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Weber C.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Hametner C.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Tuchscherer A.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Losand B.,State Institute of Animal Production | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Insufficient feed intake during early lactation results in elevated body fat mobilization to meet energy demands for milk production. Hepatic energy metabolism is involved by increasing endogenous glucose production and hepatic glucose output for milk synthesis and by adaptation of postcalving fuel oxidation. Given that cows differ in their degree of fat mobilization around parturition, indicated by variable total liver fat concentration (LFC), the study investigated the influence of peripartum fat mobilization on hepatic gene expression involved in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and cholesterol synthesis, as well as transcriptional factors referring to energy metabolism. German Holstein cows were grouped according to mean total LFC on d 1, 14, and 28 after parturition as low [<200. mg of total fat/g of dry matter (DM); n = 10], medium (200-300. mg of total fat/g of DM; n = 10), and high (>300. mg of total fat/g of DM; n = 7), indicating fat mobilization during early lactation. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum and held under equal conditions. Liver biopsies were taken at d 56 and 15 before and d 1, 14, 28, and 49 after parturition to measure mRNA abundances of pyruvate carboxylase (PC); phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; glucose-6-phosphatase; propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase α; carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A (CPT1A); acyl-CoA synthetase, long chain 1 (ASCL1); acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 and 2; sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1; and peroxisome proliferator-activated factor α. Total LFC postpartum differed greatly among cows, and the mRNA abundance of most enzymes and transcription factors changed with time during the experimental period. Abundance of PC mRNA increased at parturition to a greater extent in high- and medium-LFC groups than in the low-LFC group. Significant LFC × time interactions for ACSL1 and CPT1A during the experimental period indicated variable gene expression depending on LFC after parturition. Correlations between hepatic gene expression and performance data and plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones showed time-specific relations during the transition period. Elevated body fat mobilization during early lactation affected gene expression involved in gluconeogenesis to a greater extent than gene expression involved in lipid metabolism, indicating the dependence of hepatic glucose metabolism on hepatic lipid status and fat mobilization during early lactation. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.


Lohrenz A.-K.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Duske K.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Schonhusen U.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Losand B.,State Institute of Animal Production | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

Diets containing corn starch may improve glucose supply by providing significant amounts of intestinal starch and increasing intestinal glucose absorption in dairy cows. Glucose absorption in the small intestine requires specific glucose transporters; that is, sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and facilitated glucose transporter (GLUT2), which are usually downregulated in the small intestine of functional ruminants but are upregulated when luminal glucose is available. We tested the hypothesis that mRNA and protein expression of intestinal glucose transporters and mRNA expression of enzymes related to gluconeogenesis are affected by variable starch supply. Dairy cows (n = 9/group) were fed for 4 wk total mixed rations (TMR) containing either high (HS) or low (LS) starch levels in the diet. Feed intake and milk yield were measured daily. After slaughter, tissue samples of the small intestinal mucosa (mid-duodenum and mid-jejunum) were taken for determination of mRNA concentrations of SGLT1 and GLUT2 as well as pyruvate carboxylase, cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase by real-time reverse transcription PCR relative to a housekeeping gene. Protein expression of GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in brush-border membrane vesicles was quantified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and immunoblot. A mixed model was used to examine feeding and time-related changes on feed intake and milk yield and to test feeding and gut site effects on gene or protein expression of glucose transporters and enzymes in the intestinal mucosa. Dry matter intake, but not energy intake, was higher in cows fed HS compared with LS. Abundance of SGLT1 mRNA tended to be higher in duodenal than in jejunal mucosa, and mRNA abundances of pyruvate carboxylase tended to be higher in jejunal than in duodenal mucosa. In brush-border membrane vesicles, SGLT1 and GLUT2 protein expression could be demonstrated. No diet-dependent differences were found concerning mRNA and protein contents of glucose transporter or mRNA level of gluconeogenic enzymes. In conclusion, our investigations on glucose transporters and gluconeogenic enzymes in the small intestinal mucosa of dairy cows did not show significant diet regulation when TMR with different amounts of intestinal starch were fed. Therefore, predicted intestinal glucose absorption after enhanced starch feeding is probably not supported by changes of intestinal glucose transporters in dairy cows. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association.


