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Liu T.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu T.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | Luo C.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Luo C.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

Feed represents the major cost of chicken production. Selection for improving feed utilization is a feasible way to reduce feed cost and greenhouse gas emissions. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficiency of genomic prediction for feed conversion ratio (FCR), residual feed intake (RFI), average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) and to assess the impact of selection for feed efficiency traits FCR and RFI on eviscerating percentage (EP), breast muscle percentage (BMP) and leg muscle percentage (LMP) in meat-Type chickens. Genomic prediction was assessed using a 4-fold cross-validation for two validation scenarios. The first scenario was a random family sampling validation (CVF), and the second scenario was a random individual sampling validation (CVR). Variance components were estimated based on the genomic relationship built with single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) were predicted using a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model. The accuracies of GEBV were evaluated in two ways: The correlation between GEBV and corrected phenotypic value divided by the square root of heritability, i.e., the correlation-based accuracy, and model-based theoretical accuracy. Breeding values were also predicted using a conventional pedigreebased best linear unbiased prediction model in order to compare accuracies of genomic and conventional predictions. The heritability estimates of FCR and RFI were 0.29 and 0.50, respectively. The heritability estimates of ADG, ADFI, EP, BMP and LMP ranged from 0.34 to 0.53. In the CVF scenario, the correlation-based accuracy and the theoretical accuracy of genomic prediction for FCR were slightly higher than those for RFI. The correlation-based accuracies for FCR, RFI, ADG and ADFI were 0.360, 0.284, 0.574 and 0.520, respectively, and the model-based theoretical accuracies were 0.420, 0.414, 0.401 and 0.382, respectively. In the CVR scenario, the correlation-based accuracy and the theoretical accuracy of genomic prediction for FCR was lower than RFI, which was different from the CVF scenario. The correlation-based accuracies for FCR, RFI, ADG and ADFI were 0.449, 0.593, 0.581 and 0.627, respectively, and the model-based theoretical accuracies were 0.577, 0.629, 0.631 and 0.638, respectively. The accuracies of genomic predictions were 0.371 and 0.322 higher than the conventional pedigree-based predictions for the CVF and CVR scenarios, respectively. The genetic correlations of FCR with EP, BMP and LMP were-0.427,-0.156 and-0.338, respectively. The correlations between RFI and the three carcass traits were-0.320,-0.404 and-0.353, respectively. These results indicate that RFI and FCR have a moderate accuracy of genomic prediction. Improving RFI and FCR could be favourable for EP, BMP and LMP. Compared with FCR, which can be improved by selection for ADG in typical meat-Type chicken breeding programs, selection for RFI could lead to extra improvement in feed efficiency. © 2017 Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Liu T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu T.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu T.,University of Aarhus | Liu T.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are the most feared diseases in the poultry industry worldwide. They can cause flock mortality up to 100%, resulting in a catastrophic economic loss. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of genomic selection for antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (Ab-NDV) and antibody response to Avian Influenza virus (Ab-AIV) in chickens. The data were collected from a crossbred population. Breeding values for Ab-NDV and Ab-AIV were estimated using a pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction model (BLUP) and a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP). Single-trait and multiple-trait analyses were implemented. According to the analysis using the pedigree-based model, the heritability for Ab-NDV estimated from the single-trait and multiple-trait models was 0.478 and 0.487, respectively. The heritability for Ab-AIV estimated from the two models was 0.301 and 0.291, respectively. The estimated genetic correlation between the two traits was 0.438. A four-fold cross-validation was used to assess the accuracy of the estimated breeding values (EBV) in the two validation scenarios. In the family sample scenario each half-sib family is randomly allocated to one of four subsets and in the random sample scenario the individuals are randomly divided into four subsets. In the family sample scenario, compared with the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of the genomic prediction increased from 0.086 to 0.237 for Ab-NDV and from 0.080 to 0.347 for Ab-AIV. In the random sample scenario, the accuracy was improved from 0.389 to 0.427 for Ab-NDV and from 0.281 to 0.367 for Ab-AIV. The multiple-trait GBLUP model led to a slightly higher accuracy of genomic prediction for both traits. These results indicate that genomic selection for antibody response to ND and AI in chickens is promising. © 2014 Liu et al.


