other results hold for arbitrary codes of rate 1-Hq(ρ)- ε. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Crane C.A.,Purdue University | Eckhardt C.I.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Counseling Psychology | Year: 2013

The current study evaluated the efficacy of a single-session brief motivational enhancement (BME) interview to increase treatment compliance and reduce recidivism rates in a sample of 82 recently adjudicated male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Batterer intervention program attendance and completion as well as re-arrest records served as the primary outcome measures and were collected 6 months post-adjudication. Results indicated that BME was associated with increases in session attendance and treatment compliance. BME was not directly associated with reductions in recidivism. The relationship between BME and treatment compliance was moderated by readiness to change such that BME participants with low readiness to change attended more sessions and were more likely to be in compliance with the terms of a treatment than control participants with low readiness, while participants with high readiness attended sessions equally, regardless of study condition. Results indicate that outcomes may be improved through treatment efforts that consider individual differences, such as one's readiness to change, in planning interventions for IPV perpetrators © 2013 American Psychological Association. Source


Borazjani I.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2013

Fast starts are crucial in the survival of aquatic swimmers to capture prey or avoid predators. Currently, it is widely accepted that during C-starts: (1) the caudal fin generates a considerable hydrodynamic force; and (2) anal/dorsal fins are erected to significantly increase the hydrodynamic force. In this work, the above hypotheses on the role of fins during C-starts are studied using experimentally guided numerical simulations of four bluegill sunfish, whose fins are removed or erected. The amount of force created by the body and fins at each time instant was not constant and varied during the C-start. Nevertheless, in agreement with hypothesis (1), up to 70% of the instantaneous hydrodynamic force was generated by the tail during Stage 2 of the C-start, when the sunfish rapidly bends out of the C-shape. Additionally, the contribution in Stage 1, when the sunfish bends into a C-shape, is less than 20% at each instant. Most of the force in Stage 1 was produced by the body of the sunfish. In contrast to hypothesis (2), the effect of erection/removal of the fins was less than 5% of the instantaneous force in both Stages 1 and 2, except for a short period of time (2 ms) just before Stage 2. However, it is known that the anal/dorsal fins are actively controlled during the C-start from muscle activity measurements. Based on the results presented here, it is suggested that the active control of the anal/dorsal fins can be related to retaining the stability of the sunfish against roll and pitch movements during the C-start. Furthermore, the erection of the fins increases the moment of inertia to make the roll and pitch movements more difficult. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source


Human memory T cells present in ovarian tumor ascites fluids fail to respond normally to stimulation via the T cell receptor (TCR). This immunosuppression is manifested by decreases in NF-κB and NFAT activation, IFN-γ production, and cell proliferation in response to TCR stimulation with immobilized antibodies to CD3 and CD28. The anergy of the tumor-associated T cells (TATs) is mediated by soluble factors present in ovarian tumor ascites fluids. The non-responsiveness of the T cells is quickly reversed when the cells are assayed in the absence of the ascites fluid, and is rapidly reestablished when a cell-free ascites fluid is added back to the T cells. Based upon the observed normal phosphorylation patterns of the TCR proximal signaling molecules, the inhibition of NF-κB, and NFAT activation in response to TCR stimulation, as well as the ability of the diacylglycerol analog PMA and the ionophore ionomycin to bypass the ascites fluid-induced TCR signaling arrest, the site of the arrest in the activation cascade appears to be at or just upstream of PLC-γ. An identical TCR signaling arrest pattern was observed when T cells derived from normal donor peripheral blood were incubated with either malignant or nonmalignant (cirrhotic) ascites fluids. The immunosuppressive activity of ascites fluids reported here suggests that soluble factors acting directly or indirectly upon T cells present within tumors contribute to the anergy that has previously been observed in T cells derived from malignant and nonmalignant inflammatory microenvironments. The soluble immunosuppressive factors represent potential therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer. Source


Booth A.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS | Year: 2013

Recent research indicates that cognitive reserve mitigates the clinical expression of neuropsychological impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). This literature primarily uses premorbid intelligence and lifetime experiences as indicators. However, changes in current recreational activities may also contribute to the maintenance of neural function despite brain atrophy. We examined the moderation effects of current changes in recreational activity on the relationship between brain atrophy and information processing speed in 57 relapsing-remitting MS patients. Current enrichment was assessed using the Recreation and Pastimes subscale from the Sickness Impact Profile. In patients reporting current declines in recreational activities, brain atrophy was negatively associated with cognition, but there was no such association in participants reporting stable participation. The MRI metric-by-recreational activity interaction was significant in separate hierarchical regression analyses conducted using third ventricle width, neocortical volume, T2 lesion volume, and thalamic volume as brain measures. Results suggest that recreational activities protect against brain atrophy's detrimental influence on cognition. Source


Daniels D.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2010

Understanding the role of intracellular signaling pathways in ingestive behavior is a challenging problem in behavioral neuroscience. This review summarizes work conducted on two systems with the aim of identifying intracellular events that relate to food and fluid intake. The first set of experiments focused on melanocortin receptors and their ability to signal through members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family. The second set of experiments focused on the role of intracellular signaling pathways in water and saline intakes that are stimulated by angiotensin II (AngII). The initial findings in each line of research have been extended by subsequent research that is discussed in turn. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source


Scrace T.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2015

Materials often exhibit fundamentally new phenomena in reduced dimensions that potentially lead to novel applications. This is true for single-layer, two-dimensional semiconductor crystals of transition-metal dichalcogenides, MX2 (M = Mo, W and X = S, Se). They exhibit direct bandgaps with energies in the visible region at the two non-equivalent valleys in the Brillouin zone. This makes them suitable for optoelectronic applications that range from light-emitting diodes to light harvesting and light sensors, and to valleytronics. Here, we report the results of a magnetoluminescence study of WS2 single-layer crystals in which the strong spin–orbit interaction additionally locks the valley and spin degrees of freedom. The recombination of the negatively charged exciton in the presence of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is found to be circularly polarized at zero magnetic field despite being excited with unpolarized light, which indicates that the existence of a valley polarized 2DEG is caused by valley and spin locking and strong electron–electron interactions. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group Source


Freese K.,University of Michigan | Kinney W.H.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2015

Natural inflation is a good fit to all cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and may be the correct description of an early inflationary expansion of the Universe. The large angular scale CMB polarization experiment BICEP2 has announced a major discovery, which can be explained as the gravitational wave signature of inflation, at a level that matches predictions by natural inflation models. The natural inflation (NI) potential is theoretically exceptionally well motivated in that it is naturally flat due to shift symmetries, and in the simplest version takes the form V(φ) = ∇4[1 ± cos(Nφ/f)]. A tensor-to-scalar ratio r > 0.1 as seen by BICEP2 requires the height of any inflationary potential to be comparable to the scale of grand unification and the width to be comparable to the Planck scale. The Cosine Natural Inflation model agrees with all cosmic microwave background measurements as long as f ≥ mPl (where mPl = 1.22 × 1019 GeV) and ∇ ∼ mGUT ∼ 1016 GeV. This paper also discusses other variants of the natural inflation scenario: we show that axion monodromy with potential V oc φ2/3 is inconsistent with the BICEP2 limits at the 95% confidence level, and low-scale inflation is strongly ruled out. Linear potentials V ∞ φ are inconsistent with the BICEP2 limit at the 95% confidence level, but are marginally consistent with a joint Planck/BICEP2 limit at 95%. We discuss the pseudo-Nambu Goldstone model proposed by Kinney and Mahanthappa as a concrete realization of low-scale inflation. While the low-scale limit of the model is inconsistent with the data, the large-field limit of the model is marginally consistent with BICEP2. All of the models considered predict negligible running of the scalar spectral index, and would be ruled out by a detection of running. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl. Source


Dandona P.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Rosenberg M.T.,United Health Centers
International Journal of Clinical Practice | Year: 2010

There is a high prevalence of hypogonadism in the older adult male population and the proportion of older men in the population is projected to rise in the future. As hypogonadism increases with age and is significantly associated with various comorbidities such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome, the physician is increasingly likely to have to treat hypogonadism in the clinic. The main symptoms of hypogonadism are reduced libido/erectile dysfunction, reduced muscle mass and strength, increased adiposity, osteoporosis/low bone mass, depressed mood and fatigue. Diagnosis of the condition requires the presence of low serum testosterone levels and the presence of hypogonadal symptoms. There are a number of formulations available for testosterone therapy including intramuscular injections, transdermal patches, transdermal gels, buccal patches and subcutaneous pellets. These are efficacious in establishing eugonadal testosterone levels in the blood and relieving symptoms. Restoration of testosterone levels to the normal range improves libido, sexual function, and mood; reduces fat body mass; increases lean body mass; and improves bone mineral density. Testosterone treatment is contraindicated in subjects with prostate cancer or benign prostate hyperplasia and risks of treatment are perceived to be high by many physicians. These risks, however, are often exaggerated and should not outweigh the benefits of testosterone treatment. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Yin L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Urban Planning and Development | Year: 2013

Significant research has been conducted on how environmental attributes influence people's decisions to walk. In much of this research, however, environmental attributes are averaged for neighborhoods or census geographies for sampled populations. Moreover, the effect of an agent's walking choices on other actors is not adequately represented by either objective or perceived measures in the literature. Macro-level patterns of walkability arise from interactions across actors and urban environments. The agent-based approach allows for modeling individual uses of the environment by treating the populations as objects that can interact with the environment and other people. This study builds on previous research on pedestrian movement and geographic information system (GIS) measures of the built environment using the agent-based approach to explore the dynamics of the built environment and people's decision-making processes concerning walking. The results show that models that take individual perspective into account and include social interaction can better capture characteristics of the built and social environment that influence people's walking choices. This method lays out a new framework for assessing macro-level patterns of walkability across a city using micro-level data. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Longhi S.,CNR Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies | Feng L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

The lasing and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) properties of PT-symmetric microrings with mixed index and gain gratings, externally coupled to a bus waveguide, are theoretically investigated. For a complex grating at the PT - symmetry breaking point, perfect unidirectional (either clockwise or counterclockwise) laser emission can be realized, but the grating does not discriminate longitudinal modes and CPA can not be simultaneously achieved. Above the grating the PT-symmetry breaking point, single-mode emission, and simultaneous CPA can be obtained, with unbalanced and controllable excitation of clockwise and counterclockwise modes in the ring. © 2014 Optical Society of America. Source


Santos C.N.S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Koffas M.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Stephanopoulos G.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Metabolic Engineering | Year: 2011

The development of efficient microbial processes for the production of flavonoids has been a metabolic engineering goal for the past several years, primarily due to the purported health-promoting effects of these compounds. Although significant strides have been made recently in improving strain titers and yields, current fermentation strategies suffer from two major drawbacks-(1) the requirement for expensive phenylpropanoic precursors supplemented into the media and (2) the need for two separate media formulations for biomass/protein generation and flavonoid production. In this study, we detail the construction of a series of strains capable of bypassing both of these problems. A four-step heterologous pathway consisting of the enzymes tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), and chalcone isomerase (CHI) was assembled within two engineered l-tyrosine Escherichia coli overproducers in order to enable the production of the main flavonoid precursor naringenin directly from glucose. During the course of this investigation, we discovered that extensive optimization of both enzyme sources and relative gene expression levels was required to achieve high quantities of both p-coumaric acid and naringenin accumulation. Once this metabolic balance was achieved, however, such strains were found to be capable of producing 29. mg/l naringenin from glucose and up to 84. mg/l naringenin with the addition of the fatty acid enzyme inhibitor, cerulenin. These results were obtained through cultivation of E. coli in a single minimal medium formulation without additional precursor supplementation, thus paving the way for the development of a simple and economical process for the microbial production of flavonoids directly from glucose. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Swamy V.C.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2015

My association with David Triggle began when I was a post-doctoral associate in his laboratory during the 1960s. Our relationship continued for decades as faculty colleagues and presently, when our formal academic links have ceased, memories of our friendship and shared experiences remain strong and fresh. What follows are some glimpses of the scientist, educator and an intellectually versatile individual that I have been privileged to know. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Sayette M.A.,University of Pittsburgh | Tiffany S.T.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Addiction | Year: 2013

