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Luo Y.,East China Normal University | Gao Y.M.,East China Normal University | Wang W.,Shandong Agricultural University | Wang W.,State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology | Zou C.J.,East China Normal University
Biologia Plantarum

Trehalose was supplied to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings just before a high temperature (40 °C) treatment and some physiological parameters were measured during the heat stress and recovery. The application of trehalose decreased the net photosynthetic rate (PN) of wheat seedlings under the heat stress, but to a small extent increased the dry mass (DM) and leaf water content (LWC) after recovery from the heat stress. The trehalose-induced decrease in PN under the heat stress was not associated with a stomatal response. The heat stress slightly decreased the maximal efficiency of photosystem II (PS II) photochemistry (the variable to maximum chlorophyll a fluorescence ratio, Fv/Fm) similarly in the trehalose treated or non-treated plants. Under the heat stress, the actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry (ΦPSII) and the efficiency of excitation energy capture by open reaction centers (Fv′/Fm′) were lower in the trehalose-pretreated seedlings, whereas they were higher after the recovery. The patterns of changes in nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) were contrary to those of φ{symbol}PS II and Fv′/Fm′. The chlorophyll content was lower, whereas the β-carotene content and the degree of de-epoxidation (DEPS) of xanthophyll cycle pigments were higher in the trehalose-pretreated wheat seedlings under the heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous trehalose partially promotes recovery of wheat by the increase of NPQ, β-carotene content, and DEPS. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Liu L.,Dezhou University | Liu L.,State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology

ZmPP2C (AY621066) is a protein phosphatase 2C mRNA that we cloned from maize previously. TMpred program analysis indicated this protein contains a significant transmembrane helix of about 20 amino acid residues; however SVMtm predicted it is not a transmembrane protein. STRIDE, Modeller and RasMol program analysis suggested the ZmPP2C protein is a globular protein containing seven alpha helixes, fourteen beta sheets, twenty-two turns and one 310 helix. The coding region of ZmPP2C mRNA was subcloned into expression vectors, pET30a-c(+), and introduced into E. coli BL21 (DE3) for expression. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated ZmPP2C was highly expressed at 37°C for 4 h with induction by 1 mM IPTG. Ultrasonic extraction experiment showed this recombinant protein was soluble in lysis buffer solution. The hexahistidine-tagged ZmPP2C fusion protein were purified and used to immunize rat for producing antibody. Protein gel blot analysis stated clearly that a specific polyclonal antibody against the protein was produced and can be used for further study about the ZmPP2C gene. Subcellular localization suggested that ZmPP2C protein was located in cell nucleus. Source

An H.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang K.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang K.,State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology

Walnut (Juglans regia L.) resistance gene analogs (RGAs) of 35 nucleotide binding site RGAs (jrRGAPGs), 47 leucine-rich repeat RGAs (jrRGANLs), and 45 serine/threonine kinase RGAs (jrRGAPTs) conferring resistance to the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. and Sacc. were isolated from the resistant cultivar 'Qing Lin', the susceptible cultivar 'Yuan Lin', and their F1 hybrids using a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy. The jrRGAPGs and jrRGAPTs occurred only in 'Qing Lin', whereas the jrRGANLs were found in both parent cultivars. In 85 F1 hybrid progeny, the jrRGAPGs were found only in resistant individuals, while the jrRGANLs and jrRGAPTs were present more frequently in resistant individuals than in susceptible ones. The jrRGAPGs were highly homologous to nucleotide binding site genes from other species. Multiple alignments revealed that jrRGAPGs had P-loop, kinase-2, kinase-3, and hydrophobic GLPL motifs. Phylogenetic analysis resolved the inferred jrRGAPG amino acid sequences into distinct TIR and non-TIR clades. The jrRGANLs had no matches in GenBank and were classified into multiple subfamilies in the phylogeny. The jrRGAPTs were similar to known kinase receptor/regulators and formed two major phylogenetic clades. These results will facilitate molecular breeding strategies for walnut anthracnose resistance. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Zhan K.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhan K.,State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology | Xu K.,State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology | Xu K.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yin H.,Shandong Agricultural University
Food Chemistry

A novel method for purifying gingerols from ginger was developed using a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The two-phase solvent system such as light petroleum (bp 60-90 °C)-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:6.5:3.5, v/v/v/v) was applied to the separation and purification of 6-, 8- and 10-gingerol from a crude extract of ginger. The experiment yielded 30.2 mg of 6-gingerol, 40.5 mg of 8-gingerol, 50.5 mg of 10-gingerol from 200 mg of crude extract in one-step separation. And the purity of these compounds was 99.9%, 99.9% and 99.2%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Fang X.,Shandong Agricultural University | Fang X.,State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology | Wang J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Wang J.,State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Separation Science

An optimized microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method and an efficient HPLC analysis method were developed for fast extraction and simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the fruit of Chaenomeles sinensis. The open vessel MAE process was optimized by using a central composite experimental design. The optimal conditions identified were microwave power 600 W, temperature 52°C, solvent to material ratio 32 mL/g and extraction time 7 min. The results showed that MAE is a more rapid extraction method with higher yield and lower solvent consumption. The HPLC-photodiode array detection analysis method was validated to have good linearity, precision, reproduction and accuracy. Compared with conventional extraction and analysis methods, MAE-HPLC-photodiode array detection is a faster, convenient and appropriate method for determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the fruits of C. sinensis. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Source

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