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Strand P.,Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority | Strand P.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Aono T.,Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | Brown J.E.,Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology Letters | Year: 2014

Following releases from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), contention has arisen over the potential radiological impact on wildlife. Under the auspices of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, a suite of recently developed approaches was applied to calculate exposure and thereafter infer effects on wildlife through comparison with compiled dose-response relationships. Only macroalgae (accumulated dose of 7 Gy) substantially exceeded its corresponding benchmark. We inferred that although effects on sensitive end points in individual plants and animals might have occurred in the weeks directly following the accident in relatively contaminated areas, impacts on population integrity would have been unlikely because of the short duration of the most highly elevated exposures. The conclusions of the assessment are incongruous with recent field observations of effects on some animal species, the cause of which has been reportedly exposures from FDNPS releases. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source


Batlle J.V.,Belgian Nuclear Research Center | Aono T.,Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | Brown J.E.,Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority | Hosseini A.,Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

An international study under the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was performed to assess radiological impact of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) on the marine environment. This work constitutes the first international assessment of this type, drawing upon methodologies that incorporate the most up-to-date radioecological models and knowledge.To quantify the radiological impact on marine wildlife, a suite of state-of-the-art approaches to assess exposures to Fukushima derived radionuclides of marine biota, including predictive dynamic transfer modelling, was applied to a comprehensive dataset consisting of over 500 sediment, 6000 seawater and 5000 biota data points representative of the geographically relevant area during the first year after the accident. The dataset covers the period from May 2011 to August 2012. The method used to evaluate the ecological impact consists of comparing dose (rates) to which living species of interest are exposed during a defined period to critical effects values arising from the literature.The assessed doses follow a highly variable pattern and generally do not seem to indicate the potential for effects. A possible exception of a transient nature is the relatively contaminated area in the vicinity of the discharge point, where effects on sensitive endpoints in individual plants and animals might have occurred in the weeks directly following the accident. However, impacts on population integrity would have been unlikely due to the short duration and the limited space area of the initially high exposures. Our understanding of the biological impact of radiation on chronically exposed plants and animals continues to evolve, and still needs to be improved through future studies in the FDNPS marine environment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kryshev A.I.,State Institution Research and Production Association Typhoon | Sazykina T.G.,State Institution Research and Production Association Typhoon
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2012

Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the "dose rate - effects" relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d -1 for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d -1 for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d -1 for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale "dose rate - effects" and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Kryshev I.I.,State Institution Research and Production Association Typhoon | Kryshev A.I.,State Institution Research and Production Association Typhoon | Sazykina T.G.,State Institution Research and Production Association Typhoon
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2012

Estimates of radiation dose rates are presented for marine biota in March-May 2011 in the coastal zone near Fukushima NPP, and in the open sea. Calculations of fish contamination were made using two methods: a concentration factor approach, and a dynamic model. For representative marine organisms (fish and molluscs) the radiation dose rates did not exceed the reference level of 10 mGy/day. At a distance 30 km from the NPP, in the open sea the radiation doses for marine biota were much lower than those in the coastal zone near the NPP. Comparative estimates are presented for radiation doses to aquatic organisms in the exclusion zones of the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trail, and the Chernobyl NPP. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Popov V.E.,State Institution Research and Production Association Typhoon | Ilicheva N.S.,State Institution Research and Production Association Typhoon | Maslova K.M.,State Institution Research and Production Association Typhoon | Stepina I.A.,State Institution Research and Production Association Typhoon
Eurasian Soil Science | Year: 2011

The dynamic method was proposed for studying the kinetics of 137Cs selective sorption by the measurement of the 137Cs activity directly in the sorbent solid phase. A thin layer of the sorbent in a disposable syringe membrane filter (MF) was eluted with a 137Cs solution containing K + and Ca 2+ ions with a gradual decrease in the solution flow rate from 6 to 0. 2 cm 3/min. The activity of the sorbed 137Cs was determined periodically by placing the same MF in the detector well of a Wizard 1480 gamma counter. It was shown that the masses of the sorbent and water in the MF had no effect on the efficiency of the 137Cs measurement. A linear relationship between the RIP(K) value and the square root of the time for the period between 4 and 30 days was revealed using this method. The relative increase in the RIP(K) with time changed by 6 times (from 0.034 to 0.208 days -0.5) for the soils and by 20 times (from 0.008 to 0.153 days -0.5) for the mineral sorbents. The RIP(K) values measured for the interaction of soddy-podzolic soils with 137Cs during 24 hours using the standard limited volume method were lower than the values determined by the proposed dynamic method for the interaction period of 30 days by 50-100%. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

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