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Zhang G.-N.,Peking Union Medical College | Liang Y.,State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China | Zhou L.-J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen S.-P.,State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Letters | Year: 2011

Previous research has documented that a subpopulation of pancreatic cancer cells, named cancer stem cells (CSCs), harbor stem cell-like properties. Here, we examined the efficacy of combined treatments of salinomycin and gemcitabine in human pancreatic cancer cells. Salinomycin inhibited the growth of CSCs, while gemcitabine suppressed the viability of non-CSCs. Consistently, in vivo studies showed that salinomycin combined with gemcitabine could eliminate the engraftment of human pancreatic cancer more effectively than the individual agents. These data indicated that administration of salinomycin, which targets CSCs, may constitute a potential therapeutic strategy for improving the efficacy of gemcitabine to eradicate pancreatic cancer. © 2011.


Luo H.-Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Luo H.-Y.,State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China | Luo H.-Y.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine | Xu R.-H.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 2 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common human malignant diseases and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The treatment of advanced CRC has improved significantly in recent years. With the emergence of two targeted antibodies, cetuximab (Erbitux), an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody and bevacizumab (Avastin), a vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody, the treatment of metastatic CRC has entered the era of personalized therapy. Predictive and prognostic biomarkers have, and will continue to, facilitate the selection of suitable patients and the personalization of treatment for metastatic CRC (mCRC). In this review, we will focus primarily on the important progresses made in the personalized treatment of mCRC and discuss the potentially novel predictive and prognostic biomarkers for improved selection of patients for anti-cancer treatment in the future. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.


Liu A.-N.,Soochow University of China | Zhu Z.-H.,State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China | Zhu Z.-H.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chang S.-J.,Soochow University of China | Hang X.-S.,Soochow University of China
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2012

This study aimed to investigate the expression of Twist in gastric cancer tissues and its correlation between Twist and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). By means of RT-PCR and Western blot, the mRNA and protein expressions of Twist, E-cadherin, and Vimentin in 61 gastric cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues were detected. The positive rates of Twist, E-cadherin, and Vimentin mRNA expression in gastric cancer tissues were 73.9. 40.6, and 60.9 %, respectively; compared to the expression of these genes in adjacent normal tissues (2.9, 75.4, and 27.5 %), the differences were significant (p < 0.05). The E-cadherin protein expression level in gastric cancer tissues was significantly lower than that in the adjacent normal tissues (p < 0.05). After the transfection of Twist siRNA into the MKN45 cells, the protein expression of Twist was significantly reduced (p < 0.05), the protein expression of E-cadherin was significantly increased, and the number of cells that passed through the Transwell chamber was significantly lower than that in the non-transfected control group as well as the transfected control group (p < 0.05). Twist may be associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer and the tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis of gastric cancer. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Lin G.-N.,Sun Yat Sen University | Peng J.-W.,Sun Yat Sen University | Xiao J.-J.,Sun Yat Sen University | Liu D.-Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 2 more authors.
Medical Oncology | Year: 2014

The link between circulating lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) and newly diagnosed metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not fully defined. The study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic impact of LMR on survival outcomes in previously untreated metastatic NSCLC patients receiving platinum-based doublet. Chemotherapy-naive metastatic NSCLC patients undergoing platinum-based doublet were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical features regarding gender, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, histology, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute monocyte count (AMC) and LMR were collected to determinate their prognostic impact on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Up to 370 patients were eligible for the study. By univariate analysis, ECOG performance status, histology, ALC, AMC and LMR were showed to be significantly associated with PFS and OS. In subsequent Cox multivariate analysis, non-squamous cell carcinoma, ALC ≥2.45 × 109/L, AMC <0.45 × 109/L and LMR ≥4.56 were demonstrated to be independently correlated with better PFS. In addition, independent favorable prognostic factors for OS were only limited to LMR ≥4.56 and non-squamous cell carcinoma, whereas ECOG performance status of 2 and AMC ≥0.45 × 109/L remained as independently inferior prognostic indicators for OS. Our findings implicate that circulating AMC and LMR are regarded as independent prognostic factors for PFS and OS in previously untreated metastatic NSCLC patients receiving platinum-based doublet. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.


