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Wang Y.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Wang Y.,State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy | Tian N.,Shenyang Normal University | Tian N.,Key Laboratory of Evolution of Past Life in Northeast Asia | And 3 more authors.
Earth Science Frontiers | Year: 2017

As an important component of plant remains, fossil wood plays a significant role in understanding the floral composition and evolution of plants in the geological past. Fossil wood is also one of the significant proxies for terrestrial palaeoclimate and palaeogeographical reconstruction in earth history. Diversified fossil wood has been documented from the Mesozoic deposits in China after a long time of investigations. During the past few years, many new fossil wood materials were reported from a variety of horizons in some fossil localities, including Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, Xinjiang and Liaoning provinces, ranging from the Triassic to the Cretaceous, providing significant references for reconstructing the Mesozoic palaeoclimate in China. In this paper, we summarize the recent advances in Mesozoic fossil wood studies in China. Particularly, the new discoveries of fossil wood from the Upper Triassic in Sichuan of southern China, the Jurassic Yanliao Biota and the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota in western Liaoning are reviewed with emphasis on the diversity variations, palaeoclimate perturbations and tempo-spatial distribution of the Mesozoic wood. The future research directions of Mesozoic fossil wood in China are also discussed. © 2017, Editorial Office of Earth Science Frontiers. All right reserved.


Chen W.-Q.,Peking University | Chen W.-Q.,State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy | Sun Z.-Y.,Peking University | Tintori A.,University of Milan | Jiang D.-Y.,Peking University
Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie - Abhandlungen | Year: 2014

Sangiorgioichthys yangjuanensis sp. nov., from the Middle Triassic (Pelsonian, Middle Anisian) vertebrate fossiliferous layers of the upper Member of the Guanling Formation in the Dry Well Site, near Yangjuan Village, Panxian County, Guizhou Province, South China, is herein described. The presence of one single anterior infraorbital, a large infraorbital at the posteroventral corner of the orbit, one ventral suborbital covering the quadrate and quadratojugal, small dorsal fin limited to the area between the origin of the pelvic and anal fins supports the generic assignment of the new taxon. Of the known Sangiorgioichthys species, it closely resembles S. sui in having the median part of the supratemporal commissure lodged in the parietals, the presence of a sensory canal entering the posteriormost supraorbital, an elongated supramaxilla fitting in an excavation of the dorsal border of the maxilla, etc., which do not occur in S. aldae and S. valmarensis, although phylogenetic signal of these features are pending. The new taxon differs from S. sui in the number of dorsal suborbitals, the structure and row number of the scales, and also the dermosphenotic dorso-ventrally elongated, rectangular in shape, with the temporal canal entering the element at the dorsal half, then turning ventrally into the infraorbital canal rather than going posterior to the supraorbital canal. © 2014 E.


Harper D.A.T.,Durham University | Rasmussen C.M.O.,Copenhagen University | Rasmussen C.M.O.,Lund University | Liljeroth M.,Copenhagen University | And 7 more authors.
Geological Society Memoir | Year: 2013

The phylogeographical evolution and the consequent changing distribution and diversity of rhynchonelliform brachiopods through the Ordovician are linked to the dynamic palaeogeography of the period. The Early Ordovician (Tremadocian and Floian) is characterized by globally low-diversity faunas with local biodiversity epicentres, notably on the South China Palaeoplate; low-latitude porambonitoid-dominated faunas with early plectambonitoid and clitambonitoid representatives, as well as high-latitude assemblages mostly dominated by orthoids, can be recognized, but many taxa are rooted in Late Cambrian stocks. The Early Ordovician displays a steady increase in rhynchonelliformean biodiversity, which was mostly driven by the increasing success of the Porambonitoidea and Orthoidea, but the billingsellids and early plectambonitoids also contributed to this expansion. During the Early to Mid Ordovician (Dapingian-Darriwilian), marine life experienced an unprecedented hike in diversity at the species, genus and family levels that firmly installed the suspension-feeding benthos as the main component of the Palaeozoic fauna. However, this may have occurred in response to an early Darriwilian annihilation of existing clades, some of which had been most successful during the Early Ordovician. New clades rapidly expanded. The continents were widely dispersed together with a large number of microcontinents and volcanic arcs related to intense magmatic and tectonic activity. Climates were warm and sea-levels were high. Pivotal to the entire diversification is the role of gamma (inter-provincial) diversity and by implication the spread of the continents and frequency of island arcs and microcontinents. The phylogeographical analysis demonstrates that this new palaeogeographical configuration was particularly well explored and utilized by the strophomenides, especially the Plectambonitoidea, which radiated rapidly during this interval. The porambonitoids, on the other hand, were still in recovery following the early Darriwilian extinctions. Orthides remained dominant, particularly at high latitudes. Biodiversity epicentres were located on most of the larger palaeoplates, as well as within the Iapetus Ocean. Provincial patterns were disrupted during the Sandbian and early Katian with the migration of many elements of the benthos into deeper-water regimes, enjoying a more cosmopolitan distribution. Later Katian faunas exhibit a partition between carbonate and clastic environments. During the latest Katian, biogeographical patterns were disrupted by polewards migrations of warm-water taxa in response to the changing climate; possibly as a consequence of low-latitude cradles being developed in, for instance, carbonate reef settings. Many clades were well established with especially the strophomenides beginning to outnumber the previously successful orthides, although this process had already begun, regionally, in the mid to late Darriwilian. At the same time, atrypoid and pentameroid clades also began to radiate in low-latitude faunas, anticipating their dominance in Silurian faunas. The Hirnantian was marked by severe extinctions particularly across orthidestrophomenide clades within the context of few, but well-defined, climatically controlled provincial belts. © The Geological Society of London 2013.


