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Lambo J.,University of Lethbridge | Khahro Z.,World Health Organization | Memon M.,Contech International | Lashari M.,State Power Dadu Hydropower Development Co.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: The study objective was to assess the incidence of neonatal tetanus (NT) in Dadu District, Pakistan. Methods: We analyzed the NT surveillance data for the period 1993-2003 in order to determine the NT incidence. We identified unreported NT cases retrospectively in 2005, by active surveillance and hospital record reviews. The 2-source capture-recapture method was used to estimate the incidence of NT cases. Results: Active methods identified 134 cases in addition to 274 cases in the routine surveillance system. The average annual incidence in routine surveillance was 0.55 per 1000 live-births (LB). Based on an estimated 463 NT cases during this period (95% confidence interval (CI) 425-509), the average annual incidence (capture-recapture) was 0.62 per 1000 LB. Through routine immunization and supplementary immunization activities, NT incidence declined from 0.87 per 1000 LB in 1994 to 0.18 per 1000 LB in 2003. Males had higher incidence rates than females. Both of the average annual incidence rates (by routine surveillance and capture-recapture method) are below the World Health Organization global elimination goal. Conclusion: Enhanced case-based investigation, targeted tetanus toxoid immunization of women of childbearing age, community-based NT reporting, immediate reporting and active surveillance are critical to sustain the ongoing decline in NT incidence. © 2011 Informa Healthcare.


Lambo J.A.,University of Lethbridge | Khahro Z.H.,World Health Organization | Memon M.I.,Contech International | Lashari M.I.,State Power Dadu Hydropower Development Co.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the case ascertainment and completeness of neonatal tetanus (NT) reporting and to estimate the incidence of NT in Dadu District, Pakistan. Methods: We conducted active surveillance and hospital record reviews for suspected NT cases. We compared the cases of NT reported to the routine surveillance system with the cases identified through the hospital record reviews for 1993 through 2003. The two-source capture-recapture method was used to evaluate case ascertainment in the routine surveillance system and to estimate the incidence of cases of NT. Results: Active surveillance and hospital record reviews identified 134 cases in addition to 274 cases in the routine surveillance system. The two-source capture-recapture method indicated that there would have been 463 cases during this period (95% confidence interval (CI) = 418-508), representing an average annual incidence of 0.62 per 1000 live-births. The overall completeness of routine reporting was 59.2%. The proportions of cases reported were 68.1% for government hospitals and 53.8% for private reporting sites. Conclusions: Reporting of NT cases is incomplete. Active promotion of private sector participation, community involvement, and strengthening of the government sector as a way of improving NT reporting and surveillance is strongly suggested. © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases.


Innocenzi P.,State Power Dadu Hydropower Development Co. | Figus C.,State Power Dadu Hydropower Development Co. | Takahashi M.,Osaka Prefecture University | Piccinini M.,Imaging Laboratory | Malfatti L.,State Power Dadu Hydropower Development Co.
Journal of Physical Chemistry A | Year: 2011

Time resolved infrared spectroscopy has been applied to study in situ the evaporation process of a 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane hybrid sol by casting a droplet on a ZnSe substrate; the analysis has been performed in the middle-infrared range and in the near-infrared range. The experiment has allowed following the structural changes induced by water evaporation and the formation of ordered structures within the cast film; the CH 2 scissoring bands have been used as a fingerprint for the disorder to order transition of the hybrid. The experiment has been done using both a fresh sol and an aged sol which produce respectively an amorphous material and a crystalline hybrid material. The analysis has shown that the epoxy groups do not react during the evaporation while the silica structure shows only a slight condensation and an increase in open cage-like species. At the end of evaporation the hybrid has a "soft-like" state which allows structural rearrangements to self-order. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Carboni D.,State Power Dadu Hydropower Development Co. | Pinna A.,State Power Dadu Hydropower Development Co. | Malfatti L.,State Power Dadu Hydropower Development Co. | Innocenzi P.,State Power Dadu Hydropower Development Co.
New Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2014

Hybrid films prepared from 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane have been widely used as organic-inorganic materials for several applications. Tailoring the coating surface should disclose new possibilities of applications in biomaterials as functional interfaces for cells and enzymes. In this work we have designed the synthesis of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane hybrid films to modify the surface properties without additional surface functionalization steps. The pH of the precursor sols has been changed from highly basic to acidic and neutral pH and then the sols have been used to deposit highly transparent films. The analysis by infrared spectroscopy has shown that the synthetic conditions allow tuning the degree of condensation of the silica network and the percentage of epoxide ring opening. A precise control of these two parameters enables the formation of a smart surface library where hydroxyl or epoxide groups or the mixed presence of both change the hydrophobicity of the surface and thus its capability of binding molecules and nano-objects. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

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