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Zhang Q.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Zhang Q.,State Key Laboratory Breed Base Of Complex Nonfer Metal Rsrc Cleaning Utilization In Yunnan Province | Hua Y.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Hua Y.,State Key Laboratory Breed Base Of Complex Nonfer Metal Rsrc Cleaning Utilization In Yunnan Province | Wang R.,Kunming University of Science and Technology
Science China Chemistry | Year: 2013

The effect of two alklpyridinium hydrosulfate based ionic liquids (ILs) including N-butylpyridinium hydrogen sulfate (Bpy-HSO4) and N-hexylpyridinium hydrogen sulfate (HpyHSO4) as additives on the nucleation and growth of copper from acidic sulfate bath was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometric and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Results from cyclic voltammetry indicated that the two studied additives had a blocking effect on copper electrodeposition process and this effect initiated by HpyHSO4 was more pronounced in comparison to BpyHSO4. Dimensionless chronoamperometric current-time transients for the electrodeposition of copper from the bath free of additives were in good accord with the theoretical transients for the limiting case of instantaneous three-dimensional nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth of the nuclei. However, the instantaneous nucleation mechanism observed in the additive-free bath was changed to a more progressive one when additives were present in the bath. Surface morphology analysis indicated that alklpyridinium hydrosulfate ILs can induce the formation of leveled and finer grained deposits by the adsorption of additive at the first stages of deposition process, leading to decrease of the nucleation and growth rate of nuclei. © 2013 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Chen R.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Chen R.,State Key Laboratory Breed Base Of Complex Nonfer Metal Rsrc Cleaning Utilization In Yunnan Province | Wang H.-T.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Wang H.-T.,State Key Laboratory Breed Base Of Complex Nonfer Metal Rsrc Cleaning Utilization In Yunnan Province | And 2 more authors.
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2012

Aiming at the dimethyl ether itself with oxygen, this paper simulate that how much less oxygen quantity Dimethyl ether combustion required than liquefied petroleum gas in the same fuel quantity, and obtain optimum normoxia of dimethyl ether desired. This paper simulated dimethyl ether, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) combustion with the air for 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 90% Oxygen levels. Under the different oxygen levels ,the study found that the best oxygen levels dimethyl ether combustion needed is around 30%, and the best oxygen levels liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) combustion needed is around 50%, so that Oxygen levels dimethyl ether needed is less than liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) needed in the same amount of fuel. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Xu R.D.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Xu R.D.,State Key Laboratory Breed Base Of Complex Nonfer Metal Rsrc Cleaning Utilization In Yunnan Province | Huang L.P.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics | Zhou J.F.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | And 7 more authors.
Hydrometallurgy | Year: 2012

In order to search for a suitable anode material in place of Pb-Ag alloy in zinc electrowinning, Al/Pb-PANI(polyaniline)-WC(tungsten carbide) composite inert anodes on aluminum substrates were prepared by double pulse electrodeposition (DPE) of WC and PANI particles with Pb 2+ from an original plating bath, in which solid particles were suspended by mechanical stirring. Thereafter, the anodic polarization curves, cyclic voltammetry curves and tafel polarization curves for the composite inert anodes obtained under different WC concentrations in the original plating bath, were measured in a synthetic zinc electrowinning electrolyte of 50 g·L - 1 Zn 2+, 150 g·L - 1 H 2SO 4 and 35 °C, and the microstructural features were also observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that the co-deposition of WC and PANI particles with Pb 2+ in the original plating bath, changes the electrocrystallization morphologies for matrix metal Pb on aluminum substrates. Al/Pb-PANI-WC composite inert anode obtained under WC concentration of 30 g·L - 1 and PANI concentration of 20 g·L - 1 in the original plating bath, possesses uniform surface and cross sectional microstructures, higher electrocatalytic activity, lower overpotential of oxygen evolution, better reversibility of electrode reaction, better corrosion resistance and longer service times in a synthetic zinc electrowinning electrolyte of 50 g·L - 1 Zn 2+, 150 g·L - 1 H 2SO 4 and 35 °C. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wen X.-L.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Wen X.-L.,State Key Laboratory Breed Base Of Complex Nonfer Metal Rsrc Cleaning Utilization In Yunnan Province | Wang H.-T.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Wang H.-T.,State Key Laboratory Breed Base Of Complex Nonfer Metal Rsrc Cleaning Utilization In Yunnan Province | And 2 more authors.
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2012

The flow boiling heat transfer inside horizontal smooth tubes is studied for refrigerant mixture R407C and a prediction model is proposed based on RBF neural network. The factors strongly affecting the flow boiling have been assumed as the inputs, such as mass flux (G), heat flux (q), quality (x), saturation temperature (T sat) and tube inner diameter (D). At the same time, the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient (h) as the output. The K-means clustering algorithm is applied to design RBF network. In addition, the prediction results is significantly improved compared with the four frequently used conventional correlations. For the network model of heat transfer, the average deviation, absolute average and root-mean-square deviations are -0.9%, 5.5% and 10.9%, respectively. Hence, the simulation results prove that the model based on RBF neural network is feasible to forecast the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient of R407C, and optimization design evaporators used R407C. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Ye Q.,State Key Laboratory Breed Base Of Complex Nonfer Metal Rsrc Cleaning Utilization In Yunnan Province | Ye Q.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Zhu H.,State Key Laboratory Breed Base Of Complex Nonfer Metal Rsrc Cleaning Utilization In Yunnan Province | Zhu H.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | And 8 more authors.
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science | Year: 2013

Preparation of the reduced iron powder has been attempted with mill scale as the iron-bearing material and with wood charcoal as the reducing agent through microwave heating. The response surface methodology (RSM) is used to optimize the process conditions, with wood charcoal, process temperature, and holding time being the three process parameters. The regressed model equation eliminating the insignificant parameters through an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to optimize the process conditions. The optimum process parameters for the preparation of reduced iron powders have been identified to be the wood charcoal of 13.8 pct, a process temperature of 1391 K (1118°C), and a holding time of 43 minutes. The optimum conditions resulted in reduced iron powders with a total iron content of 98.60 pct and a metallization ratio of 98.71 pct. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to estimate the elemental contents of the reduced iron powder, which meets the specification of the HY100.23 first-class iron powder standard. Additionally X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were performed and the results are compiled. © 2013 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

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