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Bethel, AK, United States

Kim S.Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | England L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Dietz P.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Morrow B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Perham-Hester K.A.,State of Alaska
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2010

Objective: To examine patterns of cigarette and smokeless tobacco use before, during, and after pregnancy among Alaska Native (AN) and white women living in Alaska. Methods: We used data from the 2000-2003 population-based Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System to describe patterns of self-reported prenatal tobacco use among AN and white women. We used multiple variable logistic regression analysis to identify maternal factors associated with quitting and relapse. The final sample included 5,458 women. Results: During 2000-2003, the prevalence of any tobacco use before pregnancy was twofold higher among AN women than among white women (60.0 vs. 27.5%), and the prevalence of any tobacco use during pregnancy and after pregnancy were each nearly threefold higher. Of the 25.8% (SE 0.9) of white women who smoked before pregnancy, 49.0% (SE 2.1) reported that they quit during pregnancy and of those, 41.1% (SE 2.9) relapsed postpartum. Of the 38.5% (SE 0.9) of AN women who smoked before pregnancy, 35.7% (SE 1.4) quit, and of those 57.0% (SE 2.4) relapsed. Of the 14.2% of AN women who chewed tobacco before pregnancy, 15.7% (SE 1.7) quit, and of those, 52.9% (SE 5.9) relapsed. Conclusion: During 2000-2003, the prevalence of tobacco use was two to three times higher among AN women than among white women before, during, and after pregnancy. In addition, AN women had lower quit rates and higher relapse rates than white women. Comprehensive, culturally appropriate tobacco control approaches targeting AN women are needed to increase cessation during pregnancy and to decrease relapse. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. Source

Waythomas C.F.,U.S. Geological Survey | Scott W.E.,U.S. Geological Survey | Nye C.J.,State of Alaska
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research | Year: 2010

Analysis of satellite images of Kasatochi volcano and field studies in 2008 and 2009 have shown that within about one year of the 78 August 2008 eruption, significant geomorphic changes associated with surface and coastal erosion have occurred. Gully erosion has removed 300,000 to 600,000 m3 of mostly fine-grained volcanic sediment from the flanks of the volcano and much of this has reached the ocean. Sediment yield estimates from two representative drainage basins on the south and west flanks of the volcano, with drainage areas of 0.7 and 0.5 km2, are about 104 m3 km-2 yr-1 and are comparable to sediment yields documented at other volcanoes affected by recent eruptive activity. Estimates of the retreat of coastal cliffs also made from analysis of satellite images indicate average annual erosion rates of 80 to 140 m yr-1. If such rates persist it could take 35 years for wave erosion to reach the pre-eruption coastline, which was extended seaward about 400 m by the accumulation of erupted volcanic material. As of 13 September 2009, the date of the most recent satellite image of the island, the total volume of material eroded by wave action was about 106 m3. We did not investigate the distribution of volcanic sediment in the near shore ocean around Kasatochi Island, but it appears that erosion and sediment dispersal in the nearshore environment will be greatest during large storms when the combination of high waves and rainfall runoff are most likely to coincide. © 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado. Source

Nagin D.S.,Carnegie Mellon University | Snodgrass G.M.,State of Alaska
Journal of Quantitative Criminology | Year: 2013

Objectives: This paper uses a sample of convicted offenders from Pennsylvania to estimate the effect of incarceration on post-release criminality. Methods: To do so, we capitalize on a feature of the criminal justice system in Pennsylvania-the county-level randomization of cases to judges. We begin by identifying five counties in which there is substantial variation across judges in the uses of incarceration, but no evidence indicating that the randomization process had failed. The estimated effect of incarceration on rearrest is based on comparison of the rearrest rates of the caseloads of judges with different proclivities for the use of incarceration. Results: Using judge as an instrumental variable, we estimate a series of confidence intervals for the effect of incarceration on one year, two year, five year, and ten year rearrest rates. Conclusions: On the whole, there is little evidence in our data that incarceration impacts rearrest. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Witter R.C.,U.S. Geological Survey | Briggs R.W.,U.S. Geological Survey | Engelhart S.E.,University of Rhode Island | Gelfenbaum G.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 2 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2014

Can a predominantly creeping segment of a subduction zone generate a great (M->-8) earthquake? Despite Russian accounts of strong shaking and high tsunamis in 1788, geodetic observations above the Aleutian megathrust indicate creeping subduction across the Shumagin Islands segment, a well-known seismic gap. Seeking evidence for prehistoric great earthquakes, we investigated Simeonof Island, the archipelago's easternmost island, and found no evidence for uplifted marine terraces or subsided shorelines. Instead, we found freshwater peat blanketing lowlands, and organic-rich silt and tephra draping higher glacially smoothed bedrock. Basal peat ages place glacier retreat prior to 10.4-ka and imply slowly rising (<0.2-m/ka) relative sea level since ∼3.4-ka. Storms rather than tsunamis probably deposited thin, discontinuous deposits in coastal sites. If rupture of the megathrust beneath Simeonof Island produced great earthquakes in the late Holocene, then coseismic uplift or subsidence was too small (≤0.3-m) to perturb the onshore geologic record. Key Points Simeonof Island lacks evidence for great earthquakes and tsunamis Slow sea-level rise since ∼3.4 ka was unperturbed by sudden tectonic jerks Creeping subduction in the Shumagin gap probably persisted in the late Holocene © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Naidu A.S.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Blanchard A.L.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Misra D.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Trefry J.H.,Florida Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2012

Concentrations of Fe, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, V and Zn in mud (<63μm size), and total and methyl Hg in gross sediment are reported for Arctic Alaska nearshore. Multivariate-PCA analysis discriminated seven station clusters defined by differences in metal concentrations, attributed to regional variations in granulometry and, as in Elson Lagoon, to focused atmospheric fluxes of contaminants from Eurasia. In Colville Delta-Prudhoe Bay, V increase was noted in 1985 and 1997 compared to 1977, and Ba increase from 1985 to 1997. Presumably the source of increased V is the local gas flaring plant, and the elevated Ba is due to barite accumulation from oil drilling effluents. In Prudhoe Bay, concentration spikes of metals in ~1988 presumably reflect enhanced metals deposition following maximum oil drilling in 1980s. In summary, the Alaskan Arctic nearshore has remained generally free of metal contamination despite petroleum-related activities in past 40. years. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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