State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute

Priekuļi, Latvia

State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute

Priekuļi, Latvia
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Mezaka I.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute | Bleidere M.,State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute | Legzdina L.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute | Rostoks N.,University of Latvia
Zemdirbyste | Year: 2011

ß-glucan content in barley grain is an important component in determination of seed quality and end use. While high ß-glucan content is considered beneficial for human food, it is undesirable in malting barley and feed. Association of ß-glucan content in grain of 89 barley accessions of Latvian origin including 22 hulless accessions with 1273 high quality genome wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers was tested. P-values were calculated using mixed linear model combining Q matrix and K matrix by computer program Tassel. P-values were adjusted using Bonferroni correction. Significant associations were identified for three markers 1_0673 (114.58 cM), 2_0880 (116.68 cM) and 1_1445 (116.68 cM) on chromosome 7H bin 7. Recessive mutation in the NUD locus also located on chromosome 7H bin 7, which determines hulless barley phenotype and has been previously suspected to affect ß-glucan content, was also genotyped and included in the association analysis.Asignificant marker - trait association was found identifying NUD gene as a major source of variation for ß-glucan content in our association mapping panel.


Usele G.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute | Beinarovica I.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute | Mezaka I.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute | Legzdina L.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute
Zemdirbyste | Year: 2013

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a widespread disease of cereals, including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), that causes substantial grain yield losses and grain quality deterioration. Resistant varieties provide the greatest potential for reducing FHB. In the present study, we adapted two methods for screening FHB severity using Fusarium culmorum. We used a cut-spike method and a spray inoculation method in the field conditions for screening different spring barley genotypes of Latvian and foreign origin. Screening with the cut-spike method was done for 126 different genotypes in 2008 and in 2009 and for 180 genotypes in 2010. In the years 2011 and 2012, the field inoculation method was used to screen 207 and 164 genotypes, respectively; part of material was tested simultaneously by both methods. A significant effect of genotype was found for both cut-spike and field inoculation methods (p< 0.001); field inoculation method showed a greater proportion of genotype effect and a higher heritability. Using area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) and score obtained at 26 days after inoculation were equally effective. Correlations between results obtained by both methods in different years were not significant, though, the data of the same year correlated significantly (r = 0.36-0.47, p< 0.05). Results suggest that differences between breeding material can be assessed by both methods; however, the information obtained was contradictory for a number of genotypes. Considering the results and the fact that field inoculation method can more likely provide results of equal value to those in natural conditions in respect to identification of resistant and susceptible genotypes, field inoculation method was recognized as preferable for the assessment of spring barley breeding material. Significant correlation (r = 0.71, p< 0.05) between visual estimate of disease severity and mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) concentration in grain was found in 2011, but in the environmental conditions of 2012 formation of DON was inhibited.


Skrabule I.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute | Muceniece R.,University of Latvia | Kirhnere I.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute
Potato Research | Year: 2013

Potato tubers provide people not only with carbohydrates but also with other essential compounds for human health. Several investigations have compared the quality of crops grown under organic and conventional farming systems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of vitamins C, B1 and B2 as well as glycoalkaloids (α-solanine and α-chaconine) in potato tubers of different genotypes and to estimate the farming system (conventional and organic) impact on the content of these compounds. Twenty potato genotypes were grown under organic and conventional farming systems in Priekuli (Latvia) during 2010 and 2011. The concentrations of vitamins C, B1 and B2 as well as glycoalkaloids (α-solanine and α-chaconine) were significantly influenced by the potato genotype. The vitamin B1 concentration of potato genotypes grown in the organic field exceeded that of potato genotypes grown in the conventional field. A significant negative correlation was found between the vitamin C concentration and tuber yield only in the conventional field. No significant correlations were found between the other potato characteristics, such as starch content, tuber taste after boiling and glycoalkaloids, vitamins C, B1 and B2. The high broad-sense heritability for all tested traits (vitamin C 93%, vitamin B1 92%, α-solanine 88%, α-chaconine 84% and vitamin B2 70%) demonstrated that the high genetic diversity in the potato genotype population accounted for the phenotypic expression. The present study suggested that the breeding of new potato varieties with improved nutritional quality can be launched, and that the varieties that will be developed can be produced in an environmentally friendly way. © 2013 EAPR.