Smoking cue-exposure research has provided a powerful tool for examining cravings in the laboratory. A key attraction of this method is that tightly controlled experimental procedures can model craving experiences that are presumed to relate to addiction. Despite its appeal, key assumptions underlying the clinical relevance of smoking cue-reactivity studies have been questioned recently. For both conceptual and methodological reasons it may be difficult to tease apart cue-based and abstinence-based cravings. Moreover, conventional cue-reactivity procedures typically generate levels of craving with only minimal clinical relevance. We argue here that sometimes it is unfeasible-and in some instances conceptually misguided-to disentangle abstinence-based and cued components of cigarette cravings. In light of the challenges associated with cue-reactivity research, we offer an alternative approach to smoking cue-exposure experimental research focusing on peak provoked craving (PPC) states. The PPC approach uses nicotine-deprived smokers and focuses on urges during smoking cue-exposure without subtracting out urge ratings during control cue or baseline assessments. This design relies on two factors found in many cue-exposure studies-nicotine deprivation and exposure to explicit smoking cues-which, when combined, can create powerful craving states. The PPC approach retains key aspects of the cue-exposure method, and in many circumstances may be a viable design for studies examining robust laboratory-induced cravings. © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction. Source


Akl E.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

The same information about the evidence on health effects can be framed either in positive words or in negative words. Some research suggests that positive versus negative framing can lead to different decisions, a phenomenon described as the framing effect. Attribute framing is the positive versus negative description of a specific attribute of a single item or a state, for example, "the chance of survival with cancer is 2/3" versus "the chance of mortality with cancer is 1/3". Goal framing is the description of the consequences of performing or not performing an act as a gain versus a loss, for example, "if you undergo a screening test for cancer, your survival will be prolonged" versus "if you don't undergo screening test for cancer, your survival will be shortened". To evaluate the effects of attribute (positive versus negative) framing and of goal (gain versus loss) framing of the same health information, on understanding, perception of effectiveness, persuasiveness, and behavior of health professionals, policy makers, and consumers. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, issue 3 2007), MEDLINE (Ovid) (1966 to October 2007), EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to October 2007), PsycINFO (Ovid) (1887 to October 2007). There were no language restrictions. We reviewed the reference lists of related systematic reviews, included studies and of excluded but closely related studies. We also contacted experts in the field. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, and cross-over studies with health professionals, policy makers, and consumers evaluating one of the two types of framing. Two review authors extracted data in duplicate and independently. We graded the quality of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach. We standardized the outcome effects using standardized mean difference (SMD). We stratified the analysis by the type of framing (attribute, goal) and conducted pre-planned subgroup analyses based on the type of message (screening, prevention, and treatment). The primary outcome was behaviour. We did not assess any adverse outcomes. We included 35 studies involving 16,342 participants (all health consumers) and reporting 51 comparisons.In the context of attribute framing, participants in one included study understood the message better when it was framed negatively than when it was framed positively (1 study; SMD -0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.94 to -0.22); moderate effect size; low quality evidence). Although positively-framed messages may have led to more positive perception of effectiveness than negatively-framed messages (2 studies; SMD 0.36 (95% CI -0.13 to 0.85); small effect size; low quality evidence), there was little or no difference in persuasiveness (11 studies; SMD 0.07 (95% CI -0.23 to 0.37); low quality evidence) and behavior (1 study; SMD 0.09 (95% CI -0.14 to 0.31); moderate quality evidence).In the context of goal framing, loss messages led to a more positive perception of effectiveness compared to gain messages for screening messages (5 studies; SMD -0.30 (95% CI -0.49 to -0.10); small effect size; moderate quality evidence) and may have been more persuasive for treatment messages (3 studies; SMD -0.50 (95% CI -1.04 to 0.04); moderate effect size; very low quality evidence). There was little or no difference in behavior (16 studies; SMD -0.06 (95% CI -0.15 to 0.03); low quality evidence). No study assessed the effect on understanding. Contrary to commonly held beliefs, the available low to moderate quality evidence suggests that both attribute and goal framing may have little if any consistent effect on health consumers' behaviour. The unexplained heterogeneity between studies suggests the possibility of a framing effect under specific conditions. Future research needs to investigate these conditions. Source


Cullen P.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2011

Signaling mucins are large transmembrane glycoproteins that regulate signal transduction pathways. Recent advances have shown that two major types of post-translational modifications, protein glycosylation and proteolytic processing, play important and unexpected roles in regulating signaling mucin function. New O-glycosyltransferases and proteases have been identified, and the structure of the domain that undergoes auto-proteolysis has been solved. A picture is beginning to emerge where specific glycosyl modifications and regulated processing control the signaling and adherence properties of signaling glycoproteins and contribute to the routing of signals to specific pathways. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Hao Z.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Zhong S.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Yu N.,Anhui University of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering | Year: 2011

Remote data integrity checking is a crucial technology in cloud computing. Recently, many works focus on providing data dynamics and/or public verifiability to this type of protocols. Existing protocols can support both features with the help of a third-party auditor. In a previous work, Seb et al. [1] propose a remote data integrity checking protocol that supports data dynamics. In this paper, we adapt Seb et al.'s protocol to support public verifiability. The proposed protocol supports public verifiability without help of a third-party auditor. In addition, the proposed protocol does not leak any private information to third-party verifiers. Through a formal analysis, we show the correctness and security of the protocol. After that, through theoretical analysis and experimental results, we demonstrate that the proposed protocol has a good performance. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Curtis A.B.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Postgraduate Medicine | Year: 2011

In clinical practice, atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly encountered arrhythmia. With the aging of the US population, the number of patients with AF that physicians encounter will increase. Atrial fibrillation management involves a combination of rate- and rhythm-control strategies with thromboprophylaxis, a complicated endeavor given side effect profiles of treatments, patient comorbidities, and anticoagulation treatment requirements. Early treatment discontinuation and poor compliance with anticoagulation treatment are frequent and result in increased mortality, a 5-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke, decreased health-related quality of life, and decreased exercise capacity. In 2006, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology (ACC/AHA/ESC) provided guidelines for the management of patients with AF. Recently, the ACC Foundation, AHA, and Heart Rhythm Society released updates to these guidelines (January and February 2011). This article aims to assist physicians in improving the management of patients with AF by focusing on the main components of therapy as reflected in the guidelines, and by providing an update on new US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments. © Postgraduate Medicine. Source


Rishika R.,Texas A&M University | Kumar A.,Aalto University | Janakiraman R.,Texas A&M University | Bezawada R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Information Systems Research | Year: 2013

In this study we examine the effect of customers' participation in a firm's social media efforts on the intensity of the relationship between the firm and its customers as captured by customers' visit frequency. We further hypothesize and test for the moderating roles of social media activity and customer characteristics on the link between social media participation and the intensity of customer-firm relationship. Importantly, we also quantify the impact of social media participation on customer profitability. We assemble a novel data set that combines customers' social media participation data with individual customer level transaction data. To account for endogeneity that could arise because of customer self-selection, we utilize the propensity score matching technique in combination with difference in differences analysis. Our results suggest that customer participation in a firm's social media efforts leads to an increase in the frequency of customer visits. We find that this participation effect is greater when there are high levels of activity in the social media site and for customers who exhibit a strong patronage with the firm, buy premium products, and exhibit lower levels of buying focus and deal sensitivity. We find that the above set of results holds for customer profitability as well. We discuss theoretical implications of our results and offer prescriptions for managers on how to engage customers via social media. Our study emphasizes the need for managers to integrate knowledge from customers' transactional relationship with their social media participation to better serve customers and create sustainable business value. © 2013 INFORMS. Source


Chai S.,Slippery Rock University | Kim M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2010

As a Web 2.0 technology, blogs are gaining attention as useful knowledge sharing platforms for knowledge management in a collaborative work environment. This study investigates the relationship between trust and bloggers' knowledge sharing practices. Based on an analysis of results from the 485 survey respondents, the research found that there is the positive relationship between bloggers' trust and their knowledge sharing practices. This study explores trust in multiple dimensions including economy-based trust, trust in bloggers, and trust in the Internet and trust in blog providers. The detailed research findings are presented. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Conway W.D.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

The origin of counter-current chromatography is briefly stated, followed by a description of the mechanism of elution of solutes, which illustrates the elegance and simplicity of the technique. The CCC retention equation can be mentally derived from three facts; that a substance with a distribution coefficient of 0 elutes at the mobile phase solvent front (one mobile phase volume); and one with a distribution coefficient of 1 elutes at the column volume of mobile phase; and solutes with higher distribution coefficients elute at additional multiples of the stationary phase volume. The pattern corresponds to the classical solute retention equation for chromatography, VR=VM+KCVS, KC not being limited to integer values. This allows the entire pattern of solute retention to be visualized on the chromatogram. The high volume fraction of stationary phase in CCC greatly enhances resolution. A survey of the names, symbols and definitions of several widely used chromatography and liquid-liquid distribution parameters in the IUPAC Gold Book and in a recent summary in LC-GC by Majors and Carr revealed numerous conflicts in both names and definitions. These will retard accurate dissemination of CCC research unless the discordance is resolved. It is proposed that the chromatography retention parameter, KC, be called the distribution coefficient and that a new biphasic distribution parameter, KΔ(A), be defined for CCC and be called the species partition ratio. The definition of VM should be clarified. VH is suggested to represent the holdup volume and VX is suggested for the extra-column volume. HV and HL are suggested to represent the volume and length of a theoretical plate in CCC. Definitions of the phase ratio, β, conflict and should be clarified. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Auerbach A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2012

Neuromuscular acetylcholine receptors have long been a model system for understanding the mechanisms of operation of ligand-gated ion channels and fast chemical synapses. These five subunit membrane proteins have two allosteric (transmitter) binding sites and a distant ion channel domain. Occupation of the binding sites by agonist molecules transiently increases the probability that the channel is ion-permeable. Recent experiments show that the Monod, Wyman and Changeux formalism for allosteric proteins, originally developed for haemoglobin, is an excellent model for acetylcholine receptors. By using mutations and single-channel electrophysiology, the gating equilibrium constants for receptors with zero, one or two bound agonist molecules, and the agonist association and dissociation rate constants from both the closed- and open-channel conformations, have been estimated experimentally. The change in affinity for each transmitter molecule between closed and open conformations provides ∼-5.1 kcal mol -1 towards the global gating isomerization of the protein. © 2012 The Author. The Journal of Physiology © 2012 The Physiological Society. Source


Popescu G.K.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2012

The time course of excitatory synaptic currents, the major means of fast communication between neurons of the central nervous system, is encoded in the dynamic behaviour of post-synaptic glutamate-activated channels. First-pass attempts to explain the glutamate-elicited currents with mathematical models produced reaction mechanisms that included only the most basic functionally defined states: resting vs. liganded, closed vs. open, responsive vs. desensitized. In contrast, single-molecule observations afforded by the patch-clamp technique revealed an unanticipated kinetic multiplicity of transitions: from microseconds-lasting flickers to minutes-long modes. How these kinetically defined events impact the shape of the synaptic response, how they relate to rearrangements in receptor structure, and whether and how they are physiologically controlled represent currently active research directions. Modal gating, which refers to the slowest, least frequently observed ion-channel transitions, has been demonstrated for representatives of all ion channel families. However, reaction schemes have been largely confined to the short- and medium-range time scales. For glutamate receptors as well, modal gating has only recently come under rigorous scrutiny. This article reviews the evidence for modal gating of glutamate receptors and the still developing hypotheses about the mechanism(s) by which modal shifts occur and the ways in which they may impact the time course of synaptic transmission. © 2012 The Author. The Journal of Physiology © 2012 The Physiological Society. Source


Berman C.,State University of New York at Buffalo
eLife | Year: 2016

The ability of a wild baboon to acquire and exploit social information depends on its individual characteristics and its position within various social networks. © Berman. Source


Paladino J.A.,Clinical Outcomes Research | Paladino J.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Poretz D.,Infectious Diseases Physicians
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Since its introduction in the 1970s, outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) has become a standard modality for patients with many infections requiring long-term intravenous antibiotic therapy. Delivery of OPAT may occur in physicians' offices, hospital clinics, specialized infusion centers, and currently most often, patient's homes, often self-administered. Patients are selected for OPAT by physicians familiar with both the course of their infections, their personal suitability for outpatient care, and the availability of reimbursement. OPAT is reportedly safe, effective, practical, and cost-effective. An OPAT Outcomes Registry contains information from >11,000 antibiotic courses administered from 1997 through 2000. Although a number of studies are purported to analyze the economic impact of OPAT on health care, a comprehensive, clinical outcomes-based pharmacoeconomic analysis, as described here, has, to our knowledge, yet to be done. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. Source


Zhang J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Gao Q.,Capital Medical University
Archives of Suicide Research | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the validation of STAI Trait-Anxiety Scale in suicide cases and community living controls in rural China. The participants were 392 suicides and 416 controls. Cronbach's Alpha was computed to evaluate the internal consistency. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient between Trait-Anxiety Scale and other instrument was calculated to evaluate the external validity, and the Exploratory Factor Analysis was used to evaluate the construct validity. The results showed the Cronbach's Alpha was.891 and.787 respectively in case and control groups. Most of the correlations between instruments were significant. We found 2 factors in cases and 3 factors in controls. We could cautiously infer that the Trait Anxiety Scale was an adequate tool to measure trait anxiety through proxy data in suicide victims and living controls in rural China. © 2012 Copyright International Academy for Suicide Research. Source


