Parikh H.,Gujarat State Petronet Ltd |
Patel A.,Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University |
Chaudhari R.,Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University
2nd EAGE/SPE/AAPG Shale Gas Workshop in the Middle East: Moving Forward to the Next Level | Year: 2014
The rapid development of shale gas throughout US shale gas plays such as the Barnett, Marcellus, Fayetteville and Haynesville has led to water management concerns. There is a very limited potential for underground injection of fluids, as underground injection is considered to be consumptively lost from the hydrological cycle. Multiple withdrawals of water could decrease the ground water considerably. Waste water treatment by means of management of flow back water in sewage treatment plants also does not cater to the need of desalination and chlorination issues. In case of shale gas exploration where around 6 million gallons of fresh water is used per well, India might face severe water challenges. Shale's have been explored as source rocks in 8 basins in India. In cases like Jaisalmer Basin, Rajasthan, it would nearly become impossible to meet such water demands. There is thus a need to recycle the water used and this paper would look into the matter that how flow back water could be managed giving niche solutions for India having extremely high temperature conditions compared to the US. Membrane based solutions which would significantly reduce the water footprint would be taken into consideration.
Nagaraj J.,Gujarat State Petronet Ltd
ASME 2013 India Oil and Gas Pipeline Conference, IOGPC 2013 | Year: 2013
Smart pigs, also known as inline inspection (ILI) tools or intelligent pigs, are electronic devices designed to flow on the inside of a gas transmission pipeline, usually while the line is in service, to inspect a pipeline for various types of anomalies that can increase the risks of pipeline failure. This paper describes various problems faced on in service pigging in gas pipelines even after getting data by typical pipeline questionnaire as per NACE RP0102. Problems and solution starting from Launching, crossing SV stations, tap off Point flow tees and Receiving at Pig Receiver including data retrieval from smart pig. First of all, different segment thickness and anomalies of entire length of pipeline will be studied before launch of the tool, because this is important input in ILI tool design in terms of OD and percentage flexibility of pig while run. API 1163 will considered as a master standard for smart pig applications in pipelines. Smart pigging is done once in 10 years interval as per Indian regulation and data recorded in this inspection is important risk assessment input in Pipeline Integrity Management and for deciding life of pipeline. This paper describes various problem faced in pigging i.e. Pig struck before Launching in Launcher, Pig struck at Sectionalization Valve station, Pig stopped in Pipeline without any reason, Pig struck at Flow Tee before Receiver, Pig barrel opening a Hazardous activity, Failure of Data retrieval from smart pig after receiving, Re-run of smart pig and how fluctuating flow rates in different region of pipelines will affect running a pig. This paper deals pig retrieval methods used in different struck ups and various aspects to be considered while planning to run a smart pig. This paper also deals problem faced i.e. magnetized pipe and difficulty in welding after retrieving struck up pigs by hot tapping and stoppling methods and how it was solved. Smart pigging, when properly applied, can serve as a superior inspection tool for many risks of concern over other integrity inspection methods. A proper smart pigging program can play a vital role in integrity management ("IM") and smooth operation of pipeline without any flow interruption to downstream customers. The downstream customers of different industry which serves to run day to day life of society like Power Plants, City Gas Distribution (CGD) Companies, Refineries, Fertilizers, Ceramics, Dairy units etc will not be interrupted while run a smart pig to avoid consequences and give better service as a Pipeline operator. Smart pig, performance specification shall be qualified by the service provider by any one of the methodologies i.e. verified historical data, Large scale tests from real or artificial anomalies, small scale tests, modeling, and/or analyses. Pipeline operator may ensure final documents and other requirements as per API1163 standards. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.