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Xie N.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu Q.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen F.,State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2013

Pigments produced by Monascus are traditional food colorants and are widely used as dietary supplements. Since genes involving in pigment biosynthesis have not been reported, we describe the identification of a putative pigment-regulatory gene (pigR) obtained by molecular analysis of an albino strain of Monascus ruber M7. In the pigR-deleted strain (ΔpigR), neither the pigments nor pigR expression were detected by HPLC or reverse-transcription PCR, respectively, whereas the introduction of the pigR, together with a constitutive trpC promoter into ΔpigR, caused it to produce 5.4 U of red pigments/g dry mycelia, about 12-fold higher than Monascus ruber M7 (0.46 U/g dry mycelia). Thus pigR up-regulates pigment production in Monascus ruber M7. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Liu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Tang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 15 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2014

Mannose receptor (MR) plays a significant role in innate immune responses to pathogens in vertebrates. Here we characterized the first teleost MR from Megalobrama amblycephala, named maMR and its expression patterns were investigated. The full-length maMR consists of 5,295 bp encoding a putative protein of 1,433 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that maMR contained a signal peptide, a cysteine-rich domain, a single fibronectin type II domain, eight tandemly arranged C-type lectin-like domains, a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the highest similarity of maMR with Danio rerio MR predicted by computational analysis. The maMR-mRNAs were ubiquitously transcribed in different tissues, However the highest transcripts were observed in head kidney. Transcripts of maMR significantly increased at the late stages of embryo and continued to be at the high levels after hatching. The maMR transcripts were significantly increased in M. amblycephala after stimulation with killed Aeromonas hydrophila. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media. Source

Yang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shao Y.,State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology | And 4 more authors.
Fungal Biology | Year: 2012

FlbA (fluffy low brlA expression), a regulator of the G protein signalling (RGS) pathway, has been implicated in the control of hyphal development, sporulation, mycotoxin/pigment production in many kinds of filamentous fungi and yeasts. In the current study, a FlbA-like protein gene mrflbA (Monascus ruber flbA) was isolated, sequenced, and disrupted in order to investigate the RGS function in M. ruber. The results revealed that the derived protein of the mrflbA gene consisted of 734 amino acids and had the conserved RGS domain at the C-terminus and two DEP (dishevelled, Egl-10, pleckstrin) domains at the N-terminus similar to the structure of RGS proteins in other filamentous fungi. Deletion of the mrflbA gene resulted in the formation of an abnormal colony phenotype with fluffy aerial hyphae that autolyzed as the colony grew on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 28. °C. Additionally, mrflbA deletion could repress conidial germination and pigment/citrinin production in M. ruber M-7. Real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of the G protein α subunit (Gα) was remarkably increased in the mrflbA deletion strain. These results suggest that mrflbA is involved in the modulation of aerial hyphal development and secondary metabolism, as well as, negative regulation of Gα subunit expression in M. ruber M-7. © 2011 British Mycological Society. Source

Wang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhou Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhao X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 14 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2014

Mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1) is a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) which plays a significant role in immune responses. Much work on MRC1 has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this study, we cloned and characterized MRC1 in grass carp (gcMR). The full-length gcMR contained 5291. bp encoding a putative protein of 1432 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that gcMR contained a signal peptide, a cysteine-rich (CR) domain, a fibronectin type II (FN II) domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs), a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic domain. gcMR were constitutively expressed in different organs with the higher expression in spleen and head kidney. During embryonic development, gcMR transcript levels were highest at cleavage stage. The up-regulation expression of gcMR, IL-1β and TNF-α in liver, spleen, head kidney and intestine after Aeromonas hydrophila infection indicating it involved in innate immune regulation during bacterial infections. © 2013 . Source

Zhou Y.,State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology | Li J.,State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology
Virulence | Year: 2013

Altered expression of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) virulence factors, including the M protein, can result as a consequence of spontaneous genetic changes that occur during laboratory and animal passage. Occurrence of such secondary mutations during targeted gene deletion could confound the interpretation of effects attributable to the function of the gene being investigated. Contradicting reports on whether the sagA/pel locus regulates the M protein-encoding emm might be due to inconsistent occurrence of mutations unrelated with sagA. This study examined the possibility that altered emm expression observed in association with sagA/pel deletion mutants is artifactual. sagA deletion mutants (MGAS2221ΔsagA) of M1T1 isolate MGAS2221 obtained using liquid broth for GAS growth during the deletion process had diminished emm transcription and no detectable M protein production. In contrast, a ΔsagA mutant of another closely genetically related M1T1 isolate had normal emm expression. The sagB gene does not regulate emm; however, one of three MGAS2221ΔsagB mutants had diminished emm expression. The emm regulator mga was downregulated in these M protein expression-negative strains. These results argue that sagA deletion does not directly cause the downregulation of emm expression. Indeed, two MGAS2221ΔsagA mutants obtained using agar plates for GAS growth during the deletion process both had normal emm expression. We conclude that the sagA/pel locus does not regulate emm expression in the M1T1 lineage and provide a protocol for targeted gene deletion that we find less prone to the generation of mutants exhibiting downregulation in emm expression. Source

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