Underhill M.L.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Kiviniemi M.T.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Health Education and Behavior | Year: 2012

Background. Two-thirds of adults aged 50 years and older are adherent to recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. Provider-patient communication and characteristics of the patient-provider relationship may relate to screening behavior. Methods. The association of provider communication quality, relationship, and colorectal cancer screening was examined within data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey. Results. Perceived provider communication and relationship quality were associated with both adherence to colonoscopy and with ever having been screened. Predictive margins analyses indicated that increasing perceptions from lowest to highest levels of communication and relationship quality would be associated with increases in screening rates approaching 16 percentage points. Conclusion. Improving provider-patient communication and relationship quality could potentially improve colorectal cancer screening behaviors among adults aged 50 years and older. Future research and clinical practice should focus on understanding the role of these factors in screening behavior and enhance the provider-patient interaction. © 2012 Society for Public Health Education. Source


Fuda M.G.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

In the context of a 3P0 quark-pair creation model for the process ρ→ππ, a method is developed for taking relativity into account in the calculation of hadron decays. Following a brief review of relativistic quantum mechanics, an expression is derived for the general relation between a momentum-space, two-particle, instant form wave function in an arbitrary frame and the wave function associated with the c.m. frame. This relation is used to develop relativistic wave functions for the π and ρ mesons. Second quantized state vectors for ππ and ρ states are constructed with the help of these relativistic wave functions. The ρ→ππ transition amplitude is obtained by using these state vectors to calculate matrix elements of a second quantized 3P0 quark-pair creation operator derived from a scalar Lagrangian density. The amplitude differs from the one obtained using nonrelativistic wave functions in the appearance of Wigner rotations. In spite of the complications arising from these rotations the calculation of the relativistic amplitude is reduced to carrying out a two-dimensional integral. The amplitude is of the same form as one derived from an effective ρππ Lagrangian except for the presence of a form factor that depends on the magnitude of the three-momentum of a final-state pion. The shape of the form factor is determined by the relativistic π and ρ wave functions. Using the ρ→ππ transition amplitude as a vertex interaction in a relativistic model of ππ scattering, the p-wave, ππ scattering amplitude is calculated and fit to data by adjusting the interaction strength and the ρ bare mass. This leads to a mass shift and decay width for the ρ meson. Using nonrelativistic wave functions to calculate the form factor leads to a negligible mass shift, whereas using the relativistic wave functions leads to a bare ρ mass of 855.7 MeV, corresponding to a physical ρ mass of 775.5 MeV. The quark-pair creation operator strength parameter for the relativistic case is roughly a factor of 2 larger than that for the nonrelativistic case. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source


Corso J.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Pattern Recognition Letters | Year: 2013

Scene understanding remains a significant challenge in the computer vision community. The visual psychophysics literature has demonstrated the importance of interdependence among parts of the scene. Yet, the majority of methods in scene understanding remain local. Pictorial structures have arisen as a fundamental parts-based model for some vision problems, such as articulated object detection. However, the form of classical pictorial structures limits their applicability for global problems, such as semantic pixel labeling. In this paper, we propose an extension of the pictorial structures approach, called pixel-support parts-sparse pictorial structures, or PS3, to overcome this limitation. Our model extends the classical form in two ways: first, it defines parts directly based on pixel-support rather than in a parametric form, and second, it specifies a space of plausible parts-based scene models and permits one to be used for inference on any given image. PS3 makes strides toward unifying object-level and pixel-level modeling of scene elements. In this paper, we implement the first half of our model and rely upon external knowledge to provide an initial graph structure for a given image. Our experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate the capability of this new parts-based view of scene modeling. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Smith S.L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2015

What does it mean to be a mentor in science? Definitions of mentorship are freely spouted in publications and include concepts such as academic support, professional development, role modeling, interaction, impartment of knowledge, evaluation of work, demonstration of methodology, etc. Perhaps most of us would agree with the duties listed. But just what does it mean, for example, to offer academic support? How might one facilitate professional development for a mentee? While we may agree to the general obligations of a mentor the specifics of what these entail would prove more controversial. This article will illustrate how easy it is to pick out a bad mentor. There are certain elements of conduct that, if practiced, undoubtedly put you in the "bad mentor" category. However, it is very difficult to explain just what it means to be not only an adequate mentor but also a stellar one. It may be easy to list the roles and responsibilities of a mentor but just how should they be performed/carried out? David Triggle is the model of an extraordinary mentor. The conclusion of this paper will focus on some specific mentorship activities David Triggle carried out that illustrate some of the intangible aspects of excellence in mentorship. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Pfordresher P.Q.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Psychological Research | Year: 2014

Past research has shown that when discrete responses are associated with a perceptual goal, performers may have difficulty detecting stimuli that are commensurate with that goal. Three experiments are reported here that test whether such effects extend to sequence production. In Experiment 1, participants performed 8-note melodies repeatedly, and on each trial a single tone could be altered with respect to its pitch and/or synchrony with actions. Results suggested a selective deficit of detection when feedback pitch was unchanged and the event was slightly delayed. Experiment 2 showed that this "deafness" to feedback is limited to rhythmic motor tasks that require sequencing, in that similar effects did not emerge when participants produced pitch sequences by tapping a single key repeatedly. A third experiment demonstrated similar results to Experiment 1 when the mapping of keys to pitches on the keyboard was reversed. Taken together, results suggest a selective deafness to response-congruent delayed feedback, consistent with the idea that performers suppress previously planned events during production. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Thomas M.,Cornell University | Desai K.K.,Binghamton University State University of New York | Seenivasan S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Consumer Research | Year: 2011

Some food items that are commonly considered unhealthy also tend to elicit impulsive responses. The pain of paying in cash can curb impulsive urges to purchase such unhealthy food products. Credit card payments, in contrast, are relatively painless and weaken impulse control. Consequently, consumers are more likely to buy unhealthy food products when they pay by credit card than when they pay in cash. Results from four studies support these hypotheses. Analysis of actual shopping behavior of 1,000 households over a period of 6 months revealed that shopping baskets have a larger proportion of food items rated as impulsive and unhealthy when shoppers use credit or debit cards to pay for the purchases (study 1). Follow-up experiments (studies 2-4) show that the vice-regulation effect of cash payments is mediated by pain of payment and moderated by chronic sensitivity to pain of payment. Implications for consumer welfare and theories of impulsive consumption are discussed. © 2010 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc. Source


Violanti J.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
International Journal of Emergency Mental Health | Year: 2010

The validity of police suicide rates is questionable. The objective of this paper is to compare national police suicide rates with "undetermined" death rates and compare across occupations similar in exposure. An additional objective is to compare police suicide and undetermined rates in female and minority officers. Results indicated that male police officer deaths had a 17% increased risk of being misclassified as undetermined (Proportionate Mortality Ratio (PMR) =117, 95% CI=110,123, significant at p <0.01). The risk was higher than both firefighter and military occupations (PMR=101 (1% risk), 95% CI=89,114; PMR=108 (8% risk), 95% CI=104,113 respectively). A high risk of misclassification was also seen in female and African American officer deaths (PMR=198 (98% risk), 95% CI=151-255, sig. p <0.01 and PMR=344 (344% risk), 95% CI=178-601, sig. p <0.01 respectively). The significantly higher ratio of police deaths classified as undetermined is interesting, given the high profile of law enforcement in society and the generally thorough investigations of police officer deaths. Also of interest is the suggestion that police misclassification risk is higher for police than other similar occupations. Future research should suggest possible ways to increase the validity of police suicide rates through methods such as post-suicide psychological autopsies. © 2010 Chevron Publishing. Source


Frolov R.V.,University of Oulu | Singh S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Celecoxib (Celebrex), a highly popular selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, can modulate ion channels and alter functioning of neurons and myocytes at clinically relevant concentrations independently of cyclooxygenase inhibition. In experimental systems varying from Drosophila to primary mammalian and human cell lines, celecoxib inhibits many voltage-activated Na+, Ca2+, and K+ channels, including NaV1.5, L- and T-type Ca2+ channels, KV1.5, KV2.1, K V4.3, KV7.1, KV11.1 (hERG), while stimulating other K+ channels-KV7.2-5 and, possibly, KV11.1 (hERG) channels under certain conditions. In this review, we summarize the information currently available on the effects of celecoxib on ion channels, examine mechanistic aspects of drug action and the concomitant changes at the cellular and organ levels, and discuss these findings in the therapeutic context. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Bezawada R.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Pauwels K.,Ozyegin University
Journal of Marketing | Year: 2013

Higher sales and margins are key goals for retailers promoting emerging products, such as organics, but little is known about their marketing effectiveness and their cross-effects on conventional product sales. Extant research reports conflicting results about price and promotional sensitivity for organic products and does not address the impact of organic assortment. This article calculates long-term own- and cross-elasticities of organic and conventional product sales in response to changes in assortment, price, and promotions. Using a rich data set of 56 categories, the authors test hypotheses on how different costs and benefits of organic products affect these elasticities. They find that enduring actions, such as assortment and regular price changes, have a higher elasticity for organics than for conventional products. In contrast with common wisdom, even "core" organic consumers are sensitive to these actions. Increasing organic assortment and promotion breadth yields higher profits for the total category, as do more frequent promotions on conventional products. The category comparison yields specific advice with regard to where larger assortment and lower prices versus more and deeper promotions are most effective. © 2013, American Marketing Association. Source


Tran T.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Tran T.,Scripps Research Institute | Disney M.D.,Scripps Research Institute
Nature Communications | Year: 2012

RNA is an important therapeutic target but information about RNA-ligand interactions is limited. Here, we report a screening method that probes over 3,000,000 combinations of RNA motif-small molecule interactions to identify the privileged RNA structures and chemical spaces that interact. Specifically, a small molecule library biased for binding RNA was probed for binding to over 70,000 unique RNA motifs in a high throughput solution-based screen. The RNA motifs that specifically bind each small molecule were identified by microarray-based selection. In this library-versus-library or multidimensional combinatorial screening approach, hairpin loops (among a variety of RNA motifs) were the preferred RNA motif space that binds small molecules. Furthermore, it was shown that indole, 2-phenyl indole, 2-phenyl benzimidazole and pyridinium chemotypes allow for specific recognition of RNA motifs. As targeting RNA with small molecules is an extremely challenging area, these studies provide new information on RNA-ligand interactions that has many potential uses. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Valentine G.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo | White J.D.L.,University of Otago
Geology | Year: 2012

Diatremes are debris-fi lled structures beneath maars that result from many magma-water (phreatomagmatic) explosions during a monogenetic volcano's lifetime. A long-standing model requires deepening explosions, due to water table drawdown, that eject progressively deeper-seated country rock from the explosion sites, while the overlying diatreme and its surface crater widen due to subsidence. A revised model is proposed wherein explosions can take place at any level within a diatreme at a given time, most effectively venting material from near-surface explosions. Deep-seated country rock lithics in tephra deposits record stepwise vertical mixing of material by upward-directed debris jets and downward subsidence, rather than direct ejection from deep explosions. Juvenile and lithic clasts erupted during a given explosion may have had a complex history within the diatreme and need not directly refl ect fragmentation or brecciation during the explosion that ejects them. © 2012 Geological Society of America. Source


Oh H.,State University of New York at Buffalo
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2012

A simple but precise model would improve the computation efficiency for planning a large-scale power system. Recent development of a new network reduction algorithm yields such a model with a given grouping of buses. While the flow over the reduced network is estimated precisely, a proper value of the flow limit still remains unresolved. In this study, a method is proposed to group buses based on the congestion profile in the original network and to assign the flow limits of a reduced network. The method is tested on modified IEEE 30-bus and 118-bus systems at various load profiles, and the simulation results are compared. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Moncho S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Autschbac J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation | Year: 2010

A benchmark study for relativistic density functional calculations of NMR spin-spin coupling constants has been performed. The test set contained 47 complexes with heavy metal atoms (W, Pt, Hg, Tl, Pb) with a total of 88 coupling constants involving one or two heavy metal atoms. One-, two-, three-, and four-bond spin-spin couplings have been computed at different levels of theory (nonhybrid vs hybrid DFT, scalar vs two-component relativistic). The computational model was based on geometries fully optimized at the BP/TZP scalar relativistic zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) and the conductor-like screening model (COSMO) to include solvent effects. The NMR computations also employed the continuum solvent model. Computations in the gas phase were performed in order to assess the importance of the solvation model. The relative median deviations between various computational models and experiment were found to range between 13% and 21%, with the highest-level computational model (hybrid density functional computations including scalar plus spin-orbit relativistic effects, the COSMO solvent model, and a Gaussian finite-nucleus model) performing best. Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Read J.P.,State University of New York at Buffalo
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse | Year: 2014