Wu Y.,University of Kentucky | Wang Y.,University of Kentucky | Yang X.H.,University of Kentucky | Kang T.,State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China | And 4 more authors.
Cell Reports | Year: 2013

LSD1 is a critical chromatin modulator that controls cellular pluripotency and differentiation through the demethylation of H3K4me1/2. Overexpression of LSD1 has been observed in many types of tumors and is correlated with its oncogenic effects in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism leading to LSD1 upregulation in tumors remains unclear. Using an unbiased siRNA screening against all the human deubiquitinases, we identified USP28 as a bona fide deubiquitinase of LSD1. USP28 interacted with and stabilized LSD1 via deubiquitination. USP28 overexpression correlated with LSD1 upregulation in multiple cancer cell lines and breast tumor samples. Knockdown of USP28 resulted in LSD1 destabilization, leading to the suppression of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics invitro and inhibition of tumorigenicity invivo, which can be rescued by ectopic LSD1 expression. Our study reveals a critical mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation by USP28 and provides another treatment approach against breast cancer


Dong C.,University of Kentucky | Yuan T.,University of Kentucky | Wu Y.,University of Kentucky | Wang Y.,University of Kentucky | And 12 more authors.
Cancer Cell | Year: 2013

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enhances cancer invasiveness and confers tumor cells with cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics. We show that the Snail-G9a-Dnmt1 complex, which is critical for E-cadherin promoter silencing, is also required for the promoter methylation of fructose-1,6-biphosphatase (FBP1) in basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Loss of FBP1 induces glycolysis and results in increased glucose uptake, macromolecule biosynthesis, formation of tetrameric PKM2, and maintenance of ATP production under hypoxia. Loss of FBP1 also inhibits oxygen consumption and reactive oxygen species production by suppressing mitochondrial complex I activity; this metabolic reprogramming results in an increased CSC-like property and tumorigenicity by enhancing the interaction of β-catenin with T-cell factor. Our study indicates that the loss of FBP1 is a critical oncogenic event in EMT and BLBC. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Dong C.,University of Kentucky | Wu Y.,University of Kentucky | Wang Y.,University of Kentucky | Wang C.,University of Kentucky | And 5 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2013

Expression of E-cadherin, a hallmark of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is often lost due to promoter DNA methylation in basal-like breast cancer (BLBC), which contributes to the metastatic advantage of this disease; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we identified that Snail interacted with Suv39H1 (suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog 1), a major methyltransferase responsible for H3K9me3 that intimately links to DNA methylation. We demonstrated that the SNAG domain of Snail and the SET domain of Suv39H1 were required for their mutual interactions. We found that H3K9me3 and DNA methylation on the E-cadherin promoter were higher in BLBC cell lines. We showed that Snail interacted with Suv39H1 and recruited it to the E-cadherin promoter for transcriptional repression. Knockdown of Suv39H1 restored E-cadherin expression by blocking H3K9me3 and DNA methylation and resulted in the inhibition of cell migration, invasion and metastasis of BLBC. Our study not only reveals a critical mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation of EMT, but also paves a way for the development of new treatment strategies against this disease. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Guo G.F.,State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China
Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] | Year: 2010