Yan K.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Yan K.,State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy | Yan K.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Servais T.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 5 more authors.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2011

Based on new materials from six sections and all available literature data, new diversity curves are presented for the phytoplankton (acritarchs) from South China, covering the Early-Middle Ordovician interval, when the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event took place. The total diversity curve and the origination data imply that a major radiation of the phytoplankton occurred during the analysed interval. A peak of the total acritarch diversity curve appears in the A. suecicus graptolite biozone. The diversity changes vary in the different parts of the investigated area, most probably depending on the position of the analysed sections on the carbonate shelf or the slope, reflecting diversity differences due to the position on an inshore-offshore transect.The Early-Middle Ordovician diversity pattern of the phytoplankton is compared with those of several marine invertebrate groups. Compared with the diversity curve peak of the acritarchs, the conodonts and brachiopods reached their highest diversities before the acritarchs, while the highest diversity of the chitinozoans appears slightly later. The graptolites show two peaks during the Early-Middle Ordovician, while the trilobites diversity curve shows a peak only in the Sandbian. The different fossil groups, such as chitinozoans, conodonts, graptolites, brachiopods and trilobites show therefore different evolutionary patterns to that of the acritarchs, that are not yet fully understood, and correlations are so far difficult.The acritarch diversity changes can partly be compared to the local sea-level changes from four sections in South China. At a larger scale, the acritarch radiation coincides with a general transgression. At a regional or local scale, correlations are not straightforward, pointing out that more detailed data, based on both acritarch studies and more precise sea-level investigations, are necessary. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Chen X.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Chen X.,State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy | Zhang Y.D.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Zhang Y.D.,State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy | And 9 more authors.
Science China Earth Sciences | Year: 2012

Ordovician black shales are widely distributed in the Tarim Basin and its peripheral regions, and some of them may serve as potential hydrocarbon source rocks. The present study of the Ordovician graptolite fauna from these shales, together with the yielded conodonts and chitinozoans etc., permits a refined correlation of the rocks. Based mainly on a new collecting of the graptolites and a study of the faunas in Kalpin and Kuruktag regions, and the successful identification of the new graptolite material from a few drill cores within the basin, we are able to update our knowledge of the Ordovician in the regions, and draw some conclusions: (1) The most widespread distribution of the black shales in the Tarim Basin and its peripheral regions, which correspond to the Nemagraptus gracilis Zone, may be related to a global sea-level rise during this time interval. (2) Black shales of Ordovician occur most frequently and extensively in the Kuruktag (also spelled as Quruq Tagh) region in eastern Tianshan Mountains, spanning Tremadocian to mid-Katian (D. spiniferus Zone) temporally and extending southeastwards into Manjiaer Depression. The black shales of the D. spiniferus Zone may even extend into the central Tarim Basin. (3) Three different bio- and litho-facies belts (Bachu: carbonate platform and reef belt; Kalpin-Aksu: marginal platform and upper slope belt; Wushi: slope belt) are recognized in the northwestern Tarim Basin. (4) The internationally well-correlated Saergan black shale, which has been considered to possess high potential for hydrocarbon source rock, may possess a restricted distribution in the Kalpin and Aksu areas. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Gao Y.,Capital Normal University | Yao Y.,Capital Normal University | Yao Y.,State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy | Ren D.,Capital Normal University
Fossil Record | Year: 2013

Material belonging to a new fossil genus and species of caddisfly, Pulchercylindratus punctatus n. gen., n. sp., was collected from the Daohugou locality (Middle Jurassic, Jiulongshan Formation; Inner Mongolia, China). The new species is assigned to the Hydrobiosidae according to subcylindrical shape of the 2nd segment of maxillary palp, the forked R1 (in the forewing, located near apex), and long anal cells (in the forewing). In addition, we propose to transfer the genus Juraphilopotamus Wang, Zhao & Ren 2009, known from the same locality, to the family Hydrobiosidae, based on the 1st and 2nd segments of the maxillary palp being cylindrical, shorter than the 3rd segment. A Middle Jurassic origination of family Hydrobiosidae can be established based on the new discovery. ©2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Li J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Servais T.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Yan K.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Yan K.,State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2014

