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Deng S.,State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment | Deng S.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Shu Y.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Li S.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2016

Fly ashes recovered from the particulate control devices at six pulverized coal boiler unites of China, are studied using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with a particular focus on the functionalities of fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), carbon and oxygen on fly ash. It is found that the inorganic forms of F and Cl are predominant on the ash surface in comparison with their organics, and the proportion of organic Cl is relatively higher than that of organic F. Similar results are also obtained in the bulk by correlating the F and Cl contents with those of the unburnt carbon and other compositions in ash. Strong correlations of mercury retention with surface carbon-oxygen functional groups indicate that the C. O, OH/C. O and (O. C. O). O on surface are of significant importance for mercury retention in fly ash. Their surface concentrations are related to coal type. The presence of Cl in fly ash helps with mercury retention. No obvious effect of F is observed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Deng S.,State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment | Deng S.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Liu Y.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Zhang C.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Research of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2014

Fluorine is a trace element in the coal and may cause environmental and human healthy problems during coal combustion. While coal-fired power plant is one of man-made sources of fluorine emissions in China, fluorine emission behaviors from coal-fired power plants have not been comprehensively investigated until now. A full-scale field study of fluorine emissions was conducted at six pulverized coal-fired boiler (PC) units of four coal-fired power plants in China. Flue gases were sampled from the inlets and outlets of the existing air pollutant control devices (APCDs) to investigate their effects on speciation and distribution of fluorine in the flue gas. Concurrent with flue gas, coal, bottom ash, fly ash and samples from the FGD process (desulfurization gypsum and waster water) were collected. Over 96.63% of fluorine contained in coal were released during the combustion process in the examined PC boilers, and fluorine compounds in flue gas were mainly in the form of HF. Wet FGD and dedusting devices were able to remove fluorine compounds in flue gas, wet FGD being more effective. Particulate bound fluorine in flue gas can be removed by dedusting devices. The removal efficiency of dedusting devices varied from 19.50% to 36.59% for fluorine compounds in flue gas. Bag-house filters were effective than electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Most of HF in flue gas can be removed by wet FGD devices and the average removal efficiency of wet FGD devices was 94.19%. The fluorine released from coal combustion was transferred into slag, fly ash, desulfurization gypsum and the waste water after passing through the devices for air pollution control. Fluorine in slag ranged from 0.83% to 3.37%, and approximately about 13.45%-33.80% of fluorine were contained in fly ash. A proportion of 59.60%-79.66% of fluorine came into the gypsum while the waste water was kept 1.20%-2.00% of the total fluorine. Only 2.04%-5.00% of fluorine were directly emitted into the atmosphere. Source


Deng S.,State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment | Deng S.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Shi Y.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Liu Y.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2014

A full-scale field study of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn) emissions from coal combustion was carried out at six coal-fired power plants in China. Simultaneous sampling of coal, bottom and fly ashes, flue gas, and the byproducts from wet FGD process was performed. The formation of particulate bound Pb in flue gas was strongly affected by chlorine content in coal, ratio of trace metal content to ash content in coal and loss-on-ignition of fly ash. However, these factors had no significant effect on formation of particulate bound Cd and Mn in flue gas. Release rates and enrichment factors of the metals were calculated for comparison. Mass balances of the trace metals in the tested power plants were carried out. It was found out that Pb has the highest release rate among the trace metals. Most of the trace metals entered into bottom and fly ashes in the combustion process. Pb was enriched more in fly ash relative to Cd and Mn. The existing air pollution control devices at the power plants were able to remove most of the metals in the flue gas. Emission factors of Pb, Cd and Mn were calculated for each tested power plant. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Deng S.,State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment | Deng S.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Zhang C.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Liu Y.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Research of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2014

Chlorine (Cl) is a harmful element and may cause technological (fouling, slagging, corrosion) and environmental issues during coal combustion. A full-scale field study of Cl emissions was conducted at six pulverized coal-fired (PC) boiler units of four coal-fired power plants in China. Flue gas samples were collected from the inlets and outlets of the existing air pollutant control devices (APCDs) to investigate their effects on speciation and distribution of Cl in the flue gas. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, fly ash, and samples from the FGD process (desulfurization gypsum and waste water) were collected to investigate the partitioning of Cl in a full-scale combustion process equipped with APCDs. Prior to entering APCDs, Cl concentrations in flue gases in the measured power plants ranged from 93-135 μg/g. Over 96.99% Cl contained in coal was released to gas phase during combustion in the examined PC boilers, and the total Cl concentration in the flue gas from boilers was in the range of 10.17-33.63 mg/m3, mainly in the form of HCl. The wet FGD and de-dusting devices were able to remove the pollutants of Cl in the flue gas, wet FGD being more effective. The wet FGD process removed over 90% of Cl in the flue gas. Particulate bound Cl can be removed by de-dusting devices, and the removal efficiency of de-dusting devices varied from 12.29% to 19.86% for Cl compounds in the flue gas. The Cl released from coal combustion was transferred into slag, fly ash, desulfurization gypsum and waste water after passing through APCDs. In terms of the final Cl emissions after APCDs, Cl in slag occupied 0.35%-3.01%, and around 6.46%-15.00% of the Cl was transported into fly ash. Most of Cl was transferred into the waste water, accounting for 68.88%-77.31%, and the gypsum contained 9.19%-15.95% of the total Cl. Only 2.21%-5.54% of Cl was emitted directly into the atmosphere, and the total Cl concentration in the flue gas from stacks was in the range of 0.34-1.38 mg/m3. The results indicated some possible environmental pollution of water and soil with Cl in the areas surrounding the coal-fired thermoelectric power plants in China. Source


Yang S.-W.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Yang S.-W.,State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment | Wang S.-R.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Wang S.-R.,State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment | And 2 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2012

Tissue distribution and bioconcentration factors of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in five economic fishes in Chaohu Lake were measured with SPE-HPLC. The results showed that, the average concentration of TBBPA was 4.70-11.20 ng·g-1 (dry weight) in these fishes, in an order as White fish>Silver Carp>Bighead Carp>Common Carp>Longsnout Catfish. The highest concentration of TBBPA was found in the kidney, followed by liver and gill. The concentrations in fat and muscle were very low. Silver carp was really different from the other four fishes with the highest measured level in liver, followed by kidney and gills. In addition, the TBBPA concentration in tissues of the white fish showed positive correlation with the fish weight, especially in liver and kidney, but the trend is not significant in the back and belly tissues. The bioaccumulation factors of TBBPA for the 5 fishes were 9.56-22.64 based on the average concentration of TBBPA in water (0.52 μg·L-1) detected in this study, indicating insignificant bioconcentration effects of TBBPA on five fishes in Chaohu Lake. Source

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