State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals

Qingdao, China

State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals

Qingdao, China
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Wang Z.,Hefei University of Technology | Wang X.,Hefei University of Technology | Zhu P.,Hefei University of Technology | Chen P.,Hefei University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries | Year: 2017

In order to deepen the understanding of the mechanisms of liquid pool fire suppression with water mist/spray, preliminary experimental studies on vapor explosion as a water drop with or without additives impacting upon the hot molten-ghee surface were carried out. Pure water and water with 5.0% NaCl and 2.2% AFFF drops, and the molten-ghee oil with 393 K, 433 K and 493 K temperature were tested. The impacting processes were recorded using a high-speed digital camera with 2000 fps. The results show that when the water drops with 5.0% NaCl (We = 299) impact on a 493 K molten-ghee surface, a violent vapor explosion occurs rapidly at the fuel surface accompanying with splash of a liquid line and then a second violent vapor explosion occurs, while for the impacting of a pure water drop (We = 258), several bubbles firstly formed and then brief violent vapor explosion occurred. But for the cases of water drop with 2.2% AFFF (We = 652), there is no violent vapor explosion occurring during the whole process. The time interval between two vapor explosions of pure water drop at the temperature of 493K, 533K and 573K decreases with the increasing of fuel temperature. The first explosion time, the interval of time between two vapor explosions and the radius of first vapor explosion decrease with the order from pure water drops, water drops with 5% NaCl to water drops with 2.2% AFFF. In addition, the height of the liquid jet would be enlarged when the liquid fuel temperature increases, especially to the cases with additives. The vapor explosion behavior of the water drop with additives would be weaker than that of pure water drop, which should be valuable for suppressing liquid fires by water based technologies. © 2017.


Yan K.-L.,Sinopec | Yan K.-L.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Zhang H.-X.,Sinopec | Li Y.,Sinopec | And 4 more authors.
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2017

A new kind of kinetic hydrate inhibitor (KHI) named KL-1 as the ramification of poly(N-vinyl caprolactam) (PVCap), was synthesized successfully by use of precipitation polymerization. The hydrate inhibition performance of KL-1 was assessed in a high pressure sapphire cell, and the onset time of hydrate formation and maximum subcooling were determined by the visual observation method and compared with the commercial KHIs, including Inhibex 501 and VC-713. Meanwhile, the synergic effect between ethanol and KL-1 developed was also studied in this work. The experimental results show that the onset time of KL-1 measured increases with the increase of the dosage and decrease of subcooling. Compared with the system without kinetic hydrate inhibitor, the morphological behavior of hydrate crystals in the systems containing KL-1 is different, and the hydrate crystals only grow to the gas phase with the hydrate formation. Additionally, based on the measurement of inhibition time, the inhibition performance of KL-1 is superior to Inhibex 501 and VC-713, and shows higher maximum subcooling at the similar conditions. Finally, we also demonstrated that ethanol can be used as synergist to improve the performance of KL-1 remarkably at suitable dosage. © 2017 Trans Tech Publications.


Sun F.,Sinopec | Xie C.-X.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Zhang F.,National Registration Center for Chemicals | Jin M.-P.,National Registration Center for Chemicals | Wang Z.-G.,National Registration Center for Chemicals
Huaxue Gongcheng/Chemical Engineering (China) | Year: 2012

In order to study the influence of pH value on the thermal hazard of hydrogen peroxide, VSP2 (Vent Size Package 2) was used to analyze the thermal behavior of hydrogen peroxide (mass fraction 27.5%) with different pH values of 1.8, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 under adiabatic condition. The adiabatic decomposition characteristics of the hydrogen peroxide with different pH values were recorded. The thermal decomposition kinetics of the decomposition reaction concerned was obtained. The time to the maximum reaction rate at 30°C under adiabatic condition was also worked out from the kinetics data. The results show that as the pH value of hydrogen peroxide increasing, the onset exothermic temperature decreases, and the time to the maximum reaction rate under adiabatic conditions gets shorter, so the risk probability of thermal runaway significantly increases. When hydrogen peroxide is stored in the industrial conditions, there is a certain risk when pH value is 6, and thermal runaway is almost inevitable when pH value is more than 7.


Peng W.,Sinopec | Peng W.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | An-feng Y.,Sinopec | An-feng Y.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | And 4 more authors.
Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils | Year: 2016

The amount of heat radiated by flares is important for designing and locating flare systems. No methods are described in the literature for predicting radiation of enclosed ground flares. To investigate radiation of enclosed ground flares, a series of gas flares were simulated in this work by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The radiation values derived by CFD simulation match the experimental data. For methane, propane, and butane flaring, the radiation flux of 15.77 kW/m2 was attained only above the flare system, so radiation will not affect the integrity of the structures. The radiation flux at the ground level was below 1.58 kW/m2, so this area is safe for personnel. For hydrogen, the radius of isopleth of radiation flux of 15.77 kW/m2 can reach 33 m, so towers and elevated structures should not be located in these areas. The radius of isopleth of radiation flux of 6.31 kW/m2 can reach 70 m, and on the ground the radius of isopleth of 1.58 kW/m2 radiation flux can reach 120 m. Radiation decreases with increase in enclosed ground flare height, so the safe distance of enclosed ground flare can be reduced by increasing the ground flare height. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Li Y.,Sinopec | Liu Q.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Meng H.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Sun L.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Zhang Y.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013