To study the efficacy and safety of cetuximab combined with chemotherapy for patients with advanced colorectal cancer (ACRC) and unclear K-ras status. Clinical data of 102 ACRC patients, treated by cetuximab combined with chemotherapy in Sun Yat-sen Cancer Center from March 2005 to December 2008, were collected. The cumulative survival rate, objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression free survival (PFS) of the cases were calculated. The difference in ORR, DCR, PFS and oval survival (OS) between the regimens used as first-line and non-first-line treatment, and between the regimens including oxaliplatin and irinotecan were compared. The overall ORR of cetuximab plus chemotherapy was 43.1%, DCR 73.5%, median PFS 4.0 months, OS 28.5 months, and the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rate was 89.2%, 50.9% and 27.5%, respectively. The differences in ORR (50.0% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.344), DCR (78.1% vs. 72.9%, P = 0.571) and OS (51.0 months vs. 35.0 months, P = 0.396) between the regimens as first line and as non-first line treatment were not statistically significant. However, the PFS of the regimen as first-line was longer than that as non-first-line treatment (PFS 5.5 months vs. 3.0 months, P = 0.001). The differences in ORR (54.2% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.223), DCR (79.2% vs. 74.7%, P = 0.654), PFS (5.0 months vs. 3.0 months, P = 0.726) and OS (36.0 months vs. 40.0 months, P = 0.759) between cetuximab plus oxliplatin and irinotecan were not statistically significant. The most common side effects of cetuximab plus chemotherapy were acneiform eruption (80.4%, grade 3-4 in 9.8%), neutropenia (66.7%, grade 3-4 in 18.6%), and diarrhea (19.6%, grade 3-4 in 5.9%). No treatment-related death was recorded. Patients with advanced colorectal cancer and unclear K-ras treated by cetuximab combined with chemotherapy have good ORR and OS, and the regimen is safe with less adverse events for them. There is no significant difference between the efficacies of regimens as first line and as non-first line treatment, and between cetuximab plus oxliplatin and cetuximab plus irinotecan regimens.


Qiu J.L.,State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China
Chinese journal of cancer | Year: 2012

Stem cell marker LIN28, related closely with SOX2 and OCT4, has been studied as a biomarker for the maintainance of pluripotent cells in several malignancies. Our previous study showed that SOX2 and OCT4 were negative predictors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the predictive value of LIN28 in HCC outcome is still undetermined. We hypothesized that LIN28 may also play a role as a biomarker for HCC. To test this hypothesis, we examined the expression of LIN28 in 129 radically resected HCC tissues using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and analyzed the association of LIN28 expression with clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Our study showed that LIN28 was expressed at a higher frequency in tumor tissues than in non-HCC tissues (45.0% vs. 21.7%, P = 0.020). Moreover, LIN28 expression was significantly increased in cases with large tumor size (P = 0.010). Univariate analysis did not reveal a significant correlation between LIN28 expression and overall survival or recurrence-free survival. For HCC patients who met the Milan criteria, stratified analysis revealed shorter overall survival (P = 0.007) and recurrence-free survival (P < 0.001) in those with detectable LIN28 expression compared to those with no detectable LIN28 expression. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that LIN28 was a negative independent predictor for both overall survival (hazard ratio= 7.093, P = 0.017) and recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio=5.518, P = 0.004) in patients who met the Milan criteria. Taken together, our results suggest that LIN28 identifies low-risk and high-risk subsets of HCC patients meeting the Milan criteria who undergo hepatectomy.


Huang Y.W.,State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China
Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012

We aimed to investigate carboplatin distribution in retroperitoneal lymph nodes and its effect on lymphocyte apoptosis following intravenous (IV), intra-arterial (IA), and retroperitoneal (RP) administration. Sixty-three healthy female canines were randomly assigned as IV, IA, or RP administration of carboplatin. At 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 72 h after carboplatin treatment, retroperitoneal lymph nodes (n = 6 at each time point) were collected and high-performance liquid chromatography was employed to measure the carboplatin content. The differences in carboplatin pharmacokinetics of the three administration routes were compared. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was carried out to measure the lymphocyte apoptosis of the retroperitoneal lymphocytes. The peak concentration of carboplatin in plasma following IV administration was the highest among all approaches; as to the peak time, RP administration was longer than the other two administrations. Concentration for carboplatin in the retroperitoneal lymph node was highest following IA administration at early time points, but at higher time points, concentration was significantly higher following RP administration. Penetration of carboplatin into the retroperitoneal space was higher following RP administration. Following RP administration, the level of apoptotic lymphocytes in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes was significantly greater than either IV or IA. Following RP administration of carboplatin, the concentration, area under the curve of carboplatin and the number of apoptotic lymphocytes were significantly higher than those following IV and IA administration. This suggests that RP administration of carboplatin is beneficial for the treatment of retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis.

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