State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute

Stende, Latvia

State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute

Stende, Latvia
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Bleidere M.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute | Timbare R.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute | Bobere N.,University of Latvia | Paklone M.,University of Latvia | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Section B: Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences | Year: 2014

The objectives of the study were to investigate the variability of oat (Avena sativa L.) grain physical traits and chemical composition and to determine relationships between traits. Field experiments including five hulled oat genotypes were carried out at the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute for two seasons during 2010-2011. Variation of traits was mainly determined by genotype (ω2 = 53-88%), with the min/max values for 1000 kernel weight 32.4/36.5 g, test weight 470.0/507.9 g·L-1, hull content 215.4/265.6 g·kg-1, crude protein 110.0/124.9 g·kg-1, starch 456.9/483.0 g·kg-1, β-glucans 28.1/36.6 g·kg-1 and crude fat 46.2/60.0 g·kg-1. Oat variety 'Arta' had the highest test weight (507 g·L-1) and contents of crude protein (124.9 g·kg-1), β-glucans (36.5 g·kg-1), α-tocopherol (7.8 mg·kg-1), average crude fat (55.5 g·kg-1) and total phenolics (113.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/GAE 100 g-1 DM) in the grain. Expression of traits significantly depended on meteorological conditions in the specific year. In both years of investigation there were significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations between contents of β-glucans and crude fat, and negative correlation of β-glucans with starch content, total phenolics and antiradical scavenging activity. © 2015 by Mara Bleidere.

Mezaka I.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute | Bleidere M.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute | Legzdina L.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute | Rostoks N.,University of Latvia
Zemdirbyste | Year: 2011

ß-glucan content in barley grain is an important component in determination of seed quality and end use. While high ß-glucan content is considered beneficial for human food, it is undesirable in malting barley and feed. Association of ß-glucan content in grain of 89 barley accessions of Latvian origin including 22 hulless accessions with 1273 high quality genome wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers was tested. P-values were calculated using mixed linear model combining Q matrix and K matrix by computer program Tassel. P-values were adjusted using Bonferroni correction. Significant associations were identified for three markers 1_0673 (114.58 cM), 2_0880 (116.68 cM) and 1_1445 (116.68 cM) on chromosome 7H bin 7. Recessive mutation in the NUD locus also located on chromosome 7H bin 7, which determines hulless barley phenotype and has been previously suspected to affect ß-glucan content, was also genotyped and included in the association analysis.Asignificant marker - trait association was found identifying NUD gene as a major source of variation for ß-glucan content in our association mapping panel.

Nakurte I.,University of Latvia | Klavins K.,University of Latvia | Kirhnere I.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute | Namniece J.,University of Latvia | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2012

Lunasin is a novel, cancer-preventive, anti-inflammatory and cholesterol-reducing peptide that was originally isolated from soy and later from barley, wheat and rye. We report the first discovery of lunasin in triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack). Moreover, we report first data of lunasin content in winter rye and wheat genotypes grown in Northern Europe. These data are novel as previously published data on finding of lunasin in cereals were obtained in genotypes grown in Korea. Lunasin content was uncovered using a previously published procedure for isolation from cereals and identified by LC-MS/MS assay. We found that triticale was the most lunasin-rich cereal, with the tested genotypes displaying the following trend in lunasin content: genotype 0002-26 > Dinaro > DSGU 10/94 > 0213-22 > 0317-14 > 0006-31. The greatest lunasin content was 6.46 mg/g in the grain of triticale genotype 0002-26. In comparison, the highest lunasin content in rye variety Dankovske Diament was 1.5 mg/g, and the highest lunasin content in the winter wheat variety Fredis was 0.23 mg/g. We conclude that triticale can play a significant role as functional food, with great potential for the use of triticale products in human and animal diets. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Tamm Y.,Estonian Crop Research Institute | Tamm Y.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute | Jansone I.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute | Zute S.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute | Jakobsone I.,University of Latvia
Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Section B: Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental variation of yield and food quality characteristics (protein, starch, β-glucan and husk content, test weight and thousand grain weight) of covered and hulless barley genotypes in organic management conditions. Two different field experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, hulless barley genotypes 'Kornelija', 'Irbe', '1165', '1185' and the covered varieties 'Ansis' and 'Maali' were studied in two locations in Latvia and in one location in Estonia during 2014. 'Ansis', 'Kornelija', '1165' and '1185' were included in the second experiment carried out at Stende during three sequential years (2011-2013). The effect of genotype, environment (location and year) and co-effect of these factors contributed significantly to the variation in yield and grain quality traits of the barley genotypes. As a result of experimental treatments grain yield and quality traits varied by all tested factors. There were considerable differences in impact of studied sources of variation. Grain yield was influenced more by environmental factors than by genotype. Impact of genotype was highest for husk content and test weight. Integral evaluation method was carried out for comparison of barley genotypes to identify the best ones by the lowest deviation from the desired value. The covered barley variety 'Maali' showed good adaptation to different environmental conditions, having good yield, β-glucan content and high thousand grain weight. The line '1165' and variety 'Kornelija' showed best results among hulless barley varieties. © 2015 by Ylle Tamm.

