Raub F.,State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe SMNK |
Hofer H.,State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe SMNK |
Scheuermann L.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology |
de Britez R.M.,Society for wildlife research and environmental education SPVS |
Brandl R.,University of Marburg
Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment | Year: 2015
In the Atlantic Forest in Brazil, where no more primary forests exist, the value of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation is becoming more and more important. We studied the spiders in a relatively well-preserved region of the Mata Atlântica, where the matrix of the landscape is still forest. We addressed the contribution of different spatial levels including forest stages to total diversity and analyzed the patterns by additive partitioning of beta diversity on genus and morphospecies level and for different sampling methods. Beta diversity was strongly based on turnover, not on gain/loss. All spatial levels (sample, stage, area, locality) contributed more to beta diversity than expected, without stronger influence of stage. Patterns were consistent for both identification levels and all methods. We conclude that in this landscape the protection of large areas encompassing all forest stages, without special attention to old-growth, is the best way to conserve the regional species richness. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.
Toussaint E.F.A.,University of Kansas |
Tanzler R.,SNSB Zoologische Staatssammlung |
Rahmadi C.,Indonesian Institute of Sciences |
Balke M.,SNSB Zoologische Staatssammlung |
Riedel A.,State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe SMNK
Zoologica Scripta | Year: 2015
The Indo-Australian region was formed by the collision of the Australian and Asian plates, and its fauna largely reflects this dual origin. Lydekker's and Wallace's Lines represent biogeographic transition boundaries between biotas although their permeability through geological times was rarely assessed. Here, we explore the evolutionary history of flightless weevils of the tribe Celeuthetini in this geologically highly complex region. We generated a DNA sequence data set of 2236 bp comprising two nuclear and two mitochondrial markers for 62 species of the Indo-Australian tribe Celeuthetini. We used Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood to reconstruct the first molecular phylogeny of the group. Based on this phylogenetic tree, we employed the program BioGeoBEARS to infer the biogeographical history of Celeuthetini in the region. The group's radiation begun east of Wallace's Line, probably during the mid-Eocene. We unveil multiple transgressions of Lydekker's and Wallace's Lines mostly during the Miocene with a significant role of founder-event speciation. The phylogeny of Celeuthetini is geographically highly structured with the first lineages occurring in New Guinea and the Moluccas, and a deep divergence between two clades largely confined to Sulawesi and their respective sister clades of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Wallace's Line was crossed once from Sulawesi and three times from the Lesser Sunda Islands to Java whilst Lydekker's Line was crossed once from New Guinea to the Moluccas. Although this beetle group shows extensive local diversification with little dispersal, the biogeographical demarcations of the Australasian region appear to have been rather porous barriers to dispersal. Copyright © 2015 The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.