This conclusion reviews the critical issues raised by the papers in this Special Issue on Drinking Games, with an eye toward directions for future research and the development of palliative interventions. In particular, this conclusion highlights the significance of individual-level characteristics that are associated with drinking game risk, the social context in which these games take place, and methodological considerations for studying both the individual and the context as they unfold as part of drinking game practices. Given both the ubiquity of these games in North American college drinking life, and the substantial hazards with which these games are associated, interventions that may reduce harmful outcomes are needed but have not yet been developed. Issues relevant to the development of such interventions are considered. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Baker O.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology | Year: 2010

Epithelial cell tight junctions (TJs) consist of a narrow belt-like structure in the apical region of the lateral plasma membrane that circumferentially binds each cell to its neighbor. TJs are found in tissues that are involved in polarized secretions, absorption functions, and maintaining barriers between blood and interstitial fluids. The morphology, permeability, and ion selectivity of TJ vary among different types of tissues and species. TJs are very dynamic structures that assemble, grow, reorganize, and disassemble during physiological or pathological events. Several studies have indicated the active role of TJ in intestinal, renal, and airway epithelial function; however, the functional significance of TJ in salivary gland epithelium is poorly understood. Interactions between different combinations of the TJ family (each with their own unique regulatory proteins) define tissue specificity and functions during physiopathological processes; however, these interaction patterns have not been studied in salivary glands. The purpose of this review is to analyze some of the current data regarding the regulatory components of the TJ that could potentially affect cellular functions of the salivary epithelium. Source


Badgaiyan R.D.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Progress in Brain Research | Year: 2014

Dopamine is an important regulator of cognition and behavior, but its precise influence on human brain processing remains unclear because of the lack of a reliable technique to study dopamine in the live human brain. In the recent years, a number of techniques have been developed to detect, map, and measure dopamine released during task performance. Most of these techniques are based on molecular imaging methods and have varying degrees of sensitivity. We developed a single-scan dynamic molecular imaging technique for the detection of dopamine released during task performance in the live human brain. This technique is extremely sensitive and has test-retest reliability. Using this technique, we detected dopamine released during the processing of a number of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional tasks. Since this technique acquires data that cannot be obtained using any other techniques, it extends the scope of neuroimaging research. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Padmashali R.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Molecular Therapy | Year: 2014

Uncovering the complexity of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation requires novel methods to capture the dynamics of the process in a quantitative and high-throughput manner. To this end, we developed a lentiviral array (LVA) of reporters to capture the dynamics of gene and pathway activity during MSC differentiation into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages. Our results identified signature promoters and pathways with unique activation profile for each MSC lineage. In combination with chemical inhibitors, lineage-specific reporters predicted the effects of signaling pathway perturbations on MSC differentiation. Interestingly, some pathways were critical for differentiation into all lineages, while others had differential effects on each lineage. Our study suggests that when combined with large chemical or siRNA libraries, the reporter LVA can be used to uncover novel genes and signaling pathways affecting complex biological processes such as stem cell differentiation or reprogramming.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.103. Source


de Leon-Casasola O.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Postgraduate Medicine | Year: 2014

Objective: To review the literature on the progression from acute to chronic postoperative pain, to evaluate the evidence for the risk of progressing to persistent postoperative and chronic pain, and to identify characteristics of pharmacologic treatments to best tailor therapy to an individual patient’s pain profile. Background: Pain is most commonly classified by duration (acute, chronic) and pathophysiology (nociceptive, neuropathic); however, these descriptors alone incompletely describe pain. Additionally, the transition between acute and chronic postoperative pain is not well understood. Methods: We conducted a qualitative review and evaluation of the literature on postoperative pain with respect to the above objectives. Results: Individualized pharmacologic treatments require a complete characterization of a patient’s pain profile, in terms of frequency of pain over the course of a 24-hour day and over time thereafter, frequency and duration of pain flares, and presence of neuropathic pain. These considerations can help guide the choice of pharmacologic treatment to meet patient needs over a 24-hour day and over time after surgery. With respect to opioid analgesics, acute pain requires rapid onset of analgesia and the ability to titrate analgesia to the changing characteristics of pain over a short period. For these reasons, short-acting opioid analgesics have been preferred; however, there are opioid formulations with rapid onset and extended release for reduced dosing frequency. Although nociceptive pain can typically be controlled by titration of the dose of an opioid analgesic, neuropathic pain may respond better to the addition of an antineuropathic medication rather than to opioid dose escalation. Conclusion: Advances in individualized pharmacologic treatment for postoperative pain have resulted in better pain control. Moreover, the recognition of sub-acute pain as a new entity is important because many surgical patients will need therapy beyond the first 8 days after surgery. In this group of patients the diagnosis of a neuropathic pain component will be important so that appropriate multimodal therapy may be implemented. © 2014, Postgraduate Medicine. Source


Couchman J.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Biology Letters | Year: 2012

Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) have shown the ability to monitor their own mental states, but fail the mirror self-recognition test. In humans, the sense of self-agency is closely related to self-awareness, and results frommonitoring the relationship between intentional, sensorimotor and perceptual information. Humans and rhesus monkeys were trained to move a computer icon with a joystick while a distractor icon partially matched their movements. Both humans and monkeys were able to monitor and identify the icon they were controlling, suggesting they have some understanding of self-agency. © 2011 The Royal Society. Source


De Lisle R.C.,University of Kansas | Borowitz D.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine | Year: 2013

The clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) result from dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR). The majority of people with CF have a limited life span as a consequence of CFTR dysfunction in the respiratory tract. However, CFTR dysfunction in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract occurs earlier in ontogeny and is present in all patients, regardless of genotype. The same pathophysiologic triad of obstruction, infection, and inflammation that causes disease in the airways also causes disease in the intestines. This article describes the effects of CFTR dysfunction on the intestinal tissues and the intraluminal environment. Mouse models of CF have greatly advanced our understanding of the GI manifestations of CF, which can be directly applied to understanding CF disease in humans. © 2013 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved. Source


Khan O.,Wayne State University | Rieckmann P.,University of Bamberg | Boyko A.,Russian National Research Medical University | Selmaj K.,Medical University of Lodz | Zivadinov R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Annals of Neurology | Year: 2013

Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of glatiramer acetate (GA) 40mg administered 3× weekly (tiw) compared with placebo in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods This randomized, double-blind study was conducted in 142 sites in 17 countries. Patients with RRMS with at least 1 documented relapse in the 12 months before screening, or at least 2 documented relapses in the 24 months before screening, and an Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤ 5.5, were randomized 2:1 to receive either subcutaneous (sc) GA 40mg tiw (1ml) or placebo for 12 months. Results Of 1,524 patients screened, 1,404 were randomized to receive GA 40mg sc tiw (n = 943) or placebo (n = 461). Ninety-three percent and 91% of patients in the placebo and GA groups, respectively, completed the 12-month study. GA 40mg tiw was associated with a 34.0% reduction in risk of confirmed relapses compared with placebo (mean annualized relapse rate = 0.331 vs 0.505; p < 0.0001). Patients who received GA 40mg tiw experienced highly significant reduction (p < 0.0001) in the cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing T1 (44.8%) and new or newly enlarging T2 lesions (34.7%) at months 6 and 12. GA 40mg tiw was safe and well tolerated. The most common adverse events in the GA group were injection site reactions (35.5% with GA vs 5.0% with placebo). Interpretation GA 40mg sc tiw is a safe and effective regimen for the treatment of RRMS, providing the convenience of fewer sc injections per week. © 2013 American Neurological Association. Source


Rajan K.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Annual Review of Materials Research | Year: 2015

Materials informatics provides the foundations for a new paradigm of materials discovery. It shifts our emphasis from one of solely searching among large volumes of data that may be generated by experiment or computation to one of targeted materials discovery via high-throughput identification of the key factors (i.e., "genes") and via showing how these factors can be quantitatively integrated by statistical learning methods into design rules (i.e., "gene sequencing") governing targeted materials functionality. However, a critical challenge in discovering these materials genes is the difficulty in unraveling the complexity of the data associated with numerous factors including noise, uncertainty, and the complex diversity of data that one needs to consider (i.e., Big Data). In this article, we explore one aspect of materials informatics, namely how one can efficiently explore for new knowledge in regimes of structure-property space, especially when no reasonable selection pathways based on theory or clear trends in observations exist among an almost infinite set of possibilities. Copyright © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source


Gong B.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Gong B.,Beijing Normal University | Shao Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

The transport of molecules and ions across nanometer-scaled pores, created by natural or artificial molecules, is a phenomenon of both fundamental and practical significance. Biological channels are the most remarkable examples of mass transport across membranes and demonstrate nearly exclusive selectivity and high efficiency with a diverse collection of molecules. These channels are critical for many basic biological functions, such as membrane potential, signal transduction, and osmotic homeostasis.If such highly specific and efficient mass transport or separa tion could be achieved with artificial nanostructures under controlled conditions, they could create revolutionary technologies in a variety of areas. For this reason, investigators from diverse disciplines have vigorously studied small nondeformable nanopores. The most exciting studies have focused on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which have exhibited fast mass transport and high ion selectivity despite their very simple structure. However, the limitations of CNTs and the dearth of other small (≤2 nm) nanopores have severely hampered the systematic investigation of nanopore-mediated mass transport, which will be essential for designing artificial nanopores with desired functions en masse.Researchers can overcome the difficulties associated with CNT and other artificial pores by stacking macrocyclic building blocks with persistent shapes to construct tunable, self-assembling organic pores. This effort started when we discovered a highly efficient, one-pot macrocyclization process to efficiently prepare several classes of macrocycles with rigid backbones containing nondeformable cavities. Such macrocycles, if stacked atop one another, should lead to nanotubular assemblies with defined inner pores determined by their constituent macrocycles. One class of macrocycles with aromatic oligoamide backbones had a very high propensity for directional assembly, forming nanotubular structures containing nanometer and sub-nanometer hydrophilic pores. These self-assembling hydrophilic pores can form ion channels in lipid membranes with very large ion conductances.To control the assembly, we have further introduced multiple hydrogen-bonding side chains to enforce the stacking of rigid macrocycles into self-assembling nanotubes. This strategy has produced a self-assembling, sub-nanometer hydrophobic pore that not only acted as a transmembrane channel with surprisingly high ion selectivity, but also mediated a significant transmembrane water flux.The stacking of rigid macrocycles that can be chemically modified in either the lumen or the exterior surface can produce self-assembling organic nanotubes with inner pores of defined sizes. The combination of our approach with the availability and synthetic tunability of various rigid macrocycles should produce a variety of organic nanopores. Such structures would allow researchers to systematically explore mass transport in the sub-nanometer regime. Further advances should lead to novel applications such as biosensing, materials separation, and molecular purifications. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source


Braverman I.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2011

The paper explores the interconnections between legal and animal geographies as manifested in American zoos. On the one hand, law shapes not only the zoo's physical facilities, but also the very identity of zoo animals. On the other hand, the peculiarity of zoo animals--and of zoos as public spaces that display such animals--also translates into an anomalous state of zoo laws. The paper is divided into three parts. The first part demonstrates that, despite the numerous official laws that pertain to animals in various settings, exceptions and exemptions that apply to the zoo animal make it into an almost extralegal creature. The second part examines the laws that regulate the zoo's physical facilities, showing how--in this context too--the zoo is regulated mostly through variances and exceptions. The third part focuses on the zoo's self-regulating industry standards, arguing that they provide yet another reason for the peculiar legal state of zoos and their animals. Drawing on a set of interviews, conducted mostly with American zoo professionals, the paper explores the inter- stitial nature of law, space, and animals, offering a fresh perspective into, and a few interconnections between, the literatures of animal geography and law and geography.© 2011 Pion Ltd and its Licensors. Source


Dobi K.C.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Halfon M.S.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Baylies M.K.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Cell Reports | Year: 2014

Skeletal muscles are formed in numerous shapes and sizes, and this diversity impacts function and disease susceptibility. To understand how muscle diversity is generated, we performed gene expression profiling of two muscle subsets from Drosophila embryos. By comparing the transcriptional profiles of these subsets, we identified a core group of founder cell-enriched genes. We screened mutants for muscle defects and identified functions for Sin3A and 10 other transcription and chromatin regulators in the Drosophila embryonic somatic musculature. Sin3A is required for the morphogenesis of a muscle subset, and Sin3A mutants display muscle loss and misattachment. Additionally, misexpression of identity gene transcription factors in Sin3A heterozygous embryos leads to direct transformations of one muscle into another, whereas overexpression of Sin3A results in the reverse transformation. Our data implicate Sin3A as a key buffer controlling muscle responsiveness to transcription factors in the formation of muscle identity, thereby generating tissue diversity. © 2014 The Authors. Source


