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Fox H.E.,World Wildlife Fund | Haisfield K.M.,World Wildlife Fund | Haisfield K.M.,University of Maryland University College | Brown M.S.,Dalhousie University | And 4 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2012

Larval fish recruitment is generally highly variable in space and time, and can significantly influence adult population abundance, density and distribution, as well as community structure in coral reef systems. We investigated relationships between reef fish recruitment (data from the West Hawai'i Aquarium Project) and oceanographic and meteorological variables (measures of eddy presence and frequency, El Niño Southern Oscillation, sea surface temperature, sea surface height, chlorophyll a concentration and rainfall). We compared these variables at different time scales - monthly and annually - to substantiate 1 of 3 possible hypotheses about the relationship between eddies and other oceanographic features and fish recruitment: (1) they are positively correlated, indicating that eddy activity could enhance recruitment; (2) they are negatively correlated, indicating that eddy activity may reduce or inhibit recruitment; and (3) they are not correlated, indicating that eddy activity has no impact on recruitment. We found several potential linkages generally supporting the hypothesis that eddies negatively correlate with fish recruitment. In contrast to previous work, we found significant negative correlations in annual patterns of cold-core mesoscale eddies and young-of-the-year totals on the west coast of the island of Hawai'i. We also investigated time lags between monthly recruitment data and oceanographic data several months earlier, consistent with planktonic larval duration of Zebrasoma flavescens and Ctenochaetus strigosus; these phase shifts also produced negative correlations. Our results are exploratory and are only correlations, and thus do not suggest causation; further exploration is needed to substantiate the possibility that eddies have a negative influence on reef fish recruitment. However, these results do call into question that eddies in west Hawai'i have a positive impact on fish recruitment, a theory that has persisted in the literature for nearly 30 yr. © Inter-Research 2012 · www.int-res.com.


Havird J.C.,Auburn University | Weeks J.R.,Auburn University | Hau S.,State of Hawaii | Santos S.R.,Auburn University
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2013

Globally, introductions of alien species are increasingly common, with invasive predators potentially having detrimental effects via predation on native species. However, native prey may avoid predation by adopting new behaviors. To determine whether invasive fish populations consume endemic shrimp in invaded Hawaiian anchialine habitats or if adopted patterns of diel migration prevents predation as previously hypothesized, a total of 183 invasive poeciliids (158 Gambusia affinis and 25 Poecilia reticulata) were collected for gut content analyses from four anchialine sites during wet and dry seasons on the islands of Hawai'i and Maui. Predation on shrimp was not detected in habitats where they retreat exclusively into the underlying aquifer diurnally and only emerge nocturnally. However, low levels of predation were detected (7/65 fishes, only by Gambusia affinis) at Waianapanapa Cave, Maui, where shrimp retreat into both the aquifer and a cave during the day. Thus, adopted behavioral responses to invasive fishes generally, though not universally, prevent predation on endemic Hawaiian anchialine shrimps. However, non-consumptive effects resulting from behavioral modification of shrimps may have appreciable impacts on the Hawaiian anchialine ecosystem and warrant further study. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Nguyen A.H.,Argosy University | Acklin M.W.,Argosy University | Fuger K.,Argosy University | Gowensmith W.N.,State of Hawaii | Ignacio L.A.,Argosy University
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Annually thousands of insanity acquitees are released from mental hospitals when they are no longer determined to be dangerous. This research examined quality of post-acquittal Conditional Release (CR) reports submitted to the Hawaii Judiciary. Hawaii utilizes a "three panel" system for assessing trial felony competency, criminal responsibility, and conditional release, where typically two psychologists (one Department of Health and one community-based) and one community-based psychiatrist submit independent reports to the Court. One hundred fifty CR reports were rated using a 44-item report quality measure. Interrater reliability trials indicated good to excellent agreement between quality ratings. Overall level of report quality was poor regardless of examiners' professional discipline, employer, or board certification status. Concordance rates for CR opinions were poor. Level of agreement between the judicial determination and majority recommendations was also poor. Reasons for the poor quality and level of agreement are discussed with recommendations for report quality improvement, including standardization of procedures and use of forensic risk assessment instruments. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Mun J.,State of Hawaii
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2010

I investigated the susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae collected from taro fields around Kauai island (Hawaii, USA) to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (VectoBac). Susceptibility was based on the time required for standardized concentrations of the insecticide to kill the larvae. While 2-h exposure mortalities at an insecticide concentration of 10μg/μl for all population samples were very similar (92-100%), sensitivities to exposures of shorter durations varied. The different time-courses of mortality suggest that the three treatment populations may have reduced sensitivity to VectoBac relative to an untreated population. However, all of the sampled mosquitoes were susceptible to VectoBac. © 2010 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.


