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Gong Z.,State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology | Yin H.,State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology | Ma X.,State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology | Liu B.,State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2017

To date, little is known about cytosine methylation in the genomic DNA of apicomplexan parasites, although it has been confirmed that this important epigenetic modification exists in many lower eukaryotes, plants, and animals. In the present study, ELISA-based detection demonstrated that low levels of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) are present in Eimeria spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp., and Neospora caninum. The proportions of 5-mC in genomic DNA were 0.18 ± 0.02% in E tenella sporulated oocysts, 0.19 ± 0.01% in E. tenella second-generation merozoites, 0.22 ± 0.04% in T. gondii tachyzoites, 0.28 ± 0.03% in N. caninum tachyzoites, and 0.06 ± 0.01, 0.11 ± 0.01, and 0.09 ± 0.01% in C. andersoni, C. baileyi, and C. parvum sporulated oocysts, respectively. In addition, we found that the percentages of 5-mC in E. tenella varied considerably at different life stages, with sporozoites having the highest percentage of 5-mC (0.78 ± 0.10%). Similar stage differences in 5-mC were also found in E. maxima, E. necatrix, and E. acervulina, the levels of 5-mC in their sporozoites being 4.3-, 1.8-, 2.5-, and 2.0-fold higher than that of sporulated oocysts, respectively (p < 0.01). Furthermore, a total DNA methyltransferase-like activity was detected in whole cell extracts prepared from E. tenella sporozoites. In conclusion, genomic DNA methylation is present in these apicomplexan parasites and may play a role in the stage conversion of Eimeria. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


PubMed | University of Nantes, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2015

Sheep babesiosis occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. The sheep parasite Babesia sp. Xinjiang is widespread in China, and our goal is to characterize rap-1 (rhoptry-associated protein 1) gene diversity and expression as a first step of a long term goal aiming at developing a recombinant subunit vaccine. Seven different rap-1a genes were amplified in Babesia sp. Xinjiang, using degenerate primers designed from conserved motifs. Rap-1b and rap-1c gene types could not be identified. In all seven rap-1a genes, the 5 regions exhibited identical sequences over 936 nt, and the 3 regions differed at 28 positions over 147 nt, defining two types of genes designated and . The remaining 3 part varied from 72 to 360 nt in length, depending on the gene. This region consists of a succession of two to ten 36 nt repeats, which explains the size differences. Even if the nucleotide sequences varied, 6 repeats encoded the same stretch of amino acids. Transcription of at least four and two genes was demonstrated by standard RT-PCR.


PubMed | State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Veterinary Research Institute and Forschungszentrum Borstel
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2014

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a recombinant Theileria uilenbergi immunodominant protein (rTuIP) was validated for detection of antibodies in 188 positive and 198 negative reference serum samples, respectively. The cut-off value was determined at 32.7% with 95% and 90% accuracy levels by two-graphic receiver-operating characteristic (TG-ROC). The equal diagnostic sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) were calculated to be 98.4%. Further validation of the repeatability with positive and negative reference samples indicated the reliable performance of the assay. Monitoring the antibody dynamics of sheep experimentally infected with Theileria luwenshuni showed the efficient detection of antibody response against the pathogen at the early infection stage and up until two months post infection. Application of this assay for detection of antibody in field sera from previous unknown Theileria endemic regions in Suizhou and Guiyang showed 17.8% and 11.6% seroprevalence, respectively, and presence of the pathogen was confirmed by identification of the 18S rRNA gene in the corresponding blood of the seropositive animals. These data support that the rTuIP ELISA could be a useful tool to study the epidemiology of theileriosis caused by T. uilenbergi and/or T. luwenshuni.


Cai X.Q.,South China Agricultural University | Xu M.J.,South China Agricultural University | Wang Y.H.,Zhongshan Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | Qiu D.Y.,Zhongshan Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau | And 6 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2010

The fish-borne clonorchiasis caused by the oriental liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis is endemic in a number of countries with over 35 million people being infected globally. Rapid and accurate detection of C. sinensis in its intermediate host fish is important for the control and prevention of clonorchiasis in areas where the disease is endemic. In the present study, we established a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) approach for the sensitive and rapid detection of C. sinensis metacercariae in fish. The specificity and sensitivity of primers designed from the C. sinensis cathepsins B3 gene were evaluated, and specific amplification products were obtained with C. sinensis, while no amplification products were detected with DNA of related trematodes, demonstrating the specificity of the assay. The LAMP assay was proved to be 100 times more sensitive than a conventional polymerase chain reaction for detection of C. sinensis. The established LAMP assay provides a useful tool for the rapid and sensitive detection of C. sinensis in fish, which has important implications for the effective control of human clonorchiasis. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Zheng H.,State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology | He J.,State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology | Guo J.,State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology | Jin Y.,State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology | And 3 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2012