Rhopaliophora Tappan and Loeblich, 1971 emend. Playford and Martin, 1984 is one of the most commonly recorded Ordovician acritarch genera. Originally described in the early 1970s from Laurentia, it had subsequently been found on most other palaeocontinents with 8 species attributed to the genus. This paper is a revision of the genus based on the analyses of published literature and on observations of large populations of new material from the South Chinese Ordovician. Our review indicates that the following species belong to the genus: Rhopaliophora brevituberculatum (Kjellström, 1971) Martin, 1983, Rhopaliophora florida Yin et al., 1998, Rhopaliophora foliatilis Tappan and Loeblich, 1971 (type species), Rhopaliophora impexa Tappan and Loeblich, 1971, Rhopaliophora mamilliformis Lu, 1987 emend. Tongiorgi et al., 1995, Rhopaliophora membrana Li, 1987, Rhopaliophora palmata (Combaz and Péniguel, 1972) emend. Playford and Martin, 1984, Rhopaliophora pilata (Combaz and Péniguel, 1972) emend. Playford and Martin, 1984. However, we consider that Rhopaliophora granulata Yin, 1995 is a junior synonym of R. pilata, whereas Rhopaliophora reticulata Uutela and Tynni, 1991 is considered as a junior synonym of R. foliatilis. Intraspecific variability is great and the boundaries between individual species are sometimes not clear. At the genus level, Rhopaliophora shows some transitional forms with Peteinosphaeridium Staplin et al., 1965 emend. Playford et al., 1995 and with some species of Pachysphaeridium Burmann, 1970 emend. Ribecai and Tongiorgi, 1999, whereas its relation to the morphologically similar genera Asketopalla Loeblich and Tappan, 1969 emend. Loeblich and Tappan, 1971, Loeblichia Playford and Wicander, 1988, Tenuirica Playford and Wicander, 1988 and Papilliferum Yin, 1994 needs to be clarified. Rhopaliophora first appears, together with Peteinosphaeridium, in the middle Tremadocian (first stage of the Lower Ordovician). After its original description from Laurentia and later from Australia, in low latitude warmer water environments, it has subsequently been found in intermediate latitudes in Baltica and South China, and few findings are also reported from high latitude areas of Gondwana, indicating a pandemic distribution in warm and temperate water masses. In terms of palaeoecology, the genus is rarely found in nearshore palaeoenvironments, but it is a typical indicator of offshore marine habitats, being abundantly present on carbonate shelf platforms. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang W.,Capital Normal University | Song J.,Capital Normal University | Yao Y.,Capital Normal University | Yao Y.,State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy | Ren D.,Capital Normal University
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Venustsalda locella gen. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation at Huangbanjigou Village, Liaoning Province, China. The new genus is established based on its unusual six cells on the membrane, with the second cell smallest. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.


Kui Y.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Kui Y.,State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy | Kui Y.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Servais T.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2010

After the initial description of Ampullula Righi 1991 and Stelomorpha Yin 1994, several researchers discussed these two acritarch genera and their relationship. A literature revision and investigation of new material from South China indicate that the genus Stelomorpha is a synonym of the genus Ampullula, but Ampullula is not the synonym of the genus Tranvikium Tynni 1982 emend. Uutela and Sarjeant 2000. The generic diagnosis of Ampullula is emended. Six species belong to the genus: Ampullula calix (Quintavalle and Playford, 2008) comb. nov., Ampullula composta (Yin et al., 1998) comb. nov., Ampullula crassula (Vavrdová, 1990) comb. et emend. nov., Ampullula erchunensis (Fang, 1986) Brocke 1997 emend. nov., Ampullula princeps Brocke 1997, and Ampullula suetica Righi 1991. Ampullula was widely distributed throughout peri-Gondwana and Baltica suggesting a global distribution during the late Early-Middle Ordovician. Biostratigraphically, Ampullula is an important genus indicating upper Lower to Middle Ordovician intervals. Ampullula was first present in the eobifidus graptolite Biozone in South China, where it possibly originated, and subsequently was also present on Baltica and other parts of the margin of Gondwana. Thus, Ampullula was an important Early-Middle Ordovician acritarch with a global distribution, which probably was both eurythermic and eurytopic. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Yan K.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Yan K.,State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy | Yan K.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Li J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | And 2 more authors.
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2013

A moderately diverse acritarch and prasinophyte assemblage is described from the Dacao and Yingpan formations of the Houping section, Chengkou, Chongqing, southwestern China (Upper Yangtze platform). The palynomorph assemblage consists of 41 species attributed to 25 genera (39 species and 23 genera of acritarchs and two species and two genera of prasinophytes). It is dominated by Polygonium, Leiosphaeridia, Rhopaliophora, and Peteinosphaeridium.The first appearances of several taxa show a potential for stratigraphical correlation in the Floian (Early Ordovician). First appearance data (FADs) of Aureotesta, Petaloferidium, Striatotheca, the Veryhachium lairdii group and the V. trispinosum group indicate levels near the base of the Floian, whereas Ampullula, Arbusculidium filamentosum, Coryphidium bohemicum, Sacculidium and Tongzia first appear slightly higher.The acritarch assemblages from ten localities in South China are analysed using principal component and cluster analysis for ecological discussion. Four acritarch associations are distinguished from ten localities and related to different marine environments respectively. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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