News Article | February 4, 2016
Site: cleantechnica.com

Here’s a new twist on concentrating solar power: a complete CSP system that fits tidily into shipping containers for easy transportability. The new system is from a startup called Edisun Heliostats, which just made a very competitive cut to join the Energy Excelator umbrella. Located in Hawaii, the clean tech incubator is supported by the U.S. Navy among other partners. We were just mentioning that shipping containers are one of our favorite clean tech topics, partly because transportability is a key factor for off-grid solar and wind energy harvesting. Generally speaking, the farther off grid you go, the tighter your infrastructure scale, making it impossible to navigate huge solar and wind components through twisting roads, low underpasses, and narrow tunnels. Getting your components to fit into a shipping container is a major victory. You can see that at play in Lockheed Martin’s transportable solar array, Samsung’s solar powered shipping container classrooms,  and GE’s “Space Frame” modular wind turbine tower. A few years ago the consensus was that the market for concentrating solar power was evaporating, partly due to the extra complexity and expense of such systems. However, throw energy storage into the mix and you have a whole new ballgame in the form of reliable, 24-7 power. Here in the US the Energy Department has continued to pour new funding into concentrating solar power R&D. Even without energy storage, CSP appears to have a future in some regions. One good example is the Shams 1 concentrating solar power plant in Abu Dhabi. After two years of operation the system has been outperforming expectations despite the harsh desert conditions, suggesting that CSP can replace new gas powered “peaker” plants during daytime high-use hours. That brings us to Edisun Heliostats. Leveraging its experience working with other leading clean tech companies, Edisun is “completely rethinking” CSP technology to come up with a relatively inexpensive, small scale solution. The system includes a particle bed — rocks — for built-in storage, which according to the company is less complicated than conventional molten salt storage while still providing the potential for 24-7 operation. If the Stone Age strategy surprises you, we just took a look at an experimental solar energy storage system based on similar passive principles, deploying a concrete storage system to reduce costs. Edisun has also designed its heliostats (the special mirrors that concentrate sunlight) to ratchet into a protective position during high, potentially damaging winds. That reduces the need to engage in more costly engineering for wind resistance. The company’s soup-to-nuts cost cutting approach also includes cutting manufacturing costs along with the aforementioned shipping containers for streamlined transportability. Along with our sister site Gas2.org, CleanTechnica took note of the Energy Excelerator when it kicked off in Hawaii back in 2013, with a hefty $30 million in funding from the U.S. Energy Department and the Navy as well as the State of Hawaii. The incubator’s corporate sponsors are GE and DENSO among others, so startups making the cut deserve a second look. Edisun is part of the Energy Excelerator’s 2016 cohort round, selected from “hundreds” of applicants around the US. As a group, the new cohort encompasses a range of clean tech solutions. Here’s the rest of the list from the Excelerator press release: PlotWatt: cloud-based platform enabling customers to act on data from smart meters. T-REX: risk analysis software to encourage renewable energy investment by large financial institutions. GOmeter: water usage monitoring and conservation without the need for smart meter upgrades The new group also includes Lastwall, a cloud-based cyber security platform. While not exclusively related to clean tech, when you consider the extensive data collection involved in smart metering alone, advanced cyber security is critical for the development of the clean tech sector. As for the connection between Hawaii’s clean tech sector and the U.S. Navy, we’ve spilled a lot of ink on the Navy’s aggressive stance on climate change and clean technology. Its footprint in Hawaii includes solar early adopter Pearl Harbor among other key facilities, including the nation’s only shared wave energy test bed. That makes the Navy a perfect partner for Hawaii, an island state with critical strategic importance to the U.S. The high cost of imported fuel and its exposure to the extreme effects of climate change has put Hawaii in the vanguard position for transitioning the US into clean power, and just last summer the state upped the ante with a new law requiring 100 percent renewable energy by 2045. Follow me on Twitter and Google+. Image (screenshot): via Edisun Heliostats.    Get CleanTechnica’s 1st (completely free) electric car report → “Electric Cars: What Early Adopters & First Followers Want.”   Come attend CleanTechnica’s 1st “Cleantech Revolution Tour” event → in Berlin, Germany, April 9–10.   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.  

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