Gailite A.,Latvian State Forestry Research Institute Silava | Gaile A.,Latvian State Forestry Research Institute Silava | Gaile I.,Latvian State Forestry Research Institute Silava | Voronova A.,Latvian State Forestry Research Institute Silava | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Section B: Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences | Year: 2013

Rye (Secale cereale L.) is an important grain crop in Latvia, where it is mainly used for baking rye bread, which is a popular staple. However, the area under rye cultivation in Latvia is small, and the majority of varieties planted are foreign. In 1937, almost 290 000 ha of rye were planted, while in 2011, only 28 000 ha were planted, or ∼5% of the area planted with cereals. The Latvian rye genetic resources collection contains nine accessions, including old and new cultivars, landraces and one repatriated accession, which was previously held in the N. I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry collection. A set of descriptors has been developed for rye, and field evaluations of the Latvian rye collection have been started. A set of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has been utilised for genetic fingerprinting of the collection. The initial genetic results indicate that the Latvian rye collection contains a high degree of genetic diversity. Analyses are continuing in order to more fully characterise the collection both phenotypically and genetically.


Nakurte I.,University of Latvia | Kirhnere I.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute | Namniece J.,University of Latvia | Saleniece K.,University of Latvia | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2013

We report the first discovery of lunasin in oats (Avena sativa L). Lunasin is a novel cancer preventive, anti-inflammatory and cholesterol-reducing peptide originally isolated from soy and later found in cereals (barley, rye, wheat, triticale). Lunasin was detected in oats using LC-MS/MS analysis. The chromatograms and mass spectra of lunasin isolated from five oat genotypes were compared with those of the synthetic lunasin peptide. We measured the lunasin content in harvests of two years and found that all tested oat genotypes contained the lunasin peptide. However, we observed genotype-related fluctuations in the lunasin content. Notably, the middle early oat variety 'Ivory' contained the highest and the most stable lunasin level at 0.197 ± 0.01 mg per g of grain in year 2010 and 0.195 ± 0.009 mg per g of grain in 2011. We also characterized the selected oat genotypes by measuring the contents of protein, β-glucans, fat, starch and moisture in the grains. However, we did not find correlation between lunasin and protein, and β-glucan content. Lunasin isolated from oat showed similar to the synthetic lunasin antioxidant effects. The detection of lunasin complements a list of bioactive compounds present in oats and strengthens recommendations to use oat products. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Nakurte I.,University of Latvia | Klavins K.,University of Latvia | Kirhnere I.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute | Namniece J.,University of Latvia | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2012

Lunasin is a novel, cancer-preventive, anti-inflammatory and cholesterol-reducing peptide that was originally isolated from soy and later from barley, wheat and rye. We report the first discovery of lunasin in triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack). Moreover, we report first data of lunasin content in winter rye and wheat genotypes grown in Northern Europe. These data are novel as previously published data on finding of lunasin in cereals were obtained in genotypes grown in Korea. Lunasin content was uncovered using a previously published procedure for isolation from cereals and identified by LC-MS/MS assay. We found that triticale was the most lunasin-rich cereal, with the tested genotypes displaying the following trend in lunasin content: genotype 0002-26 > Dinaro > DSGU 10/94 > 0213-22 > 0317-14 > 0006-31. The greatest lunasin content was 6.46 mg/g in the grain of triticale genotype 0002-26. In comparison, the highest lunasin content in rye variety Dankovske Diament was 1.5 mg/g, and the highest lunasin content in the winter wheat variety Fredis was 0.23 mg/g. We conclude that triticale can play a significant role as functional food, with great potential for the use of triticale products in human and animal diets. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Murniece I.,Latvia University of Agriculture | Karklina D.,Latvia University of Agriculture | Galoburda R.,Latvia University of Agriculture | Santare D.,Food Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2011