Curtis A.B.,State University of New York at Buffalo
American Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common and complex cardiac arrhythmias. Using currently available evidence, leading medical societies have established recommendations for the optimal management of atrial fibrillation. These guidelines have recently been updated by 4 consensus groups: the European Society of Cardiology, the American College of Chest Physicians, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, and a task force of 3 societies from the United States: the American College of Cardiology Foundation, the American Heart Association, and the Heart Rhythm Society. The present review focused on the similarities and differences among these recently updated guidelines. Key revisions included updated information on newer treatments for rhythm control, treatment options to reduce atrial fibrillation complications, and updated anticoagulant management for thromboprophylaxis. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights. Source


The relativistic NMR module of the Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) package, which is frequently utilised in studies of heavy atom NMR chemical shifts, is extended to calculate a hitherto neglected term from the response of the exchange-correlation (XC) potential. The term vanishes in the absence of spin-orbit coupling. Further, corrections to the shielding arising from scaling factors in the zeroth-order regular approximation (zora) relativistic framework are investigated. The XC response markedly improves calculated proton chemical shifts for hydrogen halides. Mercury chemical shifts for mercury dihalides are also noticeably altered. Contributions from density-gradient dependent terms in the response kernel contribute about 30-40%. New fully relativistic density functional theory (DFT) benchmark data are compared with zora and literature reference values. In line with previous work, it is found that absolute shielding constants for Hg are not accurately predicted with zora. However, chemical shifts agree well with fully relativistic calculations. The application of scaled-zora scaling factors deteriorates the shielding constants and is therefore not recommended. The scaling hardly affects chemical shifts. zora calculations are not suitable for absolute shielding of heavy atoms but they can be used safely for chemical shifts in most application scenarios. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Gunawardena S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2013

Currently, there are no effective treatments or cures for many neurodegenerative diseases affecting an aging baby-boomer generation. The ongoing problem with many of the current therapeutic treatments is that most are aimed at dissolving or dissociating aggregates and preventing cell death, common neuropathology often seen towards the end stage of disease. Often such treatments have secondary effects that are more devastating than the disease itself. Thus, effective therapeutics must be focused on directly targeting early events such that global deleterious effects of drugs are minimized while beneficial therapeutic effects are maximized. Recent work indicates that in many neurodegenerative diseases long distance axonal transport is perturbed, leading to axonal blockages. Axonal blockages are observed before pathological or behavioral phenotypes are seen indicating that this pathway is perturbed early in disease. Thus, developing novel therapeutic treatments to an early defect is critical in curing disease. Here I review neurodegenerative disease and current treatment strategies, and discuss a novel nanotechnology based approach that is aimed at targeting an early pathway, with the rationale that restoring an early problem will prevent deleterious downstream effects. To accomplish this, knowledge exchange between biologists, chemists, and engineers will be required to manufacture effective novel biomaterials for medical use. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Zhou C.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2014

This paper presents a novel tool path planning approach for polygonal mirror scanning based stereolithography (STL) process. Compared with traditional laser scanning and mask projection based STL process, the polygonal mirror scanning based process can build part with high surface quality and precision without losing the fabrication efficiency. As an emerging additive manufacturing (AM) process, no efficient tool path planning algorithm is available in current system. This paper presents a direct tool path planning algorithm without converting the three-dimensional model into two-dimensional contours. Different test cases are used to verify its efficiency and effectiveness. Compared with the commercial software, the proposed algorithm is several times faster. Physical parts are also built using the tool path generated by the proposed algorithm. Copyright © 2014 by ASME. Source


Kim W.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Applied Gerontology | Year: 2012

This study examined the effects of religion and gender on drinking behaviors among a sample of 148 older Korean immigrants living in a metropolitan area in Canada. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using standardized questions. The mean age of the participants was 74 years (range: 60-97 years). Logistic regression models were used to assess the effects of religion on drinking and heavier drinking and gender differences in correlates of current drinking and heavier drinking. Results revealed that being married and having lower religiosity were significant correlates that increased the odds of being a current drinker. Older Korean men tend to engage in heavier drinking behavior. Higher religiosity, not mere affiliation to Protestant churches, decreased the odds of heavier drinking for both men and women. The odds of heavier drinking increased for depressed men. Study limitations and implications are presented in a cultural context. © The Author(s) 2012. Source


Sivaselvan M.V.,State University of New York at Buffalo
International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics | Year: 2013

In this paper, we present several hysteretic models formulated using an energy approach. In each case, the behavior of the model is completely described by specifying two scalar-valued functions - a stored energy function and a dissipation potential. Consequently, different types of mathematical programs arise in incremental non-linear analyses involving these models. It is relatively well-known how classical plasticity models can be described using an energy approach, and lead to mathematical programming problems. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that plasticity models with non-associated flow rules, softening plasticity or strength degradation models, and damage or stiffness degradation models can be represented in this framework as well. The energy approach serves to unify formulation and implementation of a broad class of hysteretic models. In addition, it helps motivate regularization strategies needed in optimization and inverse problems. The types of models considered in this paper are ones commonly applied in earthquake engineering. MATLAB implementations are included as online supplemental data with this paper to illustrate the conceptual simplicity of implementing models formulated using this approach. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Jeon M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2013

Conventional pediatric cystography, which is based on diagnostic X-ray using a radio-opaque dye, suffers from the use of harmful ionizing radiation. The risk of bladder cancers in children due to radiation exposure is more significant than many other cancers. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of nonionizing and noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) imaging of urinary bladders, referred to as photoacoustic cystography (PAC), using near-infrared (NIR) optical absorbents (i.e. methylene blue, plasmonic gold nanostructures, or single walled carbon nanotubes) as an optical-turbid tracer. We have successfully imaged a rat bladder filled with the optical absorbing agents using a dark-field confocal PAC system. After transurethral injection of the contrast agents, the rat's bladders were photoacoustically visualized by achieving significant PA signal enhancement. The accumulation was validated by spectroscopic PA imaging. Further, by using only a laser pulse energy of less than 1 mJ/cm(2) (1/20 of the safety limit), our current imaging system could map the methylene-blue-filled-rat-bladder at the depth of beyond 1 cm in biological tissues in vivo. Both in vivo and ex vivo PA imaging results validate that the contrast agents were naturally excreted via urination. Thus, there is no concern regarding long-term toxic agent accumulation, which will facilitate clinical translation. Source


Ceusters W.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics | Year: 2012

Biomedical data collections are typically compiled on the basis of assessment instruments and associated terminologies and their data structure explained by means of data dictionaries. The Information Artifact Ontology (IAO) is an attempt to give a realism-based account of the essence of information entities and how components of such entities relate to each other and to that what they are information about. Changes in the taxonomy and the definitions of the IAO, most importantly the addition of the terms 'representational artifact' and 'representational unit', are proposed to make the IAO a useful tool to clarify formally the distinctions and commonalities between data collections and associated artifacts that are compiled independently from each other, yet cover the same domain. © 2012 European Federation for Medical Informatics and IOS Press. All rights reserved. Source


Scannapieco F.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter | Year: 2013

The oral cavity harbors a rich and diverse microflora, which is mostly found within biofilms attached to the various soft- and hard-tissue surfaces. Recent studies using molecular methods have revealed previously unrecognized species within biofilms associated with health and several common oral diseases. These unrecognized species established an under-appreciated diversity within the flora, with new questions to be answered. Information regarding the composition of the oral microbiome associated with oral health, dental caries, periodontal disease, and endodontic infection is briefly reviewed. Recent concepts regarding the potential role of the oral microbiome in several common systemic diseases are also briefly discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Wu F.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Pharmaceutical research | Year: 2012

To use noninvasive fluorescence imaging to investigate the influence of molecular weight (MW) of proteins on the rate of loss from a subcutaneous (SC) injection site and subsequent uptake by the draining lymph nodes in mice. Bevacizumab (149 kDa), bovine serum albumin (BSA, 66 kDa), ovalbumin (44.3 kDa) or VEGF-C156S (23 kDa), labeled with the near infrared dye IRDye 680, were injected SC into the front footpad of SKH-1 mice. Whole body non-invasive fluorescence imaging was performed to quantitate the fluorescence signal at the injection site and in axillary lymph nodes. The half-life values, describing the times for 50% loss of proteins from the injection site, were 6.81 h for bevacizumab, 2.85 h for BSA, 1.57 h for ovalbumin and 0.31 h for VEGF-C156S. The corresponding axillary lymph node exposure, represented as the area of the % dose versus time curve, was 6.27, 5.13, 4.06 and 1.54% dose {bullet operator} h, respectively. Our results indicate that the rate of loss of proteins from a SC injection site is inversely related to MW of proteins, while lymph node exposure is proportionally related to the MW of proteins in a mouse model. Source


Lakshminrusimha S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Clinics in Perinatology | Year: 2012

The pulmonary circulation rapidly adapts at birth to establish lungs as the site of gas exchange. Abnormal transition at birth and/or parenchymal lung disease can result in neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure. This article reviews the functional changes in pulmonary hemodynamics and structural changes in pulmonary vasculature secondary to (1) normal and abnormal transition at birth, and (2) diseases associated with neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure. Various management strategies to correct respiratory failure are also discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Vishwanath A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication | Year: 2015

There are a billion Facebook users worldwide with some individuals spending 8 hours each day on the platform. Limited research has, however, explored the consequences of such overuse. Even less research has examined the misuse of social media by criminals who are increasingly using social media to defraud individuals through phishing-type attacks. The current study focuses on Facebook habits and its determinants and the extent to which they ultimately influence individual susceptibility to social media phishing attacks. The results suggest that habitual Facebook use, founded on the individual frequently using Facebook, maintaining a large social network, and being deficient in their ability to regulate such behaviors, is the single biggest predictor of individual victimization in social media attacks. © 2014 International Communication Association. Source


Sandroff B.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Pilutti L.A.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Benedict R.H.B.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Motl R.W.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair | Year: 2015

Background. Cognitive impairment is a highly prevalent, poorly managed, and disabling consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training that improves physical fitness represents a promising approach for managing cognitive impairment in persons with MS. There is limited evidence that physical fitness is associated with multiple domains of cognitive dysfunction across levels of MS disability. Objective. This cross-sectional study examined the associations among aerobic capacity, lower limb muscle strength, and cognitive functions in persons with mild, moderate, and severe MS disability. Methods. The sample included 62 persons with mild (n = 20), moderate (n = 21), and severe (n = 21) MS disability. The participants underwent neuropsychological assessments of cognitive processing speed (CPS; Symbol Digit Modalities Test [SDMT]), verbal memory (California Verbal Learning Test-2 [CVLT-2]), and visual memory (Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised [BVMT-R]). All participants further underwent testing for measuring aerobic capacity (ie, peak oxygen consumption) and muscular strength (ie, peak torque of knee flexors and extensors). Results. Aerobic capacity and muscular strength outcomes were associated with SDMT (r =.35-.41), but not CVLT-2 or BVMT-R (r <.19) scores in the overall sample. Aerobic capacity (r =.42) and knee flexor peak torque (r =.39) were associated with SDMT scores in persons with mild disability, but not in those with moderate (r <.06) and severe (r <.14) disability. Conclusions. These results support examining aerobic and resistance exercise training programs for improving CPS, particularly among persons with mild MS disability. © The Author(s) 2014. Source


Harris R.M.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory | Jain S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2012

We present numerical calculations of the production cross section of a heavy Z′ resonance in hadron-hadron collisions with subsequent decay into top-antitop pairs. In particular, we consider the leptophobic topcolor Z′ discussed under Model IV of hep-ph/9911288, which has predicted cross sections large enough to be experimentally accessible at the Fermilab Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. This article presents an updated calculation valid for the Tevatron and all proposed LHC collision energies. Cross sections are presented for various Z′ widths, in pp̄ collisions at √s = 2 TeV, and in pp collisions at √s = 7, 8, 10 and 14 TeV. © 2012 The Author(s). Source


