State Key Laboratory for Environmental Protection

Changchun, China

State Key Laboratory for Environmental Protection

Changchun, China
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Zhang G.,Northeast Normal University | Zhang G.,State Key Laboratory for Environmental Protection | Wang N.,Northeast Normal University | Wang N.,State Key Laboratory for Environmental Protection | And 4 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2013

Jiapigou gold mine, located in the upper Songhua River, was once the largest mine in China due to gold output, where gold extraction with algamation was widely applied to extract gold resulting in severe mercury pollution to ambient environmental medium. In order to study the characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control, sampling sites were selected in equal distances along the slope which is situated in the typical hill-valley terrain unit. Mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere was determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber and in all sampling sites the atmosphere concentration from 0 to 150 cm near to the earth in the vertical direction was measured. Furthermore, the impact factors including synchronous meteorology, the surface characteristics under the snow retention and snow melting control and the mercury concentration in vertical direction were also investigated. The results are as follows: During the period of snow retention and melting the air mercury tends to gather towards valley bottom along the slope and an obvious deposit tendency process was found from air to the earth's surface under the control of thermal inversion due to the underlying surface of cold source (snow surface). However, during the period of snow melting, mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere on the surface of the earth with the snow being melted demonstrates alternative deposit and release processes. As for the earth with snow covered, the deposit level of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere is lower than that during the period of snow retention. The relationship between mercury exchange flux and impact factors shows that in snow retention there is a remarkable negative linear correlation between mercury exchange flux and air mercury concentration as well as between the former and the air temperature. In addition, in snow melting mercury exchange flux is remarkably negatively linearly correlated to air mercury concentration and positively linearly correlated to air temperature. Furthermore, there is a general positive linear correlation between mercury exchange flux and soil temperature on the surface of earth after snow melting.


Zhang G.,Northeast Normal University | Zhang G.,State Key Laboratory for Environmental Protection | Wang N.,Northeast Normal University | Wang N.,State Key Laboratory for Environmental Protection | And 3 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2012

In the studied area of Jia-pi-gou at the upstream area of Songhua River, algamation process has been applied as a dominant method to extract gold for more than one hundred and eighty years, resulting in severe mercury environmental pollution. The total mercury contents in the atmosphere and soil have been determined by mercury analyzer (Zeeman RA915+) and cold atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GB/T 17136-1997), respectively. To study the pollution characteristics of mercury in the soil and atmosphere, the mercury flux at the interface between the soil and the atmosphere of 4 sampling sites Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-gou, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou have been determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber. Furthermore, linear regression analyses on the total mercury contents between soil and atmosphere have been carried out and the correlation coefficient of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere and meteorological factors has been studied. The results are as follows: (1) The mean value of mercury content in the atmosphere is (71.08±38.22)ng·m-3. (2) The mean value of mercury content in the soil is (0.9131±0.040 8)mg·kg-1; it shows remarkably positive correlation between the mercury contents in soil and in the atmosphere. (3) The mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere in different locations are Lao-jin-chang [(129.13±496.07) ng·(m2·h)-1], Er-dao-gou [(98.64±43.96) ng·(m2·h)-1], Er-dao-cha [(23.17±171.23) ng·(m2·h)-1], and community of Jia-pi-gou [(7.12±46.33) ng·(m2·h)-1]. (4) Solar radiation is the major influential factor in the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou. Solar radiation, air temperature and soil temperature jointly influence the process of the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Er-dao-gou. Under the disturbance of terrain, three noticeably distinctive trend features of daily change of mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere have been formed.


Zhang G.,Northeast Normal University | Zhang G.,State Key Laboratory for Environmental Protection | Wang N.,Northeast Normal University | Wang N.,State Key Laboratory for Environmental Protection | And 4 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2013

At the Jiapigou gold mine of the Songhua River upstream from April 22~25, 2012, the combination technique of the dynamic flux chamber, DFC and the LUMEX Zeeman RA915+ had been used to measure mercury exchange flux between soil and air under the control of durative precipitation. Moreover, the air mercury concentrations in the range of near-surface vertical direction 0~150 cm, solar irradiation intensity, air temperature and humidity had been determined synchronously. Furthermore, the relationships among mercury exchange flux and meteorology factors under the control of precipitation had been analyzed to research the features and its influencing factors in the natural conditions. The results show that under the control of durative precipitation, mercury exchange flux between the earth surface and air showed the features of the process of deposit and release continuous interleave appeared, it is obviously different from day type mercury flux's single summit structure under a fair weather condition. In precipitation intermission, mercury exchange flux between soil and air at slope farmland sampling site were (-2.08±6.11), (-6.16±33.57), (-3.20±8.64) and (5.06±18.80)ng/(m2·h); on the floodplain of valley bottom sample site were (-5.21±6.42), (3.87±28.12), (-11.87±14.10) and (-9.44±12.23) ng/(m2·h). In the range of partly narrow region, the difference of terrain conditions affected energy budget of different earth's surface and near-surface air system, and made near-surface air mercury concentrations and meteorology factors changed, then affected mercury flux's process and level. Under the durative precipitation, mercury flux between earth's surface and air had obviously positive linear relation with solar irradiation intensity and air humidity, and it doesn't had obviously linear relation with air mercury concentrations and air temperature.

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