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Yan D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yan D.,State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Disease and Insect Pests | Wang Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Q.,State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Disease and Insect Pests | And 9 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

Soil fumigation can increase mineral nitrogen due to the mineralization of soil microbial biomass killed during the fumigation, and as a result nitrous oxide (N2O) emission would increase. In addition, a fumigant's impact on soil nitrification and denitrification would also alter the dynamics of N2O production in fumigated soils. Laboratory incubation studies were conducted to quantify the dynamic changes in N2O production following various fumigant treatments, and to determine the interaction between nitrification, denitrification and N2O production in fumigated soils. Results showed a substantial increase in NH4 +-N and dissolved amino acids (DAA) during 7 days fumigation at 1WAF (week after fumigation). The application of fumigants caused significant inhibition of nitrification. However the results relating to potential denitrification were quite different. The rates of potential denitrification in chloropicrin (Pic) and dazomet (DZ) treatments at 1WAF were 3.5 and 5.6 times higher than the untreated control. Potential denitrification was greatly stimulated after Pic and DZ fumigation. The N2O production rates in Pic and DZ fumigated soil were significantly higher than the untreated control at 1WAF in the tested soil type. The cumulative N2O emissions in Pic and DZ fumigated soil were also significantly higher than the untreated control, but there were no significant differences among 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and untreated control. A positive relationship between N2O production and potential denitrification (PDN) was observed (r=0.951, P<0.01). Pic and DZ are both nitrogenous compounds. The breakdown products of Pic and DZ would be available for microbial-aided denitrification reactions as nitrogen sources leading to N2O production, indicating that Pic and DZ degradation stimulated denitrification activity responsible for soil N2O production. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Xie H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yan D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yan D.,State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Disease and Insect Pests | Mao L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Methyl bromide (MB) and other alternatives were evaluated for suppression of Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. and their influence on soil microbial communities. Both Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. were significantly reduced by the MB (30.74 mg kg-1), methyl iodide (MI: 45.58 mg kg-1), metham sodium (MS: 53.92 mg kg-1) treatments. MS exhibited comparable effectiveness to MB in controlling Meloidogyne spp. and total nematodes, followed by MI at the tested rate. By contrast, sulfuryl fluoride (SF: 33.04 mg kg-1) and chloroform (CF: 23.68 mg kg-1) showed low efficacy in controlling Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. MB, MI and MS significantly lowered the abundance of different microbial populations and microbial biomass in soil, whereas SF and CF had limited influence on them compared with the control. Diversity indices in Biolog studies decreased in response to fumigation, but no significant difference was found among treatments in PLFA studies. Principal component and cluster analyses of Biolog and PLFA data sets revealed that MB and MI treatments greatly influenced the soil microbial community functional and structural diversity compared with SF treatment. These results suggest that fumigants with high effectiveness in suppressing soil-borne disease could significantly influence soil microbial community. © 2015 Xie et al. Source


Mao L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Q.,State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Disease and Insect Pests | Yan D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Chloropicrin (Pic) offers a potential alternative to methyl bromide (MB) against Ralstonia solanacarum in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) production. MB is scheduled to be withdrawn from routine use by 2015 in developing countries. Methods: Pic treatments were evaluated in a laboratory study and in three commercial ginger fields. Results: Laboratory studies showed that the EC50 value and EC80 value of Pic were 2.7 and 3.7 mg a.i. kg-1 soil, respectively. Field trials in highly infested soil revealed that treatments of Pic at the dose of 50 g m-2 covered with totally impermeable film (TIF) or polyethylene film (PE) sharply reduced Ralstonia solanacarum and maintained high ginger yields. Both of the Pic treatments provided results similar to, or in some cases slightly lower than, MB with respect to Ralstonia solanacarum control, plant survival, plant growth and yield. All of the fumigant treatments were significantly better than the non-treated control. Conclusions: The present study confirms that the Pic is a promising alternative with good efficacy against Ralstonia solanacarum for ginger production and could be used in integrated pest management programs in China. © 2014 Mao et al. Source


Mao L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yan D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yan D.,State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Disease and Insect Pests | Wang Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The combination of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dazomet (DZ) is a potential alternative to methyl bromide (MB) for soil disinfestation. The efficacy of DMDS plus DZ in controlling key soilborne pests was evaluated in a laboratory study and in two commercial cucumber greenhouses. Laboratory studies found that all of the combinations had positive synergistic effects on root-knot nematodes, two key soilborne fungi, and two major weed seeds. Greenhouse trials revealed that the combination of DMDS and DZ (30 + 25 g m-2) successfully suppressed Meloidogyne spp. root galling, sharply reduced the colony-forming units of Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. on media, maintained high cucumber yields, and was not significantly different from MB or DMDS alone, but better than DZ alone. All of the chemical treatments provided significantly better results than the nontreated control. The results indicate that the combination of DMDS and DZ is an efficient MB alternative for cucumber production. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source


Mao L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Mao L.,State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Disease and Insect Pests | Wang Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Q.,State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Disease and Insect Pests | And 10 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2016

Flame soil disinfestation (FSD) is a novel, promising non-chemical method to control soilborne nematodes, fungal and bacterial pathogens in China. The efficacy of FSD on soilborne nematodes, fungal and bacterial pathogens was evaluated during two field trials. The field trials revealed that the treatment with FSD once (FSD1) and treatment with FSD twice (FSD2) sharply reduced the total number of soilborne nematodes (>95%) and completely controlled Meloidogyne incognita in the soil. Both FSD1 and FSD2 also provided promising efficacy against soilborne Fusarium oxysporum (>44%), Phytophthora spp. (>47%) and Ralstonia solanacearum (>67%) on media. However, there was no significant difference between FSD1 and FSD2 in controlling soilborne nematodes, fungal and bacterial pathogens (= 0.05). Currently, there are two challenges to distribute the technology in China: its high cost and relatively low efficiency because of the low speed of application compared with soil chemical fumigation. Despite the drawbacks, FSD is still promising in organic agriculture for controlling soilborne nematodes, fungal and bacterial pathogens. © 2016. Source

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