Khaetskii A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2014

We consider a two-dimensional structure with spin-orbit-related splitting of the electron (hole) spectrum and calculate the edge spin density which appears due to the intrinsic mechanism of spin-orbit interaction in the presence of a charge current through the structure. We concentrate on the quasiballistic case when a mean-free path, being much smaller than the sample size, is larger than the spin precession length determined by the value of the spin-orbit splitting. We show that regardless of the presence or absence of the bulk spin current, the main source of the edge spin density is the boundary scattering itself. The character of the edge spin density depends on the smoothness of the bulk impurity potential. We have calculated the edge spin density profile for an arbitrary smoothness of the scattering potential in the bulk, and discussed relation to the existing experiments for two-dimensional holes. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source


Zheng W.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2010

To decrypt the mechanistic basis of myosin motor function, it is essential to probe the conformational changes in actomyosin with high spatial and temporal resolutions. In a computational effort to meet this challenge, we have performed a multiscale modeling of the allosteric couplings and transition pathway of actomyosin complex by combining coarse-grained modeling of the entire complex with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the active site. Our modeling of allosteric couplings at the pre-powerstroke state has pinpointed key actin-activated couplings to distant myosin parts which are critical to force generation and the sequential release of phosphate and ADP. At the post-powerstroke state, we have identified isoformdependent couplings which underlie the reciprocal coupling between actin binding and nucleotide binding in fast Myosin II, and load-dependent ADP release in Myosin V. Our modeling of transition pathway during powerstroke has outlined a clear sequence of structural events triggered by actin binding, which lead to subsequent force generation, twisting of central β-sheet, and the sequential release of phosphate and ADP. Finally we have performed atomistic simulations of active-site dynamics based on an on-path "transition-state" myosin conformation, which has revealed significantly weakened coordination of phosphate by Switch II, and a disrupted key salt bridge between Switch I and II. Meanwhile, the coordination of MgADP by Switch I and P loop is less perturbed. As a result, the phosphate can be released prior to MgADP. This study has shed new lights on the controversy over the structural mechanism of actin-activated phosphate release and force generation in myosin motor. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Franceschini S.,University of Padua | Tsai C.W.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Advances in Water Resources | Year: 2010

This paper presents a framework to quantify the overall variability of the model estimations of Total Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Total PCBs) concentrations in the Niagara River on the basis of the uncertainty of few model parameters and the natural variability embedded in some of the model input variables. The results of the uncertainty analysis are used to understand the importance of stochastic model components and their effect on the overall reliability of the model output and to evaluate multiple sources of uncertainty that might need to be further studied. The uncertainty analysis is performed using a newly developed point estimate method, the Modified Rosenblueth method. The water quality along the Niagara River is simulated by coupling two numerical models the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) - for the hydrodynamic portion of the study and the Water Quality Analysis and Simulation Program (WASP) - for the fate and transport of contaminants. For the monitoring period from May 1995 to March 1997, the inflow Total PCBs concentration from Lake Erie is the stochastic component that most influences the variability of the modeling results for the simulated concentrations at the exit of the Niagara River. Other significant stochastic components in order are as follows: the suspended sediments concentration, the point source loadings and to a minor degree the atmospheric deposition, the flow and the non-point source loadings. Model results that include estimates of uncertainty provide more comprehensive information about the variability of contaminant concentrations, such as confidence intervals, and, in general offer a better approach to compare model results with measured data. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Izzo J.L.,State University of New York at Buffalo
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2014

This critique is intended to provide background for the reader to evaluate the relative clinical utilities of brachial cuff systolic blood pressure (SBP) and its derivatives, including pulse pressure, central systolic pressure, central augmentation index (AI), and pulse pressure amplification (PPA). The critical question is whether the newer indicators add sufficient information to justify replacing or augmenting brachial cuff blood pressure (BP) data in research and patient care. Historical context, pathophysiology of variations in pulse wave transmission and reflection, issues related to measurement and model errors, statistical limitations, and clinical correlations are presented, along with new comparative data. Based on this overview, there is no compelling scientific or practical reason to replace cuff SBP with any of the newer indicators in the vast majority of clinical situations. Supplemental value for central SBP may exist in defining patients with exaggerated PPA ("spurious systolic hypertension"), managing cardiac and aortic diseases, and in studies of cardiovascular drugs, but there are no current standards for these possibilities. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. Source


Falconer R.J.,University of Sheffield | Markelz A.G.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves | Year: 2012

Spectroscopic analysis using the Terahertz frequencies between 0.1-15 THz (3-500 cm -1) has been underutilised by the biochemistry community but is starting to yield some scientifically interesting information. Analysis of structures from simple molecules like N-methylacetamide, to polyamides, peptides and relatively complex proteins provides different types of information dependant on the molecular size. The absorbance spectrum of small molecules is dominated by individual modes and specific hydrogen bonds, peptide spectra have peaks associated with secondary structure, while protein spectra are dominated by ensembles of hydrogen bonds and/or collective modes. Protein dynamics has been studied using Terahertz spectroscopy using proteins like bacteriorhodopsin, illustrating a potential application where this approach can provide complementary global dynamics information to the current nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence-based techniques. Analysis of higher-order protein structures like polyomavirus virus-like particles generate quite different spectra compared to their constituent parts. The presence of an extended hydration layer around proteins, first postulated to explain data generated using p-germanium spectroscopy may present a particularly interesting opportunity to better understand protein's complex interaction with water and small solutes in an aqueous environment. The practical aspects of Terahertz spectroscopy including sample handling, the use of molecular dynamics simulation and orthogonal experiment design are also discussed. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source


Crane J.K.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Gut Microbes | Year: 2013

Xanthine oxidase (XO) has been recognized as an important host defense enzyme for decades. In our recent study in Infection and Immunity, we found that enteropathogenic and Shigatoxigenic E. coli (EPEC and STEC) were far more resistant to killing by the XO pathway than laboratory E. coli strains used in the past. Although XO plus hypoxanthine substrate rarely generated enough H2O2to kill EPEC and STEC, the pathogens were able to sense the H2O2and react to it with an increase in expression of virulence factors, most notably Shiga toxin (Stx). H2O2produced by XO also triggered a chloride secretory response in T84 cell monolayers studied in the Ussing chamber. Adding exogenous XO plus its substrate in vivo did not decrease the number of STEC bacteria recovered from ligated intestinal loops, but instead appeared to worsen the infection and increased the amount of Stx2 toxin produced. XO plus hypoxanthine also increases the ability of Stx2 to translocate across intestinal monolayers. With regard to EPEC and STEC, the role of XO appears more complex and subtle than what has been reported in the past, since XO also plays a role in host-pathogen signaling, in regulating virulence in pathogens, in Stx production, and in toxin translocation. Uric acid produced by XO may also be in itself an immune modulator in the intestinal tract. © 2013 Landes Bioscience. Source


Zhuang J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Engineering Economist | Year: 2010

Investment in defense by all agents is a socially optimum equilibrium in many interdependent security scenarios. However, practically, some agents might still choose not to invest in security due to bounded rationality and errors, thus decreasing the total social welfare. Previous work shows that providing subsidies may help induce more agents to invest. Our study suggests that giving subsidies to agents prone to making an erroneous choice could increase the stability of the socially optimum equilibrium, as well as decrease the total social costs. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Industrial Engineers. Source


Marzani S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2016

We analyze transverse momentum (QT) resummation of a colorless final state, e.g. Higgs production in gluon fusion or the production of a lepton pair via the Drell-Yan mechanism, in the limit where the invariant mass of the final state is much less than the center-of-mass energy, i.e. Q2's. We show how the traditional resummation of logarithms of QT/Q can be supplemented with the resummation of the leading logarithmic contributions at small x=Q2/s and we compute the necessary ingredients to perform such joint resummation. © 2016 American Physical Society. Source


Hu B.H.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of neuroinflammation | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: The cochlea is the sensory organ of hearing. In the cochlea, the organ of Corti houses sensory cells that are susceptible to pathological insults. While the organ of Corti lacks immune cells, it does have the capacity for immune activity. We hypothesized that resident cells in the organ of Corti were responsible for the stress-induced immune response of the organ of Corti. This study profiled the molecular composition of the immune system in the organ of Corti and examined the immune response of non-immune epithelial cells to acoustic overstimulation.METHODS: Using high-throughput RNA-sequencing and qRT-PCR arrays, we identified immune- and inflammation-related genes in both the cochlear sensory epithelium and the organ of Corti. Using bioinformatics analyses, we cataloged the immune genes expressed. We then examined the response of these genes to acoustic overstimulation and determined how changes in immune gene expression were related to sensory cell damage.RESULTS: The RNA-sequencing analysis reveals robust expression of immune-related genes in the cochlear sensory epithelium. The qRT-PCR array analysis confirms that many of these genes are constitutively expressed in the resident cells of the organ of Corti. Bioinformatics analyses reveal that the genes expressed are linked to the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. We demonstrate that expression of Toll-like receptor signaling genes is predominantly from the supporting cells in the organ of Corti cells. Importantly, our data demonstrate that these Toll-like receptor pathway genes are able to respond to acoustic trauma and that their expression changes are associated with sensory cell damage.CONCLUSION: The cochlear resident cells in the organ of Corti have immune capacity and participate in the cochlear immune response to acoustic overstimulation. Source


Alavanja M.C.R.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Bonner M.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part B: Critical Reviews | Year: 2012

A review of the epidemiological literature linking pesticides to cancers in occupational studies worldwide was conducted, with particular focus on those articles published after the release of IARC Monograph 53 (1991): Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Applications and Some Pesticides. Important new data are now available. Chemicals in every major functional class of pesticides including insecticides, herbicide, fungicides, and fumigants have been observed to have significant associations with an array of cancer sites. Moreover, associations were observed with specific chemicals in many chemical classes of pesticides such as chlorinated, organophosphate, and carbamate insecticides and phenoxy acid and triazine herbicides. However, not every chemical in these classes was found to be carcinogenic in humans. Twenty-one pesticides identified subsequent to the last IARC review showed significant exposure-response associations in studies of specific cancers while controlling for major potential confounders. This list is not an exhaustive review and many of these observations need to be evaluated in other epidemiological studies and in conjunction with data from toxicology and cancer biology. Nonetheless, it is reasonable and timely for the scientific community to provide a multidisciplinary expert review and evaluation of these pesticides and their potential to produce cancer in occupational settings. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Medler K.F.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Chemical Senses | Year: 2010

Peripheral taste receptor cells depend on distinct calcium signals to generate appropriate cellular responses that relay taste information to the central nervous system. Some taste cells have conventional chemical synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release from stores to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Despite the importance of calcium signaling in taste cells, little is known about how these signals are regulated. This review summarizes recent studies that have identified 2 calcium clearance mechanisms expressed in taste cells, including mitochondrial calcium uptake and sodium/calcium exchangers (NCXs). These studies identified a unique constitutive calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in taste cells and the role of the mitochondria and exchangers in this process. The additional role of NCXs in the regulation of evoked calcium responses is also discussed. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and appears to be more complex than has previously been appreciated. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Borazjani I.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

The tail (caudal fin) is one of the most prominent characteristics of fishes, and the analysis of the flow pattern it creates is fundamental to understanding how its motion generates locomotor forces. A mechanism that is known to greatly enhance locomotor forces in insect and bird flight is the leading edge vortex (LEV) reattachment, i.e. a vortex (separation bubble) that stays attached at the leading edge of a wing. However, this mechanism has not been reported in fish-like swimming probably owing to the overemphasis on the trailing wake, and the fact that the flow does not separate along the body of undulating swimmers. We provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence of the vortex reattachment at the leading edge of the fish tail using three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of self-propelled virtual swimmers with different tail shapes. We show that at Strouhal numbers (a measure of lateral velocity to the axial velocity) at which most fish swim in nature (approx. 0.25) an attached LEV is formed, whereas at a higher Strouhal number of approximately 0.6 the LEV does not reattach. We show that the evolution of the LEV drastically alters the pressure distribution on the tail and the force it generates. We also show that the tail's delta shape is not necessary for the LEV reattachment and fish-like kinematics is capable of stabilising the LEV. Our results suggest the need for a paradigm shift in fish-like swimming research to turn the focus from the trailing edge to the leading edge of the tail. Source


Cusick T.W.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Cheon Y.,Korea Army Academy at YeongCheon
Information Sciences | Year: 2014

Homogeneous rotation symmetric Boolean functions have been extensively studied in recent years because of their applications in cryptography. Little is known about the basic question of when two such functions in n variables are affine equivalent. The simplest case of quadratic rotation symmetric functions which are generated by cyclic permutations of the variables in a single monomial was only settled in 2009, and the first substantial progress on the much more complicated cubic case came in 2010. In this paper, we show that much of the work on the cubic case can be extended to the quartic case. We also prove an exact formula for the number and sizes of the affine equivalence classes when n is a prime. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Sharma S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of orofacial pain | Year: 2013

