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Ling X.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Ling X.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2014

The method to calculate the vaporization rate of slurry was developed by the group contribution method based on the vapor-liquid equilibrium theory and used to predict the vaporization rates of slurry in the industrial RFCC disengager. The effect of oil vapor temperature and partial pressure of slurry on the bubble point, dew point temperature and vaporization rates of slurry were investigated. Results show that at constant slurry partial pressure the vaporization rate ascend with increasing temperature of the oil vapor. Besides, when the temperature is constant, the bubble point and the dew point decline with slurry partial pressure reduction, while the vaporization rates of the slurry go up. According to the least square method, the correlation of the slurry vaporization rates and operation conditions was established for predicting the vaporization rate of the slurry under different operating conditions. It can provide a simple mathematical model to determine the condensate amount in the disengager. Source


Li Y.,Sinopec | Liu Q.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Meng H.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Sun L.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Zhang Y.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013

At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 1011 Ω is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 μC m-3, which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Sun F.,Sinopec | Zhang F.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Jin M.-P.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Shi N.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Xu W.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries | Year: 2014

Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) can release large amounts of thermal energy and result in high temperature and pressure during runaway reactions. Calorimeters and related methodologies have been made for preventing runaway reactions of CHP. However, protective measures such as flooding and emergency relief system have not been studied intensively to protect CHP systems from runaway reactions of CHP. In this paper, vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) was used to study the runaway reactions of CHP in 12wt%, 28wt% and 48wt% concentration and CHP solution mixing with water under adiabatic and heat input conditions. Chemical systems according to runaway reaction of CHP in cumene have been identified as non tempered systems. However, tempering occurs at about 180°C with pad pressure of 9bar in open cell tests after water addition. The Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) methods were used to size the relief system of 120m3 reactor with 60t CHP solution content considering flooding. The required relief rate decreases significantly and the mass flow rate per unit flow area decreases slightly with the addition of water. So the vent diameter of reactors can be reduced when water has been added. The results show that the flooding and emergency relief system can be effective to protect 120m3 reactors from runaway reactions of CHP under fire scenario in the concentration around 28wt% or less. It is suggested that the relief system of CHP reactors should be sized properly considering fire scenario. If emergency flooding measure is involved for relief sizing, the measure must be credible. The volume of reactor and maximum concentration of CHP should be defined properly. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Sun F.,Sinopec | Xie C.-X.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Zhang F.,National Registration Center for Chemicals | Jin M.-P.,National Registration Center for Chemicals | Wang Z.-G.,National Registration Center for Chemicals
Huaxue Gongcheng/Chemical Engineering (China) | Year: 2012

In order to study the influence of pH value on the thermal hazard of hydrogen peroxide, VSP2 (Vent Size Package 2) was used to analyze the thermal behavior of hydrogen peroxide (mass fraction 27.5%) with different pH values of 1.8, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 under adiabatic condition. The adiabatic decomposition characteristics of the hydrogen peroxide with different pH values were recorded. The thermal decomposition kinetics of the decomposition reaction concerned was obtained. The time to the maximum reaction rate at 30°C under adiabatic condition was also worked out from the kinetics data. The results show that as the pH value of hydrogen peroxide increasing, the onset exothermic temperature decreases, and the time to the maximum reaction rate under adiabatic conditions gets shorter, so the risk probability of thermal runaway significantly increases. When hydrogen peroxide is stored in the industrial conditions, there is a certain risk when pH value is 6, and thermal runaway is almost inevitable when pH value is more than 7. Source


Zhang F.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Zhang F.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Zou J.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Yu S.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries | Year: 2014

The explosion limits of allyl chloride in different oxygen-nitrogen mixtures were investigated, and the operating margin of oxygen content in the gaseous phase of a reactor was discussed. The results of reaction temperature and oxygen content trials in the gas phase of the epoxidation of allyl chloride with hydrogen peroxide over a titanium silicate (TS-1) catalyst are presented. The trials were carried out under atmospheric pressure and in the presence of methanol as a solvent. The influence of the following technological conditions and parameters on the course of epoxidation was examined: catalyst concentration, molar ratio of ALC/H2O2, solvent concentration, and feeding method. The conditions and parameters at which the functions describing the process reached the optimal and safe values were determined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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