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Rostock, Germany

Uter W.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Schmid M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Schmidt O.,Institute for Consumer Products | Bock C.,Berlin Brandenburg State Laboratory | Wolter J.,State Office for Agriculture
Contact Dermatitis | Year: 2014

Background Contact sensitization to cobalt is common. Some industrial exposures have been identified, but cobalt allergy is also often diagnosed in 'non-occupational' patients. Exposure of consumers is largely unexplained. Objective To present the analytical results on cobalt release from earrings and piercing jewellery sampled in a German Federal surveillance scheme. Methods Two German state laboratories analysed cobalt release, after immersion in artificial sweat according to EN 1811, along with nickel release in 87 pieces of jewellery, which were mostly taken apart for separate examination of piercing posts (n = 139), clasps (n = 51), and/or decorative items (n = 52). The distribution of cobalt release was described by the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, taking into account that the majority of measurements were left-censored, that is, below the limit of quantification. Results Thirty-eight of 87 earrings and piercing jewellery items had at least one part releasing cobalt. The median cobalt release was estimated as 0.013 μg/cm 2/week, and 75% of parts released up to 0.085 μg/cm 2/week. Release varied somewhat between the three parts, with, for example, 22.1% of posts releasing ≥ 0.2 μg/cm2/week. Conclusions Cobalt release from earrings and piercing jewellery, in particular from piercing posts, is considerable. Scientifically based exposure limits should be set, as in the case of nickel. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Dannenberger D.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Nuernberg G.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Nuernberg K.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Hagemann E.,State Office for Agriculture
Meat Science | Year: 2013

Samples of M. longissimus were collected from a total of 203 feral roe deer (n=118) and wild boar (n=85) in two regions of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Germany). The muscle lipid saturated fatty acid proportions of roe deer and wild boar ranged between 33 and 49. g/100. g total fatty acids and 31 and 35. g/100. g total fatty acids, respectively. The total n-3 PUFA proportions in roe deer muscle varied between 8.0 and 14. g/100. g fatty acids, and in wild boar muscle between 2.6 and 6.0. g/100. g fatty acids. The major vitamin E homologue, α-tocopherol, was determined to be between 5.8 and 13.1. mg/kg in roe deer muscles. Lower levels between 1.2 and 4.7. mg/kg were measured in wild boar muscles. The iron and zinc concentrations in roe deer and wild boar muscle ranged from 26.3 to 33.9. mg/kg and from 17.0 to 21.7. mg/kg, and from 13.6 to 39.3. mg/kg and 18.1 to 31.9. mg/kg, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Demasius W.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Weikard R.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Kromik A.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Wolf C.,State Office for Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2014

Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) is a haemorrhagic disease of newborn calves elicited by colostrum from specific cows. Two studies have indicated that BNP-inducing colostrum might be associated with alloantibodies directed against MHC class I in response to vaccination with a distinct inactivated viral vaccine. However, the proportion of alloantibody-producing individuals by far exceeds the proportion of clinical BNP cases in the vaccinated population. This raises the question about the incidence of subclinical, unrecognised cases and also suggests further factors involved in BNP pathogenesis, e.g., genetic predisposition. Our results on neonatal calves from a closely monitored resource population confirmed the hypothesis of a genetic predisposition for clinical BNP and suggest that the predisposition is also involved in subclinical BNP-cases. No indication was obtained for a higher frequency of subclinical BNP-cases compared with clinical cases. Neither time point nor frequency of vaccination was a relevant factor for BNP in our resource population. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Schnuch A.,University of Gottingen | Wolter J.,State Office for Agriculture | Geier J.,University of Gottingen | Uter W.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Contact Dermatitis | Year: 2011

Background. Nickel contact allergy is still frequent both in patch-tested patients and in the general population. Objectives. To explain this observation by relating clinical epidemiological data with recent chemical analyses of nickel release from costume jewellery. Methods. (i) The trend of nickel allergy was analysed using data registered between January 1994 and December 2009 in the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology. (ii) In 2008, different parts of items of costume jewellery purchased at random on the German market (n = 609) were analysed for nickel release according to EN 1811:1998 + A1:2008 in five official German laboratories of food and non-food investigation. Results. (i) Between 1994 and 2009, nickel allergy decreased in men (18-30 years) and in women (1-17 and 18-30 years); however, after 2000, there was no significant decrease in nickel allergy in the women aged 1-17 years. (ii) Of the post-assemblies, 28.0% exceeded the migration limit of ≥0.2 μg/cm 2 per week, and 5% released ≥26.8 μg/cm 2 per week. In articles with direct and prolonged contact with the skin, 12.8% of decorative parts and 17.1% of clasps exceeded the migration limit. If an adjustment factor was applied, according to the above norm, about half of the items otherwise rejected became acceptable. Conclusion. Exposure to nickel-containing products exceeding the (unnecessarily relaxed) permitted limit may explain why nickel contact allergy remains a problem. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Mahecha L.,University of Antioquia | Dannenberger D.,Research Unit of Muscle Biology and Growth | Nuernberg K.,Research Unit of Muscle Biology and Growth | Nuernberg G.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

This study evaluated the influence of different n-3 and n-6 PUFA-enriched diets on the relationship between lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status by analyzing fatty acids (FA), lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity (AOC), antioxidant enzymes, trace elements, and fat-soluble vitamins in the longissimus muscle. Diet caused significant changes in muscle FA composition, leading to accumulation of beneficial n-3 FA. β-Carotene and catalase activity were significantly elevated in muscle of the n-3 PUFA-enriched diet group compared to the n-6 PUFA-enriched diet group. Lipid peroxidation was higher in muscle of the n-3 PUFA-enriched diet group after 15 min of reaction time. There was no significant effect of diet on AOC, but it increased with reaction time. The present results suggest that the antioxidant defense in muscle of the n-3 PUFA-enriched diet group could balance reactive substances under low oxidative conditions. However, the antioxidant capacity was not sufficient under abundant accumulation of reactive substances. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

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