To conduct a systematic review of papers reporting the reliability and diagnostic validity of the joint vibration analysis (JVA) for diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A search of Pubmed identified English-language publications of the reliability and diagnostic validity of the JVA. Guidelines were adapted from applied STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD) to evaluate the publications. Fifteen publications were included in this review, each of which presented methodological limitations. This literature is unable to provide evidence to support the reliability and diagnostic validity of the JVA for diagnosis of TMD. Source


Cusick T.W.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Cryptography and Communications | Year: 2013

This paper studies degree 3 Boolean functions in n variables x1, ..., xn which are rotation symmetric, that is, invariant under any cyclic shift of the indices of the variables. These rotation symmetric functions have been extensively studied in the last dozen years or so because of their importance in cryptography. We start from the 2012 paper of Bileschi, Cusick and Padgett, which gave an algorithm for finding a recursion for the truth table of any n-variable cubic rotation symmetric Boolean function generated by a monomial, as well as a homogeneous recursion for its (Hamming) weight as n increases. This greatly reduced the computational complexity of computing the weights of such functions for large n, but it was still necessary to calculate the truth tables of the functions for the values of n needed to give the initial conditions for the recursion. This computation could be infeasible if the recursion order is large, since the truth tables have 2n entries. The present paper shows how to use the roots of the characteristic polynomial of the recursion to find the initial conditions without looking at any truth tables, given the mild and plausible assumption that these roots are distinct. This results in a huge decrease in the computational complexity (including the time needed to find the roots) to something linear in n, apart from logarithmic factors. © 2012 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. Source


Werner M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Antipode | Year: 2011

To destabilize sequentialist, stage-like understandings of global production, this paper examines changing relations of accumulation taking shape in the garment export industry in the Dominican Republic and Haiti. I draw upon a framework called "the coloniality of power" to consider the reworking of the social and spatial boundaries between hyper-exploited wage work and the people and places cast out from its relations. Through a critical ethnography of a restructuring garment firm and its operations in a trade zone on the Dominican-Haitian border, I argue for attention to how places and labouring bodies are marked differentially as Other. The production of racialized and gendered hierarchies of Otherness creates the conditions for relational and relative North-South divides, constituting uneven and fragmented geographies of production. © 2011 The Author Antipode © 2011 Editorial Board of Antipode. Source


Widener M.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Horner M.W.,Florida State University
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2011

The need to create effective plans for distributing aid after a hurricane is of increasing importance in the transport community, as recent research suggests stronger storms will be affecting more people located in highly populated areas. Studies show that not all people will choose to evacuate an at-risk region or seek protection at shelters. To this point there have been relatively few efforts exploring the use of geographic information systems in conjunction with spatial optimization models in post-hurricane settings to accomplish efficient placements of facilities for distributing relief services. Despite the fact that hurricane relief strategies could benefit from a standardized methodology that reliably provides efficient placements for relief facilities, no research has examined the possibility of implementing a hierarchical structure among these facilities. This paper suggests a type of hierarchical capacitated-median model for this purpose. Two variations of this model are tested and their solutions are compared to that of a non-hierarchical version of the capacitated-median model. Findings suggest that if there is limited availability of certain services it could be useful to employ the use of a hierarchical capacitated-median problem to help place distinct facilities that provide different levels of assistance. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Guttuso Jr. T.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Maturitas | Year: 2012

Although many non-hormonal compounds have shown statistically significant benefit over placebo in hot flash randomized controlled trials (RCTs), these studies have varied considerably in basic methodology making it challenging to deduce which compounds have the greatest potential to provide clinically meaningful benefit. This review used evidence-based methodology closely mirroring the FDA and EMEA guidelines as a template to identify "well-designed" RCTs from which effective and clinically meaningful non-hormonal hot flash therapies could be identified. In addition, pertinent safety information was reviewed. Out of 3548 MEDLINE citations and abstracts, 51 well-designed hot flash RCTs were identified. From these trials, gabapentin, oxybutynin ER, desvenlafaxine, soy-derived isoflavones and black cohosh each showed a clinically meaningful treatment effect in at least 1 RCT. Among these 5 compounds, only gabapentin demonstrated consistent and statistically significant benefit over placebo in all of its well-designed RCTs. Desvenlafaxine, soy-derived isoflavones, and black cohosh demonstrated statistically significant benefit over placebo in 75%, 21%, and 17% of the well-designed RCTs for each compound, respectively. There was only 1 well-designed RCT using oxybutynin ER, which showed it to have a robust and clinically meaningful benefit. In terms of safety, there have been cardiovascular risks associated with desvenlafaxine use in postmenopausal women with hot flashes. The use of anticonvulsants, in general, has been associated with an absolute 0.21% increase in suicidal thoughts and behavior. Further research is needed with several of these nonhormonal compounds to replicate these findings and to also directly compare their efficacy and tolerability with those of hormone replacement therapy. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Oyelakin A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2016

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease with no well-delineated cause or effective cure. Here we show that the p53 family member p63, specifically the ΔNp63, isoform has a key role in driving keratinocyte activation in AD. We find that overexpression of ΔNp63 in transgenic mouse epidermis results in a severe skin phenotype that shares many of the key clinical, histological and molecular features associated with human AD. This includes pruritus, epidermal hyperplasia, aberrant keratinocyte differentiation, enhanced expression of selected cytokines and chemokines and the infiltration of large numbers of inflammatory cells including type 2  T-helper cells – features that are highly representative of AD dermatopathology. We further demonstrate several of these mediators to be direct transcriptional targets of ΔNp63 in keratinocytes. Of particular significance are two p63 target genes, IL-31 and IL-33, both of which are key players in the signaling pathways implicated in AD. Importantly, we find these observations to be in good agreement with elevated levels of ΔNp63 in skin lesions of human patients with AD. Our studies reveal an important role for ΔNp63 in the pathogenesis of AD and offer new insights into its etiology and possible therapeutic targets.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 15 January 2016; doi:10.1038/cdd.2015.162. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source


Bair J.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Werner M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2011

Studies of the shifting social organization and geography of global garment production have been critical to the development of the commodity chains framework as an important field of study for scholars of political economy in various disciplines. Our paper intervenes in this literature by proposing what we call a 'disarticulations' perspective, an approach attentive to historical and spatial processes of accumulation, disinvestment and dispossession that produce the uneven geographies generative of transnational production networks.We make the case for disarticulations as an approach to commodity chains via a case study of a region in north-central Mexico called La Lagunaa celebrated center of export dynamism in the 1990s, following the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and of rapid decline in the 2000s. Rather than offer a conventional commodity chain analysis of the boom to bust cycle in La Laguna, which would look to the dynamics of the contemporary apparel chain to explain the causes and consequences of La Laguna's NAFTA-era trajectory, we instead follow La Laguna's 'travels' through the cotton, textile, and garment industries over 150 years. We show how the recent NAFTA-era boom was premised on this layered history of engagements with the cotton - textile - apparel commodity chain. The disarticula- tions approach to commodity chains that we develop here foregrounds the processes of dispossession, accumulation and disinvestment through which not only commodity chains, but the uneven geographies that are their conditions of possibility, are reproduced. © 2011 Pion Ltd and its Licensors. Source


Woof J.M.,University of Dundee | Russell M.W.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2011

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) has a critical role in immune defense particularly at the mucosal surfaces, and is equipped to do so by the unique structural attributes of its heavy chain and by its ability to polymerize. Here, we provide an overview of human IgA structure, describing the distinguishing features of the IgA1 and IgA2 subclasses and mapping the sites of interaction with host receptors important for IgA's functional repertoire. Remarkably, these same interaction sites are targeted by binding proteins and proteases produced by various pathogens as a means to subvert the protective IgA response. As interest in the prospect of therapeutic IgA-based monoclonal antibodies grows, the emerging understanding of the relationship between IgA structure and function will be invaluable for maximizing the potential of these novel reagents. Source


Mosqueda G.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Ahmadizadeh M.,Sharif University of Technology
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics | Year: 2011

A fully implicit iterative integration procedure is presented for local and geographically distributed hybrid simulation of the seismic response of complex structural systems with distributed nonlinear behavior. The purpose of this procedure is to seamlessly incorporate experimental elements in simulations using existing fully implicit integration algorithms designed for pure numerical simulations. The difficulties of implementing implicit integrators in a hybrid simulation are addressed at the element level by introducing a safe iteration strategy and using an efficient procedure for online estimation of the experimental tangent stiffness matrix. In order to avoid physical application of iterative displacements, the required experimental restoring force at each iteration is estimated from polynomial curve fitting of recent experimental measurements. The experimental tangent stiffness matrix is estimated by using readily available experimental measurements and by a classical diagonalization approach that reduces the number of unknowns in the matrix. Numerical and hybrid simulations are used to demonstrate that the proposed procedure provides an efficient method for implementation of fully implicit numerical integration in hybrid simulations of complex nonlinear structures. The hybrid simulations presented include distributed nonlinear behavior in both the numerical and experimental substructures. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Auerbach A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The interaction of a small molecule made in one cell with a large receptor made in another is the signature event of cell signaling. Understanding the structure and energy changes associated with agonist activation is important for engineering drugs, receptors and synapses. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a ∼300 kD ion channel that binds the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and other cholinergic agonists to elicit electrical responses in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This mini-review is in two sections. First, general concepts of skeletal muscle AChR operation are discussed in terms of energy landscapes for conformational change. Second, adult vs. fetal AChRs are compared with regard to interaction energies between ACh and agonist-site side chains, measured by single-channel electrophysiology and molecular dynamics simulations. The five aromatic residues that form the core of each agonist binding site can be divided into two working groups, a triad (led by αY190) that behaves similarly at all sites and a coupled pair (led by γW55) that has a large influence on affinity only in fetal AChRs. Each endplate AChR has 5 homologous subunits, two of α(1) and one each of β, δ, and either γ (fetal) orε (adult). These nicotinic AChRs have only 2 functional agonist binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at αδ and either αγ or α? subunit interfaces. The receptor undergoes a reversible, global isomerization between structures called C and O. The C shape does not conduct ions and has a relatively low affinity for ACh, whereas O conducts cations and has a higher affinity. When both agonist sites are empty (filled only with water) the probability of taking on the O conformation (PO) is low, <10-6. When ACh molecules occupy the agonist sites the C → O opening rate constant and C → O gating equilibrium constant increase dramatically. Following a pulse of ACh at the nerve-muscle synapse, the endplate current rises rapidly to reach a peak that corresponds to PO ∼0.96. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Violanti J.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Policing | Year: 2010

Purpose: The objectives of this paper are to examine national police suicide rates, to compare police suicides with fire-fighters and military personnel, and to examine suicide in women and minority officers. Design/methodology/approach: The National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) (1984-1998) was used as a data source. Descriptive statistics and proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were calculated. Findings: Overall, the police suicide rate was four times that of fire-fighters. Minority officers had 4.5 times and policewomen 12 times the number of suicides than did fire-fighters. Police suicides outnumbered homicides by 2.36 times. Police had significantly higher than expected PMRs for suicide. Research limitations/implications: NOMS data are presently available up to 1998, and data in the study are descriptive only. Although suggestive of risk, statistically significantly elevated PMRs cannot be interpreted directly as indicating a causal relationship between police work and suicide. Confounders are not recorded in NOMS and may lend considerable weight to suicide. Practical implications: The paper reflects the need to look deeper into police suicides and their root causes. Police organizations are advised to initiate suicide awareness training and psychological assistance to officers. Originality/value: The paper is among the first nationally to compare suicide among similar hazardous occupations, suggesting the need for prevention. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Greenwood E.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2010

We investigate the effect on the Hawking radiation given off during the time of collapse of a Reisner-Nordström domain wall. Using the functional Schrödinger formalism we are able to probe the time-dependent regime, which is out of the reach of the standard approximations like the Bogolyubov method. We calculate the occupation number of particles for a scalar field and complex scalar field. We demonstrate that the particles from the scalar field are unaffected by the charge of the Reisner-Nordström domain wall, as is expected since the scalar field doesn't carry any charge, which would couple to the charge of the Reisner-Nordström domain wall. Here the situation effectively reduces to the uncharged case, a spherically symmetric domain wall. To take the charge into account, we consider the complex scalar field which represents charged particles and anti-particles. Here investigate two different cases, first the non-extremal case and second the extremal case. In the non-extremal case we demonstrate that when the particle (anti-particle) carries charge opposite to that of the domain wall, the occupation number becomes suppressed during late times of the collapse. Therefore the dominate occupation number is when the particle (anti-particle) carries the same charge as the domain wall, as expected due to the Coulomb potential carried by the domain walls. In the extremal case we demonstrate that as time increases the temperature of the radiation decreases until when the domain wall reaches the horizon and the temperature then goes to zero. This is in agreement with the Hawking temperature for charged black holes. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA. Source


