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Collantes G.,State of Washington | Melaina M.W.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

In a quest for strategic and environmental benefits, the developed countries have been trying for many years to increase the share of alternative fuels in their transportation fuel mixes. They have met very little success though. In this paper, we examine the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas. We conducted interviews with a wide range of stakeholders and analyzed econometrically data collected in Argentina to investigate the factors, economic, political, and others that determined the high rate of adoption of this fuel. A central objective of this research was to identify lessons that could be useful to developed countries in their efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles. We find that fuel price regulation was a significant determinant of the adoption of compressed natural gas, while, contrary to expectations, government financing of refueling infrastructure was minimal. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Lofgren D.J.,State of Washington
Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene | Year: 2012

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has proposed to amend the certification rules for half mask air-purifying particulate respirators. The amendment would require the certified respirator to fit a minimum percentage of the intended users. The fail/pass rate for a respirator fitting a worker population has not been part of the certification process for particulate respirators since 1995. The amendment would also add a new requirement for the manufacturer to inform whom the respirator is intended to fit.

Cox T.J.,Cdm Smith | Turner D.F.,U.S. Army | Pelletier G.J.,State of Washington | Navato A.,Cdm Smith
Journal of Environmental Engineering (United States) | Year: 2015

A new stochastic water quality modeling tool was applied to quantify potential climate change effects on a nutrient impaired reach in the Pacific Northwest. This tool allows for multiple stochastic inputs for steady state river water quality simulations. A previously published calibrated deterministic model of the targeted reach was adapted for this study. This model simulates steady-state nutrient, algae, and dissolved oxygen dynamics with both point and nonpoint pollutant loadings. It also includes simulation of diurnally varying water temperature, calculated as a function of air temperature, shading, and streamflow using heat budget equations. For this study, local summer air temperature and critical low flows were treated stochastically in the model. Parameterization of these inputs was based on analysis of multiple global climate model (GCM) projections for the study area corresponding to a 2060 planning horizon. Continuous probability distribution functions were fitted to ensemble GCM data sets grouped according to two different greenhouse gas emission scenarios (best case, worst case). Climate projections were translated into summer low flows using a simple empirical regression hydrologic model that was developed on the basis of observed historical data. Model outputs are provided probabilistically, helping to quantify levels of climate model consensus and capturing a portion of the large uncertainty associated with the forecasts. This type of framework is valuable in its support of planning decision making. Results specific to this study indicate that, whereas reach dissolved oxygen and algae biomass levels are relatively insensitive to projected climate change, simulated stream water temperature changes could have an adverse effect on native salmon populations in the region. The demonstrated methods are believed to be generally transferable to other river water quality studies and are recommended as an option for planning studies. © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Henrikson N.B.,Group Health Research Institute | Opel D.J.,Seattle Childrens Research Institute | Opel D.J.,University of Washington | Grothaus L.,Group Health Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Physicians have a major influence on parental vaccine decisions. We tested a physician-targeted communication intervention designed to (1) reduce vaccine hesitancy in mothers of infants seen by trained physicians and (2) increase physician confidence in communicating about vaccines. METHODS: We conducted a community-based, clinic-level, 2-arm cluster randomized trial in Washington State. Intervention clinics received physician-targeted communications training. We enrolled mothers of healthy newborns from these clinics at the hospital of birth. Mothers and physicians were surveyed at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome was maternal vaccine hesitancy measured by Parental Attitudes on Childhood Vaccines score; secondary outcome was physician self-efficacy in communicating with parents by using 3 vaccine communication domains. RESULTS: We enrolled 56 clinics and 347 mothers. We conducted intervention trainings at 30 clinics, reaching 67% of eligible physicians; 26 clinics were randomized to the control group. Maternal vaccine hesitancy at baseline and follow-up changed from 9.8% to 7.5% in the intervention group and 12.6% to 8.0% in the control group. At baseline, groups were similar on all variables except maternal race and ethnicity. The intervention had no detectable effect on maternal vaccine hesitancy (adjusted odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 0.47-2.68). At follow-up, physician self-efficacy in communicating with parents was not significantly different between intervention and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: This physician-targeted communication intervention did not reduce maternal vaccine hesitancy or improve physician self-efficacy. Research is needed to identify physician communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy in the primary care setting. © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

News Article | September 7, 2016
Site: www.reuters.com

(Reuters) - A 3.2 magnitude earthquake struck the northwest of the State of Washington on Tuesday night, the United States Geological Survey reported, briefly shaking homes and rattling residents.

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