Xie L.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Agro Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding | Xie L.,Hainan Academy of Agricultural science | Luo C.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Agro Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding | Luo C.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Chicken growth traits are important economic traits in broilers. A large number of studies are available on finding genetic factors affecting chicken growth. However, most of these studies identified chromosome regions containing putative quantitative trait loci and finding causal mutations is still a challenge. In this genome-wide association study (GWAS), we identified a narrow 1.5 Mb region (173.5-175 Mb) of chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome (GGA) 1 to be strongly associated with chicken growth using 47,678 SNPs and 489 F2 chickens. The growth traits included aggregate body weight (BW) at 0-90 d of age measured weekly, biweekly average daily gains (ADG) derived from weekly body weight, and breast muscle weight (BMW), leg muscle weight (LMW) and wing weight (WW) at 90 d of age. Five SNPs in the 1.5 Mb KPNA3-FOXO1A region at GGA1 had the highest significant effects for all growth traits in this study, including a SNP at 8.9 Kb upstream of FOXO1A for BW at 22-48 d and 70 d, a SNP at 1.9 Kb downstream of FOXO1A for WW, a SNP at 20.9 Kb downstream of ENSGALG00000022732 for ADG at 29-42 d, a SNP in INTS6 for BW at 90 d, and a SNP in KPNA3 for BMW and LMW. The 1.5 Mb KPNA3-FOXO1A region contained two microRNA genes that could bind to messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of IGF1, FOXO1A and KPNA3. It was further indicated that the 1.5 Mb GGA1 region had the strongest effects on chicken growth during 22-42 d. © 2012 Xie et al.


Luo C.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Luo C.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | Qu H.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qu H.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | And 12 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2013

Background: Since the first outbreak in Indonesia in 1926, Newcastle disease has become one of the most common and contagious bird diseases throughout the world. To date, enhancing host antibody response by vaccination remains the most efficient strategy to control outbreaks of Newcastle disease. Antibody response plays an important role in host resistance to Newcastle disease, and selection for antibody response can effectively improve disease resistance in chickens. However, the molecular basis of the variation in antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is not clear. The aim of this study was to detect genes modulating antibody response to NDV by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in chickens.Results: To identify genes or chromosomal regions associated with antibody response to NDV after immunization, a GWAS was performed using 39,833 SNP markers in a chicken F2 resource population derived from a cross between two broiler lines that differed in their resistance. Two SNP effects reached 5% Bonferroni genome-wide significance (P<1.26×10-6). These two SNPs, rs15354805 and rs15355555, were both on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 1 and spanned approximately 600 Kb, from 100.4 Mb to 101.0 Mb. Rs15354805 is in intron 7 of the chicken Roundabout, axon guidance receptor, homolog 2 (ROBO2) gene, and rs15355555 is located about 243 Kb upstream of ROBO2. Rs15354805 explained 5% of the phenotypic variation in antibody response to NDV, post immunization, in chickens. Rs15355555 had a similar effect as rs15354805 because of its linkage disequilibrium with rs15354805 (r2=0.98).Conclusion: The region at about 100 Mb from the proximal end of chicken chromosome 1, including the ROBO1 and ROBO2 genes, has a strong effect on the antibody response to the NDV in chickens. This study paves the way for further research on the host immune response to NDV. © 2013 Luo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Luo C.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Luo C.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | Qu H.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qu H.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | And 8 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Coronaviruses are a hot research topic because they can cause severe diseases in humans and animals. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), belonging to gamma-coronaviruses, causes a highly infectious respiratory viral disease and can result in catastrophic economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Unfortunately, the genetic basis of the host immune responses against IBV is poorly understood. In the present study, the antibody levels against IBV post-immunization were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum of 511 individuals from a commercial chicken (Gallus gallus) population. A genome-wide association study using 43,211 single nucleotide polymorphism markers was performed to identify the major loci affecting the immune response against IBV. This study detected 20 significant (P<1.16×10-6) effect single nucleotide polymorphisms for the antibody level against IBV. These single nucleotide polymorphisms were distributed on five chicken chromosomes (GGA), involving GGA1, GGA3, GGA5, GGA8, and GGA9. The genes in the 1-Mb windows surrounding each single nucleotide polymorphism with significant effect for the antibody level against IBV were associated with many biological processes or pathways related to immunity, such as the defense response and mTOR signaling pathway. A genomic region containing a cluster of 13 beta-defensin (GAL1-13) and interleukin-17F genes on GGA3 probably plays an important role in the immune response against IBV. In addition, the major loci significantly associated with the antibody level against IBV on GGA1 and GGA5 could explain about 12% and 13% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. This study suggested that the chicken genome has several important loci affecting the immune response against IBV, and increases our knowledge of how to control outbreaks of infectious bronchitis. © 2013 .