Kramer J.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Cytokine | Year: 2014

Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a debilitating autoimmune disease that primarily affects women. Patients with SS experience dry eyes and dry mouth in addition to systemic disease manifestations, including arthritis, peripheral neuropathy and pulmonary fibrosis. As in many autoimmune diseases, the inciting factors that precipitate SS are poorly understood. Patients with SS have periductal and perivascular lymphocytic infiltration of salivary and lacrimal tissue, and this is a hallmark of disease. While this infiltration is well characterized, the pathologic events that precede and cause this inflammatory cell recruitment are unknown. Although few studies have examined SS salivary tissue prior to disease onset, there is strong evidence for innate immune hyperactivity. Accordingly, processes such as apoptosis of glandular tissue, heightened inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and toll-like receptor (TLR) activation are described in early disease and are each linked to innate immune activation in murine models of disease and SS patients. This review will explore the relationship between innate immunity and SS pathogenesis prior to overt disease onset and discuss therapeutic strategies to mitigate disease progression in SS patients. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Dimock J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Letters in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2015

We consider abelian gauge theories on a lattice and develop properties of an axial gauge that is covariant under lattice symmetries. Particular attention is paid to a version compatible with block averaging renormalization group transformations. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Autschbach J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Chemical Education | Year: 2012

The use of electron orbitals in quantum theory and chemistry is discussed. Common misconceptions are highlighted. Suggestions are made how chemistry educators may describe orbitals in the first and second year college curriculum more accurately without introducing unwanted technicalities. A comparison is made of different ways of graphically representing orbitals. The connection of orbital delocalization and electron delocalization is explained by using graphical representations of canonical and localized molecular orbitals for water, benzene, and linear hexatriene. © 2012 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Source


Benedict R.H.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Walton M.K.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Multiple Sclerosis Journal | Year: 2012

Brief cognitive assessments are increasingly emphasized in MS treatment studies and clinical care. While much is known about the reliability of several widely-used neuropsychological tests, interpretation of the changes in individual patients is inadequate. The FDA offers guidance on the issue, as related to patient-reported outcomes. Unfortunately, cognitive ability is only weakly correlated with the frequency and severity of self-reported cognitive problems. In this review, we critically examined the psychometrics of neuropsychological testing in MS, emphasizing statistical and anchor-based approaches to interpreting clinically meaningful change.We suggest that there are two paths forward that should be currently pursued. First, to employ co-primary outcomes, including a brief cognitive test and a clinician or observer's impression on a scale of change, where successful treatment would require showing significant improvement in both measures. Secondly, to work toward showing that when reliable brief cognitive tests are employed, increments of statistically-relevant change would correlate with changes in clinically-relevant anchors (such as vocational disability or clinical relapses with cognitive impairment). The latter goal will allow a more parsimonious and scientifically efficient approach of utilizing only the brief cognitive test as a primary outcome. While some progress has been made in this direction, more research is needed. We are of the opinion that data from both the statistical and clinically meaningful approaches will be necessary to develop valid definitions of meaningful change on cognitive outcome measures, and that it would be best to pursue research using tests that already have well-established reliability and validity. © The Author(s) 2012. Source


Atzeni I.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Ordonez L.G.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Scutari G.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Palomar D.P.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Fonollosa J.R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2013

Demand-side management, together with the integration of distributed energy generation and storage, are considered increasingly essential elements for implementing the smart grid concept and balancing massive energy production from renewable sources. We focus on a smart grid in which the demand-side comprises traditional users as well as users owning some kind of distributed energy sources and/or energy storage devices. By means of a day-ahead optimization process regulated by an independent central unit, the latter users intend to reduce their monetary energy expense by producing or storing energy rather than just purchasing their energy needs from the grid. In this paper, we formulate the resulting grid optimization problem as a noncooperative game and analyze the existence of optimal strategies. Furthermore, we present a distributed algorithm to be run on the users' smart meters, which provides the optimal production and/or storage strategies, while preserving the privacy of the users and minimizing the required signaling with the central unit. Finally, the proposed day-ahead optimization is tested in a realistic situation. © 2010-2012 IEEE. Source


Cosci F.,University of Florence | Fava G.A.,University of Bologna | Fava G.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics | Year: 2013

Background: The staging method, whereby a disorder is characterized according to its seriousness, extension, development and features, is attracting increasing attention in clinical psychology and psychiatry. The aim of this systematic review was to critically summarize the tools that are available for reproducing and standardizing the clinical intuitions that are involved in a staging formulation. Methods: A comprehensive research was conducted on the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2012. The following search terms were used: 'stage/staging' AND 'psychiatric disorder/mental disorder/schizophrenia/mood disorder/anxiety disorder/substance use disorder/eating disorder'. Results: A total of 78 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. We discussed studies addressing or related to the issue of staging in a number of mental disorders (schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, substance use disorders, anorexia and bulimia nervosa). The literature indicates that disorders have a longitudinal development or a treatment history that can be categorized according to stages. We proposed staging formulations for the above-mentioned psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: Staging models offer innovative assessment tools for clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. Characterizing each stage of an illness demarcates major prognostic and therapeutic differences among patients who otherwise seem to be deceptively similar since they share the same psychiatric diagnosis. A stage 0 to denote an at-risk condition does not appear to be warranted at the current state of research. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Wang C.X.,State University of New York at Buffalo
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2010

This paper extends the standard newsvendor problem based upon risk neutrality to a game setting where multiple newsvendors with loss aversion preferences are competing for inventory from a risk-neutral supplier. We show that if the supplier allocates the total demand among the newsvendors proportional to their order quantities, then there exists a unique Nash equilibrium order quantity in this newsvendor game. We also find that while the demand-stealing effect increases the total order quantity of the newsvendors, the loss aversion effect decreases the newsvendors' total order quantity and if strong enough, may lead to a lower total inventory level of the decentralized supply chain than that of an integrated supply chain. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Sherris D.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Aesthetic surgery journal / the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic surgery | Year: 2011

Rhinoplasty often relies on graft material for structural support in the form of cartilage, bone grafts, or fascia. In addition, pliable grafts are often helpful for contouring and can function as a barrier. Unfortunately, grafts carry the disadvantage of requiring an additional donor site, with associated complications. Human acellular dermal matrix (ADM) biological implants offer an exciting alternative for structural support and nonstructural implantation in rhinoplasty procedures. To examine the efficacy of ADM placement in rhinoplasty and septoplasty, the authors report the results from a series of 51 patients. In this series, there were no cases of infection, skin discoloration, seroma formation, septal perforation, significant resorption, extrusion, or other complications related to ADM placement. Therefore, the authors believe that ADM offers a safe and effective alternative to traditional grafting methods for functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty. Source


Furlani E.P.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Materials | Year: 2010

Magnetic particles are finding increasing use in bioapplications, especially as carrier particles to transport biomaterials such as proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids and whole cells etc. Magnetic particles can be prepared with biofunctional coatings to target and label a specific biomaterial, and they enable controlled manipulation of a labeled biomaterial using an external magnetic field. In this review, we discuss the use of magnetic nanoparticles as transport agents in various bioapplications. We provide an overview of the properties of magnetic nanoparticles and their functionalization for bioapplications. We discuss the basic physics and equations governing the transport of magnetic particles at the micro- and nanoscale. We present two different transport models: a classical Newtonian model for predicting the motion of individual particles, and a drift-diffusion model for predicting the behavior of a concentration of nanoparticles that takes into account Brownian motion. We review specific magnetic biotransport applications including bioseparation, drug delivery and magnetofection. We demonstrate the transport models via application to these processes. © 2010 by the authors. Source


Sethi S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Acute exacerbations are significant events in the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Modern diagnostic techniques have revealed an infectious cause for the majority of exacerbations. Common respiratory viruses contribute to 25%-50% of exacerbations. Detection of viral nucleic acids in nasopharyngeal swab or sputum samples has become the preferred method to study viral exacerbations instead of viral cultures and serologic examination. Clinical application of such molecular detection requires additional studies to clarify interpretation of a positive result. Bacteria account for 25%-50% of exacerbations. Studies comparing molecular detection of bacteria in sputum with conventional culture techniques have shown that a substantial proportion of bacteria are not detected by the latter method. However, as with molecular viral detection, clinical application of molecular bacterial diagnosis requires additional studies. Although still faced with several challenges and requiring additional development, it is quite likely that molecular methods will become the preferred methods for determining the etiology of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. © 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. Source


Rogerson P.A.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Statistical Methods in Medical Research | Year: 2011

Local spatial statistics are used to test for spatial association in some variable of interest, and to test for clustering around predefined locations. Such statistics require that a neighbourhood be defined around the location of interest. This is done by specifying weights for surrounding regions, and this is tantamount to specification of the scale at which the local dependence or clustering is tested. In practice, weights are usually assigned exogenously, with little thought given to their definition. Most common is the definition of binary adjacency - weights are set equal to one if the region is adjacent to the focal region and to zero otherwise. But this implies a spatial scale that may or may not be the best one to evaluate the variable under study - the actual scale of dependence or clustering is one that is smaller or larger. An alternative strategy is to try different sets of weights corresponding to different spatial scales. The purpose of this article is to provide statistical tests that allow for examination of several local statistics across multiple spatial scales, and yet avoid the need for simulation. Application of these tests leads to a choice of spatial scale through the weights, as well as an assessment of statistical significance. The approach is illustrated using data on leukemia from central New York State. © The Author(s), 2010. Source


Peccia J.,Yale University | Haznedaroglu B.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Gutierrez J.,Yale University | Zimmerman J.B.,Yale University
Trends in Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Favorable growth characteristics continue to generate interest in using triacylglycerides (TAGs) produced from microalgae for biodiesel feedstocks. In this opinion article, we suggest that due to the energy consumption associated with the production of external nitrogen fertilizers, the manner in which nitrogen is supplied to microalgae biorefineries will be an important driver of energy yields, sustainability, and commercial success. Schemes including the reuse of urban wastewater represent improvements on the overall energy balance, but will not allow for significant production of biofuels unless the nitrogen from the non-TAG portions of microalgae is recycled. Approaches to recycling nitrogen require an improved understanding of the tradeoffs between the different potential uses of the non-TAG microalgal portion (i.e., energy production via anaerobic digestion or thermal catalytic processes), and the development of nitrogen separation technologies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Schultz B.J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Nature communications | Year: 2011

Electronic structure heterogeneities are ubiquitous in two-dimensional graphene and profoundly impact the transport properties of this material. Here we show the mapping of discrete electronic domains within a single graphene sheet using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy in conjunction with ab initio density functional theory calculations. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy imaging provides a wealth of detail regarding the extent to which the unoccupied levels of graphene are modified by corrugation, doping and adventitious impurities, as a result of synthesis and processing. Local electronic corrugations, visualized as distortions of the π*cloud, have been imaged alongside inhomogeneously doped regions characterized by distinctive spectral signatures of altered unoccupied density of states. The combination of density functional theory calculations, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy imaging, and in situ near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy experiments also provide resolution of a longstanding debate in the literature regarding the spectral assignments of pre-edge and interlayer states. Source


Dimock J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Reviews in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2013

This is an expository account of Balaban's approach to the renormalization group. The method is illustrated with a treatment of the ultraviolet problem for the scalar φ4 model on toroidal lattice in dimension d = 3. This yields another proof of the stability bound. In this first paper we analyze the small field contribution to the partition function. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source


Huang H.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Journal of Geometry and Physics | Year: 2013

We construct faithful actions of quantum permutation groups on connected compact metrizable spaces. This disproves a conjecture of Goswami. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Krishnatry A.S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM | Year: 2011

Nitroglycerin (NTG), an important cardiovascular agent, has been shown recently to activate matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in biological systems, possibly leading to destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. The chemical mechanism for this activation, particularly on the cysteine switch of the pro-form of MMP-9 (proMMP-9), has not been investigated and was examined here using nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. In order to obtain high sequence coverage, two orthogonal enzymes (trypsin and GluC) were employed to digest the protein in parallel. Two complementary activation methods, collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD), were employed for the identification of various modifications. A high-resolution Orbitrap analyzer was used to enable confident identification. Incubation of NTG with proMMP-9 resulted in the formation of an unstable thionitrate intermediate and oxidation of the cysteine switch to sulfinic and irreversible sulfonic acid derivatives. The unstable thionitrate modification was confirmed by both CID and ETD in the proteolytic peptides produced by both trypsin and GluC. Incubation of proMMP-9 with diethylenetriamine NONOate (a nitric oxide donor) led to sulfonic acid formation, but no observable sulfinic acid modification. Extensive tyrosine nitration by NTG was observe