The information about nutritional composition of potatoes at both the ingredient and recipe levels in the Food Composition Data Base (FCDB) of Latvia is insufficient. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the nutritional composition and energy content of potatoes prepared by traditional cooking methods before and after storage. Five Latvian potato varieties were selected: Lenora, Brasla, Imanta, Zile and Madara. A two-year research was conducted during two periods: just after harvesting (2007, 2008) and after six months of storage (2008, 2009). The following cooking methods were used: shallow frying (150 ± 5°C); deep-fat frying (180 ± 5°C) and roasting (210 ± 5°C). The weight of the potatoes was recorded before and after frying along with the time and temperature during frying. Chemical analyses were performed to determine the content of reducing sugars, starch, fructose, glucose, sucrose, fibre, fat, protein, moisture, vitamin C and amino acids. The content of the analyzed nutrients differed significantly between both potato varieties and applied cooking methods: differences between potato varieties and cooking methods were found for vitamin C, moisture, reducing sugars, fructose, glucose, sucrose, amino acids, essential amino acids, and energy content, whereas significant differences in starch, fibre, fat and protein content were found between cooking methods. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Dimante I.,Latvia University of Agriculture | Dimante I.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute | Gaile Z.,Latvia University of Agriculture
Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

The study consists of literature review on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) initial seed material - minitubers production. This paper covers aspects of healthy potato microplants production techniques and subsequent greenhouse minitubers production methods. The diversity of conventional minituber growing techniques (on solid medium in greenhouses) is discussed. Review showed, that obtained minitubers number depends on growing methods and variety. Physical manipulation during in vitro phase could have positive effects on minitubers yielding capacities.


Kokare A.,Latvia University of Agriculture | Kokare A.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute | Legzdina L.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute
Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

The aim of studies was to identify how different morphological and biological characteristics influence spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) competitiveness against weeds in various organic and conventional farming locations. Do those traits have an influence on the yield and in which growing conditions the selection of genotypes for organic farming should be done? The plant traits related to competitiveness against weeds at the beginning of the vegetation period are important in breeding for organic agriculture. Ten different varieties were included in trials for three years in two organic and two conventional environments. The included varieties were divided in four groups with respect to time of release and adaptation to growing environments: old extensive varieties and landraces for low input agriculture, medium old varieties with good adaptation to unfavorable conditions, modern varieties for low input, and modern varieties for high input conditions. Results showed that such traits as productive tillering ability, development speed and plant height at the beginning of stem elongation stage provide good soil shading. The most of traits were negatively related to the grain yield. Selection of genotypes for traits which influence spring barley competitiveness against weeds, such as a growth habit in the tillering stage, development speed in tillering stage, plant height at the beginning of stem elongation, length of flag leaf and the width of flag leaf, and the plant height before harvest, may take place in conventional conditions as well as in organic conditions.


Dimante I.,Latvia University of Agriculture | Dimante I.,State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute | Gaile Z.,Latvia University of Agriculture
Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

The study was aimed to investigate the effect of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in vitro plantlets planting density under greenhouse conditions on obtained minitubers number per unit area, multiplication rate and their weight distribution. Three cultivars of different maturity ('Monta' - early maturity, 'Prelma' - medium early and 'Mandaga' - medium late maturity) were used for the study. In vitro plantlets were planted in a greenhouse of State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute, Latvia in 2014 at four planting densities (PDs) 63 plants per -2, 95 plants per -2, 142 plants per -2 and 184 plants per -2 respectively. Fertilized peat was used as a substratum. Significant effect of planting density (p<0.001) and cultivar (p<0.01) was found on analyzed yield parameters. Increased planting densities resulted in increased minitubers number per -2 (from 272 minutubers m-2 at PD 63 plants m-2 to 414 minutubers m-2 at PD 184 plants m-2), decreased multiplication rate (4.3 to 2.7 minitubers per planted plant) and mean fresh weight of minitubers (from 20.26. g to 12.11 g). The highest increase of minitubers number per -2 was observed within size (weight) range 3 to 5 g. Minitubers number per -2 increase within bigger size ranges (5 to 10 g, 10 to 20 g) was less pronounced. Slight insignificant (p=0.330) decrease of minitubers number >20 g was observed in relation of planting density increase (112 minitubers m-2 at PD 95 plants m-2 to 84 minitubers m-2 at PD 184 plants m-2).

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