Li H.,South China Agricultural University | Li H.,Key Laboratory of Chicken Genetics | Shang H.,South China Agricultural University | Shu D.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Avian leukosis is a neoplastic disease caused in part by subgroup J avian leukosis virus J (ALV-J). Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) play pivotal oncogenic and tumour-suppressor roles in tumour development and progression. However, little is known about the potential role of miRNAs in avian leukosis tumours. We have found a novel tumour-suppressor miRNA, gga-miR-375, associated with avian leukosis tumorigenesis by miRNA microarray in a previous report. We have also previously studied the biological function of gga-miR-375; Overexpression of gga-miR-375 significantly inhibited DF-1 cell proliferation, and significantly reduced the expression of yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) by repressing the activity of a luciferase reporter carrying the 3′-untranslated region of YAP1. This indicates that gga-miR-375 is frequently downregulated in avian leukosis by inhibiting cell proliferation through YAP1 oncogene targeting. Overexpression of gga-miR-375 markedly promoted serum starvation induced apoptosis, and there may be the reason why the tumour cycle is so long in the infected chickens. In vivo assays, gga-miR-375 was significantly downregulated in chicken livers 20 days after infection with ALV-J, and YAP1 was significantly upregulated 20 days after ALV-J infection (P<0.05). We also found that expression of cyclin E, an important regulator of cell cycle progression, was significantly upregulated (P<0.05). Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (DIAP1), which is related to caspase-dependent apoptosis, was also significantly upregulated after infection. Our data suggests that gga-miR-375 may function as a tumour suppressor thereby regulating cancer cell proliferation and it plays a key role in avian leukosis tumorigenesis. © 2014 Li et al.


Luo C.,South China Agricultural University | Luo C.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | Shen X.,South China Agricultural University | Rao Y.,Nanchang Institute of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

One duplicated segment on chicken Z chromosome is a causal mutation to the late-feathering phenotype. However, understanding biological process of the late-feathering formation is also of interest to chicken breeding and feather development theory. One hundred and thirty-seven valid single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from an SNP database were used to perform an association study of the Z chromosome in Xinghua chickens. Two SNPs, which were respectively on 9607480 bp and 10607757 bp, were significantly associated with feathering phenotypes. This result indicated the causal mutation of the late-feathering formation in Xinghua chickens was consistent with the previous report which showed the latefeathering locus ranged 9966364-10142688 bp on Z chromosome. Microarray expressions were implemented for six 1-day-old female Xinghua chicks. Compared to the earlyfeathering chicks, there were 249 and 83 upregulated and downregulated known genes in the late-feathering chicks. Forty-one genes were expressed in late-feathering chicks, but not in early-feathering ones. At least 14 significantly differentially expressed genes were directly related to keratin. In the region of the sex-linked feathering gene, only prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene was a significantly differentially expressed gene. Expression of PRLR in late-feathering chicks was 1.78-fold as that in early-feathering chicks. Late-feathering Wenchang chicks also had higher expression level of PRLR than early-feathering ones. This study suggested that increasing PRLR expression that resulted from the special variant on chicken Z chromosome caused the late-feathering phenotype. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Luo C.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Luo C.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | Sun L.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | Ma J.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2015