Jansone I.,Latvia University of Agriculture | Jansone I.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute | Gaile Z.,Latvia University of Agriculture
Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

Heat is one of the most important types of energy at northern latitudes. In 2013 the total consumption of renewable energy resources (RER) in Latvia was 68 PJ. The heating systems can function on plant or other organic material, for example, wood chips or agricultural residues. By using local biomass resources it is possible to reduce the pollution of atmosphere caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Different variety of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), triticale (Triticosecale) and rye (Secale cereale) were used in the research. The following aspects were determined during the research: dry matter yield, chemical composition and the higher heating value of grains and straw. The evaluation of grains and straw of winter cereals showed that the higher heating value (MJ kg-1) was acquired from the straw of winter cereals, whereas the grains had the highest dry matter yield, thus the grains of winter cereals had the highest heating yield from one hectare (GJ ha-1).

Jakobsone I.,University of Latvia | Kantane I.,University of Latvia | Zute S.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute | Jansone I.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute | Bartkevics V.,University of Latvia
Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Section B: Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences | Year: 2015

Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45), barley (n = 54), spring wheat (n = 27), winter wheat (n = 53), triticale (n = 45) and oats (n = 42). Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca) were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266). Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001). The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability) of the examined macro-elements and trace elements. © by Ida Jakobsone 2015.

Sterna V.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute | Zute S.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute | Jakobsone I.,University of Latvia
Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Section B: Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences | Year: 2015

Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety 'Kornelija' outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content. © by Vita Šterna 2015.

Strazdina V.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute
Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Section B: Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences | Year: 2012

A gene pool of Latvian winter and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been created over a very long period, by collection, evaluation and selection of local genetic resources, and investigation of varieties and breeding lines from other countries in the world. It is not only a historical collection, but also serves as the foundation for research and plant breeding. National wheat germplasm is the framework for creating competitive winter and spring wheat varieties of grain with high yield, resistant to lodging and diseases, and quality acceptable for producers in the Baltic agroclimatical region. In Latvia, from 1920 to 1990, the selected wheat varieties were not stable pure lines, but mostly population varieties. After accession to UPOV (International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants), the requirements for new varieties have changed, and only distinct, uniform and stable varieties, characterised by high economical value are registered in Plant Catalogues. To implement wheat breeding programmes it is necessary to improve breeding methods by plant tissue culture and production of doubled haploids (DH). During 90 years, 16 winter and 11 spring wheat varieties of bread wheat (Tr. aestivum L.) have been created at Priekui and Stende and introduced in the market. The achievements of several generations of Latvian wheat breeders are reviewed in this paper.

Zute S.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute | Berga L.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute | Bleidere M.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute
Proceedings of 6th International Congress FLOUR-BREAD 2011 - 8th Croatian Congress of Cereal Technologists | Year: 2011

Oats (Avena sativa L.) can be divided in naked and husked oat genotypes. Naked oats contains significantly higher amounts of fat-soluble α-tocopherol- substance with high antioxidant activity, β-glucan - soluble dietary fibre, comparing with husked oats. The main task of the study was to show the significance of naked oats in human diet. Field trials were arranged at the State Stende cereals breeding institute from 2007 to 2010, for estimating biochemical importance of naked oat genotypes (three breeding lines). Analyses were performed laboratorially. On average, all naked oat lines showed good results of protein (11.89-14.95%), starch (59.18-61.06%), lipids (6.57-12.45%), amino acids, β-glucan (3.98-4.19%) and α-tocopherol (5.60-7.80 mg 100 g-1), but only two of them were selected for further investigation. The studied naked oat lines are included in the breeding work and project to determine the effect of genotype to bread making quality and human health via clinical trials.

Bleidere M.,State Stende Cereal breeding institute
Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

The objectives of the investigation were to determine the transgressive lines of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for grain quality traits (1000 kernel weight, and content of crude protein, starch and β-glucans) in the six cross combinations between covered and hulless barley genotypes. The trial was carried out at the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute during 2007 and 2008. Lines representing either positive or negative transgression were found in each cross combination if compared covered and hulless lines with their parent varieties. These lines during the two years of investigation exceeded both parents in positive or negative direction by one standard deviation according to any of the four analyzed grain quality traits. Seven positive transgressive lines were observed regarding 1000 kernel weight, and two transgressive genotypes regarding crude protein content within the population of covered barley lines. No line with positive transgression regarding starch and β-glucan content was found within the covered barley population. 27 hulless lines showed positive transgression regarding any of the four analyzed grain quality traits. The results show that it is possible to increase grain quality of spring barley grain by implementing selection practices.

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