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Nurhayati,State Islamic University of Jakarta
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2015

A problem of unbalanced energy consumption exist and it primarily depend role and on location of a particular node in the network. The in order to make use of their potential, researchers must find solution to some difficulties that are slowing down the wide spread use these networks. The other case the problem faced by wireless sensor networks is the energy efficiency that are used during routing occurs, it affects the lifetime of sensor and residual energy of wireless network. Cluster-based routing protocols are not the same in wireless sensor network (UCR), nodes are grouped into clusters that are not the same size or Unequal Cluster Routing Protocol (UCR) has disadvantages in choosing the head of the cluster if the distance from the node away from the base station and the higher energy from other nodes cause trouble hot spots. In this research will offer a solution efficiency energy and balance energy consumption to prolong lifetime of sensor nodes based on Dynamic Unequal Clustering Routing Protocol namely by focusing the cluster will be done with consideration of dynamic routing on the cluster node are unequal cluster. The next step can do re-clustering node to change between nodes as cluster member or cluster head, so they can save energy on the condition of the hot spots on the node closest to the base station. The routing protocol algorithm called The Dynamic Unequal Cluster Routing Protocol Based on Efficiency Energy in Wireless Sensor Network (DUCRBEE). The research methodology used is primary and secondary data collection and simulation methods. And the results will be shown by the simulation comparing DUCR new algorithm that will extend the lifetime of sensor nodes when compared with BCDCP and UCR. © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2015.

Shahab N.,State Islamic University of Jakarta | Shahab N.,Kyushu University | Kajioka S.,Kyushu University | Seki N.,Kyushu University | Naito S.,Kyushu University
Urology | Year: 2012

Objective: We investigated the role of muscarinic receptor subtypes in calcium sensitization and their contribution to rho-kinase (ROK) and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in carbachol (CCh)-induced contraction of human detrusor smooth muscle (DSM). Materials and Methods: α-toxin-permeabilized human DSM strips were prepared and mounted horizontally to record isometric force. The roles of M 2 and M 3 muscarinic receptors in Ca 2+ sensitization were studied using selective antagonists of M 2 (AF-DX116) and M 3 (4-DAMP) receptor subtypes. The effects of a selective inhibitor of ROK, Y-27632, and a selective inhibitor of PKC, bisindolylmaleimide I (GF-109203X), were also studied on contraction induced by 10 μM CCh with 100 μM guanosine triphosphate at a fixed 1 μM [Ca 2+] i after preincubation with 1 μM AF-DX116 or 1 μM 4-DAMP. Results: Carbachol-induced Ca 2+ sensitization was predominantly inhibited by 4-DAMP compared with AF-DX116. Four-DAMP equivalently inhibited the relaxation effect of 5 μM GF-109203X as well as that of 5 μM Y-27632 on CCh-induced Ca 2+ sensitization. AF-DX116 reduced the relaxation effect of Y-27632 to a greater degree than GF-109203X. Conclusion: The results of the present study have demonstrated the predominant role of M 3 receptor subtype in Ca 2+ sensitization and the relative contribution to ROK and PKC pathways. Our study also shows that the ROK pathway is dominant compared with the PKC pathway after M 2 receptor activation, which in turn is inferior, but not negligible, in producing Ca 2+ sensitization. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Atilola O.,University of Ibadan | Singh Balhara Y.P.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Stevanovic D.,General Hospital Sombor | Avicenna M.,State Islamic University of Jakarta | Kandemir H.,Harran University
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence, pattern, and sociodemographic correlates of self-reported mental health problems among a pilot sample of adolescents from 5 developing countries and to speculate the methodology and design of a larger scale study. Methods: The sociodemographic questionnaire was developed based on extant literature on the sociodemographic correlates of mental health problems among adolescents. Additional information about the socioeconomic status of parents/caregivers of the participants was obtained using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Mental health problems were evaluated using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ). Logistic regression analysis was done to determine independent sociodemographic correlates of mental health problems. Results: A total of 1894 adolescents sampled from 5 countries completed the study. The prevalence of self-reported mental health problems was 10.5% (range, 5.8-15) with conduct and emotional problems being the most prevalent. When the raw total-SDQ scores were adjusted for age, gender, and FAS scores, there was a statistically significant difference in the mean scores among the adolescents from different countries (F = 17.23, p < .001). After controlling for all potential sociodemographic confounders, living with single parents or other nonparent care givers, having a chronic disabling physical condition, lower maternal education, and coming from a family in the lower FAS-score category were all independently associated with higher odds of mental health problems. Conclusions: Study has added to the currently limited data on prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents in developing countries. It further established that socioeconomic and family factors still play a major role in the mental health of children irrespective of region of the world. Significant but surmountable methodological issues for a larger scale study were raised. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Tyastuti D.,Tokyo International University | Onishi H.,Tokyo International University | Ekayanti F.,State Islamic University of Jakarta | Kitamura K.,Tokyo International University
Journal of Interprofessional Care | Year: 2014

