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Han H.,China University of Mining and Technology | Xu T.,State Key Laboratory of Geo Information Engineering | Wang J.,China University of Mining and Technology
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Precise Point Positioning (PPP) makes use of the undifferenced pseudorange and carrier phase measurements with ionospheric-free (IF) combinations to achieve centimeter-level positioning accuracy. Conventionally, the IF ambiguities are estimated as float values. To improve the PPP positioning accuracy and shorten the convergence time, the integer phase clock model with between-satellites single-difference (BSSD) operation is used to recover the integer property. However, the continuity and availability of stand-alone PPP is largely restricted by the observation environment. The positioning performance will be significantly degraded when GPS operates under challenging environments, if less than five satellites are present. A commonly used approach is integrating a low cost inertial sensor to improve the positioning performance and robustness. In this study, a tightly coupled (TC) algorithm is implemented by integrating PPP with inertial navigation system (INS) using an Extended Kalman filter (EKF). The navigation states, inertial sensor errors and GPS error states are estimated together. The troposphere constrained approach, which utilizes external tropospheric delay as virtual observation, is applied to further improve the ambiguity-fixed height positioning accuracy, and an improved adaptive filtering strategy is implemented to improve the covariance modelling considering the realistic noise effect. A field vehicular test with a geodetic GPS receiver and a low cost inertial sensor was conducted to validate the improvement on positioning performance with the proposed approach. The results show that the positioning accuracy has been improved with inertial aiding. Centimeter-level positioning accuracy is achievable during the test, and the PPP/INS TC integration achieves a fast re-convergence after signal outages. For troposphere constrained solutions, a significant improvement for the height component has been obtained. The overall positioning accuracies of the height component are improved by 30.36%, 16.95% and 24.07% for three different convergence times, i.e., 60, 50 and 30 min, respectively. It shows that the ambiguity-fixed horizontal positioning accuracy has been significantly improved. When compared with the conventional PPP solution, it can be seen that position accuracies are improved by 19.51%, 61.11% and 23.53% for the north, east and height components, respectively, after one hour convergence through the troposphere constraint fixed PPP/INS with adaptive covariance model. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Lv S.,CAS Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics and Physics | Lv S.,State Key Laboratory of Geo Information Engineering | Liu J.,CAS Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics and Physics
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

This paper describes the design and realization of a refocusing system for a space TDICCD camera of 2.2-meter focal length, which, features a three mirror anastigmatic(TMA) optical system along with 8 TDICCDs assemble at the focal plane, is high resolution and wide field of view. TDICCDs assemble is a kind of major method of acquiring wide field of view for space camera. In this way, the swath width reach 60km. First, the design of TMA optical system and its advantage of this space TDICCD camera was introduced; Then, the refocusing system as well as the technique of mechanical interleaving assemble for TDICCDs focal plane of this space camera was discussed in detail, At last, the refocusing system was measured. Experimental results indicated that the precision of the refocusing system is ± 3.12μm(3σ), which satisfy the refocusing control system requirements of higher precision and stabilization. © 2015 SPIE. Source

Yang Y.,State Key Laboratory of Geo Information Engineering | Yang Y.,Xian Research Institute of Surveying and Mapping | Yang Y.,Beijing Satellite Navigation Center | Xu J.,Beijing Satellite Navigation Center
Geodesy and Geodynamics | Year: 2016

Integrity is significant for safety-of-life applications. Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) has been developed to provide integrity service for civil aviation. At first, the conventional RAIM algorithm is only suitable for single fault detection, single GNSS constellation. However, multiple satellite failure should be considered when more than one satellite navigation system are adopted. To detect and exclude multi-fault, most current algorithms perform an iteration procedure considering all possible fault model which lead to heavy computation burden. An alternative RAIM is presented in this paper based on multiple satellite constellations (for example, GPS and BeiDou (BDS) etc.) and robust estimation for multi-fault detection and exclusion, which can not only detect multi-failures, but also control the influences of near failure observation. Besides, the RAIM algorithm based on robust estimation is more efficient than the current RAIM algorithm for multiple constellation and multiple faults. Finally, the algorithm is tested by GPS/BeiDou data. © 2016 Institute of Seismology, China Earthquake Administration. Source

Ruan R.,Xian Research Institute of Surveying and Mapping | Ruan R.,State Key Laboratory of Geo Information Engineering
Cehui Xuebao/Acta Geodaetica et Cartographica Sinica | Year: 2015

Ambiguity resolution plays an essential role in global GPS/GNSS network solution. In order to fix as many double-difference(DD) ambiguities to the nearest integers as possible, a set of “most-easy-to-fix” independent DD-ambiguities has to be defined. The most usable state-of-art method (the “traditional” method)at present is to make the independency checking on two levels firstly on the baseline level and then the network level, in which the DD-ambiguity candidates are sorted by their fixing probabilities on both levels. Considering the fact that, in general global network solution, the number of stations involved is usually times larger than that of satellites, a new approach for independent DD-ambiguities selection was presented, which makes the independency checking in an analogous two-level way firstly on the constellation level and then the network level. Together with a new procedure for sequential ambiguity fixing based on updating the upper triangular square root of covariance matrix, the new approach is implemented in the satellite positioning and orbit determination system (SPODS) software which is designed and developed at Xi'an Research Institute of Surveying & Mapping. Validation experiment with GPS observation data collected from about 64 IGS stations was carried out, which demonstrate that 1D RMSs for daily orbit solution, compared with IGS final combined solution, are about 0.012 m, and about 92% of DD-ambiguities were fixed, with only neglectable tiny difference tetween the new and traditional method. Another experiment with varied number of stations indicates that the ratio of the number of DD-ambiguities candidates to be checked for independency on the network level between the new and the traditional approach is nearly equal to the ratio of satellites to stations involved. For the cases that more stations are involved than satellites, which are common in actual GPS/GNSS network solution, the computation time for independent DD-ambiguities selection is reduced with the new approach, the more stations involved, the greater advantage is exhibited. ©, 2015, SinoMaps Press. All right reserved. Source

Miao Q.,Xidian University | Xu P.,Xidian University | Liu T.,Xidian University | Yang Y.,Xian Jiaotong University | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2013

Linear features are difficult to be separated from complicated background in color scanned topographic maps, especially when the color of linear features approximate to that of background in some particular images. This paper presents a method, which is based on energy density and the shear transform, for the separation of lines from background. First, the shear transform, which could add the directional characteristics of the lines, is introduced to overcome the disadvantage that linear information loss would happen if the separation method is used in an image, which is in only one direction. Then templates in the horizontal and vertical directions are built to separate lines from background on account of the fact that the energy concentration of the lines usually reaches a higher level than that of the background in the negtive image. Furthermore, the remaining grid background can be wiped off by grid templates matching. The isolated patches, which include only one pixel or less than ten pixels, are removed according to the connected region area measurement. Finally, using the union operation, the linear features obtained in different sheared images could supplement each other, thus the lines of the final result are more complete. The basic property of this method is introducing the energy density instead of color information commonly used in traditional methods. The experiment results indicate that the proposed method could distinguish the linear features from the background more effectively, and obtain good results for its ability in changing the directions of the lines with the shear transform. © 1992-2012 IEEE. Source

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