MicroRNAs are an abundant class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Genetic variations in microRNA sequences may be associated with phenotype differences by influencing the expression of microRNAs and/or their targets. This study identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genomic region of the microRNA miR-1596 locus of chicken. Of the two SNPs, one was 95 bp upstream of miR-1596 (g.5678784A>T) and the other was in the middle of the sequence producing the mature microRNA gga-miR-1596-3p (g.5678944A>G). Genotypic distribution of the two SNPs had large differences among 12 chicken breeds (lines), especially between the fast-growing commercial lines and the slow-growing Chinese indigenous breeds for the g.5678784A>T SNP. Only the g.5678784A>T SNP was significantly associated with residual feed intake (RFI) in the F2 population derived from a fast-growing and a slow-growing broiler as well as in the pure Huiyang bearded chicken. The birds with the AA genotype of the g.5678784A>T SNP had lower RFI and higher expression of the mature gga-miR-1596-3p microRNA of miR-1596 than did those with the other genotypes of the same SNP. We also found that the expression of the mature gga-miR-1596-3p microRNA of miR-1596 was significantly associated with RFI. These findings suggest that miR-1596 can become a candidate gene related to RFI, and its genetic variation may contribute to changes in RFI by altering expression levels of the mature gga-miR-1596-3p microRNA in chicken. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.


Ran X.-G.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ran X.-G.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | Ran X.-G.,The Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science South China of Ministry of Agriculture | Ran X.-G.,Guangdong Public Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Nutrition | Wang L.-Y.,South China University of Technology
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Relatively little attention is paid to collagen-rich cattle short tendons (musculus extensor communis, musculus flexor digitorum, musculus digitorum profundis) as a source of high content and relatively pure collagen, a meat-processing by-product that is used to a minimal extent. Thus, suitable extraction processes from a meat production by-product to gain intact collagen is promising, which thus become interesting from an economic and environmental point of view. RESULTS: Two extraction methods were compared: a 48 h pepsin treatment using 0.5 mol L-1 acetic acid and an extraction using pepsin treatment after ultrasonic treatment in a 0.5 mol L-1 acetic acid solution (the total ultrasonic and pepsin treatment time was 48 h). The results indicated that the optimal conditions for the extraction of collagen from cattle tendon with the ultrasonic-pepsin tandem method is: 4°C, tendon pre-swollen for 12 h in 0.5 mol L-1 acetic acid, pepsin amount: 50 U mg-1 of sample, ultrasonic-pepsin tandem treatment time for 18 h and 30 h, respectively. Extracted cattle tendon collagen using ultrasonic and pepsin treatment in tandem was characterised by amino acid analysis, SDS-PAGE, FT-IR, solubility and thermal denaturation temperature. The results show that the ultrasonic-pepsin tandem method can effectively improve the efficiency of pepsin extraction of natural collagen without any compromise of the resultant collagen quality. CONCLUSION: This study provides a favourable process to deal with poorly extractable residue by use of ultrasonic and pepsin treatment in tandem. Extracted collagen possesses an intact molecular structure, which is useful and particularly important for its biomedical applications, such as drug delivery systems, wound dressings, and scaffolds. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.


Ji J.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ji J.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | Qu H.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qu H.,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding | And 2 more authors.
Current Protein and Peptide Science | Year: 2015

The bioactive peptides are protein fragments which have a positive impact on the intestinal homeostasis. Intestinal homeostasis depends on the diverse functions of intestinal barrier including the microbiological, physical, chemical and immunological barriers. Defects in intestinal barrier function are associated with intestinal diseases. In this review, we will present current knowledge of the crosstalk between bioactive peptides and intestinal barrier during gut homeostasis. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

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