The full-length nucleotide sequence of the footand- mouth disease virus O/BY/CHA/2010 strain, Mya-98 lineage of Southeast Asia (SEA) topotype, was determined and compared with O/HKN/20/2010 and other known FMDV strains. Homology analysis indicated [98.0% nucleotide identity between O/BY/CHA/2010 and the epidemic strains, O/HKN/20/2010, and O/VN/2009. However, with the exception of the VP4, 2A, and 3BCD regions, O/BY/CHA/2010 showed a lower similarity with SEA topotype strains, O/VN/2006, and HLJOC12/03. A comparison of O/BY/CHA/2010 with non-SEA topotype strains showed the highest level of homology (97.4-100%) with UKG/7B/2007, Akesu/58, and the PanAsia strains in the 2A, P2, and 3CD regions, which suggested the presence of similar characteristics among these strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that O/BY/CHA/2010 is clustered in the Mya-98 lineage of the SEA topotype and is linked to four other isolates: HKN/20/2010, O/VN/2009, O/VN/2006, and HLJOC12/03. The VP1-based phylogenetic tree was divided into distinct clusters according to the different topotypes, while other gene-based phylogenetic trees exhibited some degree of intercrossing among topotypes. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the Lpro gene revealed a single amino acid insertion in O/HKN/20/2010 and a single amino acid deletion in O/BY/CHA/2010, in addition to a 70-nucleotide deletion within the 50-untranslated region of O/HKN/20/2010. The majority of strains were shown to be homologous in the pseudoknots region although some exceptions were noted. This study provides a comprehensive genetic characterization of a novel FMDV isolate of the Mya-98 lineage. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


Zheng Y.,State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology
RNA biology | Year: 2013

miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases.


Wang Y.,State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology | Wang Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang G.,State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology | Wang G.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: The identification of protein epitopes is useful for diagnostic purposes and for the development of peptide vaccines. In this study, the epitopes of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 were identified using synthetic peptide techniques with the aid of bioinformatics. Findings. Eleven peptides derived from T. gondii SAG1 were assessed by ELISA using pig sera from different time points after infection. Four (PS4, PS6, PS10 and PS11), out of the eleven peptides tested were recognized by all sera. Then, shorter peptides that were derived from PS4, PS6, PS10 and PS11 were predicted using bioinformatics and tested by experimentation. Four out of nine shorter peptides were identified successfully (amino acids 106-120, 166-180, 289-300 and 313-332). Conclusions: We have precisely located the epitopes of T. gondii SAG1 using pig sera collected at different time points after infection. The identified epitopes may be useful for the further study of epitope-based vaccines and diagnostic reagents. © 2013 Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Wang G.,State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology | Wang G.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Shang Y.,Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture | Shang Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Orf virus (ORFV) causes orf (also known as contagious ecthyma or contagious papular dermatitis), a severe infectious skin disease in goats, sheep and other ruminants. Therefore, a rapid, highly specific and accurate method for the diagnosis of ORFV infections is essential to ensure that the appropriate treatments are administered and to reduce economic losses. Methods. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on the identification of the F1L gene was developed for the specific detection of ORFV infections. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were evaluated, and the effectiveness of this method was compared with that of real-time PCR. Results: The sensitivity of this assay was determined to be 10 copies of a standard plasmid. Furthermore, no cross-reactivity was found with either capripox virus or FMDV. The LAMP and real-time PCR assays were both able to detect intracutaneous- and cohabitation-infection samples, with a concordance of 97.83%. LAMP demonstrated a sensitivity of 89.13%. Conclusion: The LAMP assay is a highly efficient and practical method for detecting ORFV infection. This LAMP method shows great potential for monitoring the prevalence of orf, and it could prove to be a powerful supplemental tool for current diagnostic methods. © 2013 Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology research | Year: 2014

Infections with Theileria sp. may cause significant economic losses to the sheep industry. Species identification based on microscopic examination is difficult, and more suitable methods are required for the rapid detection and identification of Theileria sp, in clinical specimens. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to simultaneously identify three individual Theileria species in small ruminants. Three pairs of specific, sensitive primers were designed on the basis of the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene (Theileria luwenshuni and Theileria ovis) and the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (Theileria uilenbergi) to generate target products of 303, 884, and 530 bp, respectively. Standard DNA for each of the three species was extracted from blood recovered from infected sheep, and a preliminary study was conducted on 56 sheep to verify the reliability of the system. Optimal PCR conditions, including primer concentration, annealing time, and the number of amplification cycles, were established. The assay sensitivity under these conditions was 10(-3) % parasitemia, and its specificity was 100 %. The results of the study suggest that mPCR represents a simple, efficient test method as a practical alternative for the rapid detection and identification of Theileria species in small ruminants.


PubMed | National Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory and State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology
Type: | Journal: Virology journal | Year: 2015

This study reviews the FMDV receptor-binding domain, integrin receptors, and heparan sulfate receptors to provide references for studies regarding the mechanisms underlying FMDV infection.

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