At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 1011 Ω is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 μC m-3, which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Ling X.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Ling X.,Sinopec
Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals | Year: 2014

The method to calculate the vaporization rate of slurry was developed by the group contribution method based on the vapor-liquid equilibrium theory and used to predict the vaporization rates of slurry in the industrial RFCC disengager. The effect of oil vapor temperature and partial pressure of slurry on the bubble point, dew point temperature and vaporization rates of slurry were investigated. Results show that at constant slurry partial pressure the vaporization rate ascend with increasing temperature of the oil vapor. Besides, when the temperature is constant, the bubble point and the dew point decline with slurry partial pressure reduction, while the vaporization rates of the slurry go up. According to the least square method, the correlation of the slurry vaporization rates and operation conditions was established for predicting the vaporization rate of the slurry under different operating conditions. It can provide a simple mathematical model to determine the condensate amount in the disengager.


Zhang F.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Zhang F.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Zou J.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Yu S.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries | Year: 2014

The explosion limits of allyl chloride in different oxygen-nitrogen mixtures were investigated, and the operating margin of oxygen content in the gaseous phase of a reactor was discussed. The results of reaction temperature and oxygen content trials in the gas phase of the epoxidation of allyl chloride with hydrogen peroxide over a titanium silicate (TS-1) catalyst are presented. The trials were carried out under atmospheric pressure and in the presence of methanol as a solvent. The influence of the following technological conditions and parameters on the course of epoxidation was examined: catalyst concentration, molar ratio of ALC/H2O2, solvent concentration, and feeding method. The conditions and parameters at which the functions describing the process reached the optimal and safe values were determined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Sun F.,Sinopec | Zhang F.,Qingdao University of Science and Technology | Jin M.-P.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Shi N.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Xu W.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries | Year: 2014

Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) can release large amounts of thermal energy and result in high temperature and pressure during runaway reactions. Calorimeters and related methodologies have been made for preventing runaway reactions of CHP. However, protective measures such as flooding and emergency relief system have not been studied intensively to protect CHP systems from runaway reactions of CHP. In this paper, vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) was used to study the runaway reactions of CHP in 12wt%, 28wt% and 48wt% concentration and CHP solution mixing with water under adiabatic and heat input conditions. Chemical systems according to runaway reaction of CHP in cumene have been identified as non tempered systems. However, tempering occurs at about 180°C with pad pressure of 9bar in open cell tests after water addition. The Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) methods were used to size the relief system of 120m3 reactor with 60t CHP solution content considering flooding. The required relief rate decreases significantly and the mass flow rate per unit flow area decreases slightly with the addition of water. So the vent diameter of reactors can be reduced when water has been added. The results show that the flooding and emergency relief system can be effective to protect 120m3 reactors from runaway reactions of CHP under fire scenario in the concentration around 28wt% or less. It is suggested that the relief system of CHP reactors should be sized properly considering fire scenario. If emergency flooding measure is involved for relief sizing, the measure must be credible. The volume of reactor and maximum concentration of CHP should be defined properly. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Yan K.-L.,Sinopec | Yan K.-L.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals | Sun C.-Y.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Zhang H.-X.,Sinopec | And 6 more authors.
Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chemical Industry | Year: 2016

The anti-agglomerating performance of a kind of self-developed compound hydrate anti-agglomerant is studied by using a set of flow-loop apparatus for simulated hydrate. The experimental results indicate that the compound hydrate anti-agglomerant has a good anti-agglomerating performance in diesel oil-water-natural gas system with initial water cuts ranging from 5% to 15%, forming a stable hydrate slurry system. At the same time, the shutdown/restart experiments suggest that such hydrate slurry exhibits thixotropic behavior with increasing shutting-down time (2 h, 4 h and 8 h). There is no deposition phenomenon of hydrate particles. © 2016, China National Chemical Information Center. All right reserved.


Lan M.,Hefei University of Technology | Lan M.,Institute of Information Security | Wang X.,Hefei University of Technology | Chen P.,Hefei University of Technology | Zhao X.,State Key Laboratory of Safety and Control for Chemicals
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering | Year: 2016

Concerning the deeper understanding of the mechanisms on fire suppression with multi-component water mist/spray, the dynamical process of a water drop with or without additives impacting upon wood surfaces is preliminarily studied. The initial diameters of the pure water drop and the water drop with NaCl additive are about 2.4±0.1 mm, and the diameter of the water drop with AFFF (Aqueous Film-Forming Foam) additive is about 1.8±0.1 mm. The drop impact velocities are varied from 1.13 m/s to 2.80 m/s. A Photorn FASTCAM high-speed video camera coupled with a Nikon 200 mm micro-lens is used to record the dynamical process of the drop impacting. The results show that the critical impact Weber number of the water drop with additives is obviously larger than that without additives, and the critical impact Weber number increases with decrease of the wood surface roughness. In addition, the current empirical models both on predicting the critical Weber number and the maximum spread factor just partially agree with the experimental results. The current results are limited to the interaction of a single water drop impacting upon a horizontal wood surface. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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