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Scoparo C.T.,Federal University of Parana | Souza L.M.,Institute Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe | Dartora N.,State University of Centro Oeste | Sassaki G.L.,Federal University of Parana | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2016

In order to obtain polysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis), commercial leaves were submitted to infusion and then to alkaline extraction. The extracts were fractionated by freeze-thawing process, giving insoluble and soluble fractions. Complex arabinogalactan protein from the soluble fractions of both teas (GTPS and BTPS) were determined by methylation analysis and 1H/13C-HSQC spectroscopy, showing a main chain of (1 → 3)-β-Galp, substituted at O-6 by (1 → 6)-linked β-Galp with side chains of α-Araf and terminal units of α-Araf, α-Fucp and α-Rhap. A highly branched heteroxylan from the insoluble fractions (GTPI and BTPI) showed in methylation analysis and 1H/13C-HSQC spectroscopy the main chain of (1 → 4)-β-Xylp, substituted in O-3 by α-Araf, β-Galp and α-Glcp units. Evaluating their gastroprotective activity, the fractions containing the soluble heteropolysaccharides from green (GTPS) and black teas (BTPS) reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Furthermore, the fraction of insoluble heteropolysaccharides of green (GTPI) and black (BTPI) teas also protected the gastric mucosa. In addition, the maintenance of gastric mucus and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was involved in the polysaccharides gastroprotection. © 2016. Source

Rossi L.,State University of Centro Oeste | Rossi L.,Federal University of Parana | Brandalize M.,Guairaca Faculty | Pereira R.,State University of Southwest Bahia | Gomes A.R.,Federal University of Parana
Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation | Year: 2014

The study aimed to evaluate a perturbation-based balance training program designed to target neuromuscular recruitment and functional mobility in older women. Older women were divided into exercise group (6-week balance training) and control group. Timed Up & Go test, central activation failure of ankle muscles, and electromyographic activity from 6 lower-limb muscles were assessed during postural perturbations. Variables were analyzed at baseline, at the 6-week follow-up, and after a detraining (6-week) period. The balance training improved electromyographic amplitude during postural perturbations, the central activation failure, and the Timed Up & Go test score. The perturbation-based balance training program improved muscle activation and the functional performance of older women. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Ferreira A.S.,Federal University of Parana | Goncalves R.A.,State University of Centro Oeste | Pozo A.T.R.,Federal University of Parana
Proceedings - 2015 Brazilian Conference on Intelligent Systems, BRACIS 2015 | Year: 2015

Hyper-heuristics are search methods that aim to solve optimization problems by selecting or generating heuristics. Selection hyper-heuristics choose from a pool of heuristics a good one to be applied at the current stage of the optimization process. The selection mechanism is the main part of a selection hyper-heuristic and have a great impact on its performance. In this paper a deterministic selection mechanism based on the concepts of the Multi-Armed Bandit (MAB) problem is proposed. The proposed approach is integrated into the HyFlex framework and is compared to twenty other hyper-heuristics using the methodology adapted by the CHeSC 2011 Challenge. The results obtained were good and comparable to those attained by the best hyper-heuristics. Therefore, it is possible to affirm that the use of a MAB mechanism as a selection method in a hyper-heuristic is a promising approach. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Rossi L.P.,State University of Centro Oeste | Rossi L.P.,Federal University of Parana | Pereira R.,State University of Southwest Bahia | Brandalize M.,Guairaca Faculty | Gomes A.R.S.,Federal University of Parana
Human Movement | Year: 2013

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term perturbation-based balance training and a detraining period on postural control in older adults. Methods. A group of healthy older women were recruited and divided into two groups: an exercise group (EG, n = 21, age = 67.0 ± 2.0 y) that performed balance-based exercises three times a week over a sixweek period and a control group (CG, n = 20, age = 67.9 ± 3.1 y). Center-of-pressure displacement (CoP) and electromyographic data (EMG onset, time-to-peak and amplitude) were assessed during forward and backward perturbations for six leg muscles. All variables were analyzed before the training program began, at its end, and after a six-week period of detraining. A mixed ANOVA model was used to analyze the within- and between-subject results. Results. A decrease in backward CoP displacement, EMG onset and time-to-peak of the ankle muscles, especially the tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (MG), was observed. Improvement in muscle EMG amplitude for the ankle muscles (TA, MG and Soleus - SO) at the early phase (0-200 ms) of the perturbation test, with the SO also showing an increase in amplitude at the intermediate phase (201-400 ms). After the detraining period, only the TA muscle maintained an improvement in reaction time. Conclusions. Perturbation-based balance training improved neuromuscular responses such as muscle reaction time and ankle muscle activation and consequently aided the body's ability to maintain correct center of pressure, although after a period of detraining this gain was not maintained for most of the assessed variables. Source

Romano R.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Romano M.A.,State University of Centro Oeste | Bernardi M.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Furtado P.V.,University of Sao Paulo | Oliveira C.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Archives of Toxicology | Year: 2010

Glyphosate is a herbicide widely used to kill weeds both in agricultural and non-agricultural landscapes. Its reproductive toxicity is related to the inhibition of a StAR protein and an aromatase enzyme, which causes an in vitro reduction in testosterone and estradiol synthesis. Studies in vivo about this herbicide effects in prepubertal Wistar rats reproductive development were not performed at this moment. Evaluations included the progression of puberty, body development, the hormonal production of testosterone, estradiol and corticosterone, and the morphology of the testis. Results showed that the herbicide (1) significantly changed the progression of puberty in a dose-dependent manner; (2) reduced the testosterone production, in semineferous tubules' morphology, decreased significantly the epithelium height (P < 0.001; control = 85.8 ± 2.8 μm; 5 mg/kg = 71.9 ± 5.3 μm; 50 mg/kg = 69.1 ± 1.7 μm; 250 mg/kg = 65.2 ± 1.3 μm) and increased the luminal diameter (P < 0.01; control = 94.0 ± 5.7 μm; 5 mg/kg = 116.6 ± 6.6 μm; 50 mg/kg = 114.3 ± 3.1 μm; 250 mg/kg = 130.3 ± 4.8 μm); (4) no difference in tubular diameter was observed; and (5) relative to the controls, no differences in serum corticosterone or estradiol levels were detected, but the concentrations of testosterone serum were lower in all treated groups (P < 0.001; control = 154.5 ± 12.9 ng/dL; 5 mg/kg = 108.6 ± 19.6 ng/dL; 50 mg/dL = 84.5 ± 12.2 ng/dL; 250 mg/kg = 76.9 ± 14.2 ng/dL). These results suggest that commercial formulation of glyphosate is a potent endocrine disruptor in vivo, causing disturbances in the reproductive development of rats when the exposure was performed during the puberty period. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source

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