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E Z.-G.,China National Rice Research Institute | Ge L.,China National Rice Research Institute | Wang L.,China National Rice Research Institute | Wang L.,State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2012

Adventitious roots account for the majority of the rice root system and play an irreplaceable role in rice growth and development. Rice adventitious roots are formed by division of the innermost ground meristem cells in the central cylinder, and some lateral roots are observable in the adventitious root system. Multiple hormones have been implicated in the regulation of root development. Auxin is involved in the initiation of adventitious roots, whereas cytokinin inhibits adventitious root initiation, but promotes adventitious root elongation. Other phytohormones such as nitric oxide, ethylene, brassinosteroid, jasmonic acid and gibberellin may be also involved in regulating adventitious root initiation and development. Additionally, more than 600 root development related quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been located by QTL analysis of root traits. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

E Z.G.,China National Rice Research Institute | Zhang Y.P.,China National Rice Research Institute | Zhou J.H.,Bioinfo Groups | Zhou J.H.,Nantong University | And 2 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2014

The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) genes encode transcription factors involved in the regulation of various biological processes. Similar to WRKY, basic helix-loop-helix, and several other groups of proteins, the bZIP proteins form a superfamily of transcription factors that mediate plant stress responses. In this review, we present the roles of bZIP proteins in multiple biological processes that include pathogen defense; responses to abiotic stresses; seed development and germination; senescence; and responses to salicylic, jasmonic, and abscisic acids in rice. We also examined the characteristics of the bZIP proteins and their genetic composition. To ascertain the evolutionary changes in and functions of this supergene family, we performed an exhaustive comparison among the 89 rice bZIP genes that were previously described and those more recently listed in the MSU Rice Genome Annotation Project Database using a Hidden Markov Model. We excluded 3 genes from the list, resulting in a total of 86 bZIP genes in japonica rice. © FUNPEC-RP. Source

Zhou Y.,State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology | Zhou Y.,Zhejiang University | Lin X.-W.,State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology | Lin X.-W.,Zhejiang University | And 13 more authors.
Biochimie | Year: 2011

Ceramidase plays an important role in regulating the metabolism of sphingolipids, such as ceramide, sphingosine (SPH), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), by controlling the hydrolysis of ceramide. Here we report the cloning and biochemical characterization of a neutral ceramidase from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum which is an important storage pest. The Tribolium castaneum neutral ceramidase (Tncer) is a protein of 696 amino acids. It shares a high degree of similarity in protein sequence to neutral ceramidases from various species. Tncer mRNA levels are higher in the adult stage than in pre-adult stages, and they are higher in the reproductive organs than in head, thorax, and midgut. The mature ovary has higher mRNA levels than the immature ovary. Tncer is localized to the plasma membrane. It uses various ceramides (D-erythro-C 6, C12, C16, C18:1, and C 24:1-ceramide) as substrates and has an abroad pH optimum for its in vitro activity. Tncer has an optimal temperature of 37°C for its in vitro activity. Its activity is inhibited by Fe2+. These results suggest that Tncer has distinct biochemical properties from neutral ceramidases from other species. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source

Yang Q.,State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology | Yang Q.,Zhejiang University | Yang Q.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Gong Z.-J.,State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology | And 13 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2010

Ceramidases catalyze the hydrolysis of ceramides to generate sphingosine (SPH) and fatty acids, and ceramide metabolism is implicated in various biological responses in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report the cloning, biochemical characterization, and functional analysis of a Drosophila alkaline ceramidase (Dacer). Dacer, a membrane-bound protein of 284 amino acids, shares homology with yeast and mammalian alkaline ceramidases. Overexpression of Dacer in High Five insect cells increases ceramidase activity in the alkaline pH range, indicating that Dacer is a bona fide alkaline ceramidase. Dacer mRNA is highly expressed in the midgut and at the pupal stage. An inactivation of Dacer by insertional mutagenesis increases the levels of ceramides in both Drosophila pupae and adult flies. Dacer inactivation increases Drosophila pre-adult development time, lifespan, and anti-oxidative stress capacity. Collectively, these results suggest that Dacer plays an important role in the Drosophila development and longevity by controlling the metabolism of ceramides. © 2010 Birkhäuser Verlag. Source

Zhou Y.,State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology | Zhou Y.,Zhejiang University | Zhou Y.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | Lin X.-W.,State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology | And 18 more authors.
Insect Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Ceramidases are a group of enzymes that catalyse hydrolysis of ceramides to generate fatty acid and sphingosine. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of the rice small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus neutral ceramidase (nCDase), LsnCer. LsnCer was identified by sequencing the transcriptome of L. striatellus and is a protein of 717 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 79.3 kDa. Similarly to other known nCDases, the optimum pH for LsnCer is 8.0 and the optimum temperature is 37 °C for its in vitro activity. LsnCer activity is inhibited by Zn2+ significantly and Fe2+ slightly. LsnCer has broad substrate specificity with a preference for ceramides with a medium acyl-chain or a monounsaturated long acyl-chain. Infection with rice strip virus (RSV) or treatment with insecticides significantly increased LsnCer mRNA expression and its enzymatic activity in L. striatellus. These results suggest that LsnCer is a bona fideâ€... nCDase that may have a role in adaption of L. striatellus to environmental stresses. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society. Source

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