Complex health care needs in developing countries are stimulating development and implementation of interprofessional education (IPE). To better understand IPE, it is necessary to develop and evaluate an educational program that focuses on interprofessional learning (IPL) in Indonesia. However, no instrument in the Indonesian language has been developed to measure attitudes toward IPL. The aim of this study is to describe the process of a cross-cultural adaptation of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) in an Indonesian version including determining its reliability and validity. The study was conducted among students enrolled in medical, nursing, pharmacy and public health courses at the State Islamic University, Jakarta, Indonesia, in 2012. The completed responses to RIPLS were collected from 755 students. The psychometric properties were analyzed by both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA on 18-items revealed three factors accounting for 59.9% of the total variance. CFA resulted in a three-factor model over 16 items with satisfactory reliability (alpha coefficients >0.7), construct validity and acceptable indices of goodness of fit. We conclude that this Indonesian version of RIPLS with a three-factor model over 16 items is a valid tool to measure students' attitudes toward IPL. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.

Agus Y.,St. Lukes College of Nursing | Agus Y.,State Islamic University of Jakarta | Horiuchi S.,St. Lukes College of Nursing
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2012

Background: Every year, nearly half a million women and girls needlessly die as a result of complications during pregnancy, childbirth or the 6 weeks following delivery. Almost all (99%) of these deaths occur in developing countries. The study aim was to describe the factors related to low visits for antenatal care (ANC) services among pregnant women in Indonesia.Method: A total of 145 of 200 married women of reproductive age who were pregnant or had experienced birth responded to the questionnaire about their ANC visits. We developed a questionnaire containing 35 items and four sections. Section one and two included the women's socio demographics, section three about basic knowledge of pregnancy and section four contained two subsections about preferences about midwives and preferences about Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA) and the second subsections were traditional beliefs. Data were collected using a convenience sampling strategy during July and August 2010, from 10 villages in the Tanjung Emas. Multiple regression analysis was used for preference for types of providers.Results: Three-quarter of respondents (77.9%) received ANC more than four times. The other 22.1% received ANC less than four times. 59.4% received ANC visits during pregnancy, which was statistically significant compared to multiparous (p = 0.001). Women who were encouraged by their family to receive ANC had statistically significant higher traditional belief scores compared to those who encouraged themselves (p = 0.003). Preference for TBAs was most strongly affected by traditional beliefs (p < 0.001). On the contrary, preference for midwives was negatively correlated with traditional beliefs (p < 0.001).Conclusions: Parity was the factor influencing women's receiving less than the recommended four ANC visits during pregnancy. Women who were encouraged by their family to get ANC services had higher traditional beliefs score than women who encouraged themselves. Moreover, traditional beliefs followed by lower income families had the greater influence over preferring TBAs, with the opposite trend for preferring midwives. Increased attention needs to be given to the women; it also very important for exploring women's perceptions about health services that they received. © 2012 Agus and Horiuchi; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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