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Ko M.C.,National Taiwan Normal University | Lee M.C.,National Taiwan Normal University | Amstislavskay T.G.,State Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAMS | Tikhonova M.A.,State Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAMS | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The loop diuretic bumetanide (Bumex) is thought to have antiepileptic properties via modulate GABAA mediated signaling through their antagonism of cation-chloride cotransporters. Given that loop diuretics may act as antiepileptic drugs that modulate GABAergic signaling, we sought to investigate whether they also affect hippocampal function. The current study was performed to evaluate the possible role of NKCC1 on the hippocampal function. Brain slice extracellular recording, inhibitory avoidance, and western blot were applied in this study. Results showed that hippocampal Long-term potentiation was attenuated by suprafusion of NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide, in a dose dependent manner. Sequent experiment result showed that Intravenous injection of bumetanide (15.2 mg/kg) 30 min prior to the training session blocked inhibitory avoidance learning significantly. Subsequent control experiment's results excluded the possible non-specific effect of bumetanide on avoidance learning. We also found the phosphorylation of hippocampal MAPK was attenuated after bumetanide administration. These results suggested that hippocampal NKCC1 may via MAPK signaling cascade to possess its function. © 2014 Ko et al.

Ho S.-C.,Chung Shan Medical University | Hsu C.-C.,Tungs Taichung Metrohabor Hospital | Pawlak C.R.,Central Institute of Mental Health | Tikhonova M.A.,State Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAMS | And 3 more authors.
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2014

Hyperactivity of the glutamatergic system is involved in excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and treatment with drugs modulating glutamatergic activity may have beneficial effects. Ceftriaxone has been reported to increase glutamate uptake by increasing glutamate transporter expression. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ceftriaxone on working memory, object recognition, and neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD rat model. MPTP was stereotaxically injected into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of male Wistar rats. Then, starting the next day (day 1), the rats were injected daily with either ceftriaxone (200. mg/kg/day, i.p.) or saline for 14 days and underwent a T-maze test on days 8-10 and an object recognition test on days 12-14. MPTP-lesioned rats showed impairments of working memory in the T-maze test and of recognition function in the object recognition test. The treatment of ceftriaxone decreased the above MPTP-induced cognitive deficits. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that ceftriaxone inhibits MPTP lesion-induced dopaminergic degeneration in the nigrostriatal system, microglial activation in the SNc, and cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 area. In conclusion, these data support the idea that hyperactivity of the glutamatergic system is involved in the pathophysiology of PD and suggest that ceftriaxone may be a promising pharmacological tool for the development of new treatments for the dementia associated with PD. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Lu K.-T.,National Taiwan Normal University | Huang T.-C.,National Taiwan Normal University | Wang J.-Y.,Taipei Medical University | You Y.-S.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | And 6 more authors.
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2015

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most prevalent causes of worldwide mortality and morbidity. We previously had evidenced that TBI induced Na-K-2Cl co-transporter (NKCC1) upregulation in hippocampus. Here, we aim to investigate the role of NKCC1 in TBI-induced neurogenesis and the detailed mechanisms. The TBI-associated alternations in the expression of NKCC1, HIF-1α, VEGF, MAPK cascade, and CREB phosphorylation were analyzed by Western blot. TBI-induced neurogenesis was determined by immuno-fluorescence labeling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to elucidate whether HIF-1α would activate VEGF gene after TBI. We found that the level of hippocampal NKCC1 and VEGF began to rise 8 h after TBI, and both of them reached maxima at day 7. Along with the upregulation of NKCC1 and VEGF, MAPK cascade was activated and hippocampal neurogenesis was promoted. Administration of CREB antisense oligonucleotide significantly attenuated the expression of HIF-1α, while HIF-1α antisense oligonucleotide exhibited little effect on the expression of CREB. However, HIF-1α antisense oligonucleotide administration did effectively suppress the expression of VEGF. Our results of the chromosome immunoprecipitation also indicated that HIF-1α could directly act on the VEGF promoter and presumably would elevate the VEGF expression after TBI. All these results have illustrated the correlation between NKCC1 upregulation and TBI-associated neurogenesis. The pathway involves the activation of Raf/MEK/ERK cascade, CREB phosphorylation, and HIF-1α upregulation, and finally leads to the stimulation of VEGF expression and the induction of neurogenesis. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Hung Y.-T.,Chung Shan Medical University | Tikhonova M.A.,State Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAMS | Ding S.-J.,Chung Shan Medical University | Kao P.-F.,Chung Shan Medical University | And 7 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Physiology | Year: 2014

D-galactose is known to cause oxidative stress and induce aging-related diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that diosgenin can prevent osteoporosis in menopausal rats. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of oral administration of diosgenin on bone loss in a D-galactoseinduced aging rat model. Three groups of twelve-week-old male Wistar rats received a daily injection of D-galactose (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and orally administered diosgenin (0, 10, or 50 mg/kg/day) for eight weeks, while a control group received saline injection (1 ml/kg/day, i.p.), then the femurs were taken to measure mechanical and morphological properties. The results showed that frame volume and femur volume decreased and porosity and frame density increased in the D-galactose-induced aging rats compared to controls and that these effects were prevented by co-administration of diosgenin. This suggests that diosgenin might prevent bone loss during aging and provide beneficial effects in osteoporosis in the elderly. © 2014 by The Chinese Physiological Society and Airiti Press Inc.

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