Lohrenz A.-K.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Duske K.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Schneider F.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Nurnberg K.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Feeding rumen-protected fat (RPF) can improve energy supply for dairy cows but it affects glucose metabolism. Glucose availability is a precondition for high milk production in dairy cows. Therefore, this study investigated endocrine regulation of glucose homeostasis and hepatic gene expression related to glucose production because of RPF feeding in lactating cows. Eighteen Holstein dairy cows during second lactation were fed either a diet containing RPF (mainly C16:0 and C18:1; FD; n=9) or a control diet based on corn starch (SD; n=9) for 4 wk starting at 98 d in milk (DIM). Feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition once a week. Blood samples were taken weekly for analyses of plasma triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, bilirubin, urea, lactate, glucose, insulin, and glucagon. At 124 DIM, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT; 1g/kg of BW0.75) was performed after a 12-h period without food. Blood samples were taken before and 7, 14, 21, and 28min after glucose administration, and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured. Glucose half-life as well as areas under the concentration curve for glucose, insulin, and glucagon were calculated. After slaughter at d 28 of treatment, liver samples were taken to measure mRNA abundance of pyruvate carboxylase, cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and facilitative glucose transporter 2. Dry matter intake, but not energy and protein intake, was lower in FD than in SD. Milk yield during lactation decreased more in SD than in FD, and milk protein was lower in FD than in SD. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides and NEFA were higher in FD than in SD. Plasma insulin concentrations were lower and the glucagon:insulin ratios were higher in FD than in SD. Fasting glucose concentration before GTT was lower, and fasting glucagon concentrations tended to be higher in FD than in SD. In liver, fat content tended to be higher and G6Pase mRNA abundance was lower in FD than in SD. Lower hepatic G6Pase mRNA abundance was associated with reduced fasting plasma glucose concentrations, but the glucose-induced insulin response was not affected by RPF feeding. Hepatic G6Pase gene expression might be affected by DMI and might be involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in dairy cows, resulting in a lower hepatic glucose output after RPF feeding. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.


Weber C.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Hametner C.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Tuchscherer A.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Losand B.,State Institute of Animal Production | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Fat mobilization to meet energy requirements during early lactation is inevitable because of insufficient feed intake, but differs greatly among high-yielding dairy cows. Therefore, we studied milk production, feed intake, and body condition as well as metabolic and endocrine changes in high-yielding dairy cows to identify variable strategies in metabolic and endocrine adaptation to overcome postpartum metabolic load attributable to milk production. Cows used in this study varied in fat mobilization around calving, as classified by mean total liver fat concentrations (LFC) postpartum. German Holstein cows (n=27) were studied from dry off until d 63 postpartum in their third lactation. All cows were fed the same total mixed rations ad libitum during the dry period and lactation. Plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones were measured in blood samples taken at d 56, 28, 15, and 5 before expected calving and at d 1 and once weekly up to d 63 postpartum. Liver biopsies were taken on d 56 and 15 before calving, and on d 1, 14, 28, and 49 postpartum to measure LFC and glycogen concentrations. Cows were grouped accordingly to mean total LFC on d 1, 14, and 28 in high, medium, and low fat-mobilizing cows. Mean LFC (±SEM) differed among groups and were 351±14, 250±10, and 159±9. mg/g of dry matter for high, medium, and low fat-mobilizing cows, respectively, whereas hepatic glycogen concentrations postpartum were the highest in low fat-mobilizing cows. Cows in the low group showed the highest dry matter intake and the least negative energy balance postpartum, but energy-corrected milk yield was similar among groups. The decrease in body weight postpartum was greatest in high fat-mobilizing cows, but the decrease in backfat thickness was greatest in medium fat-mobilizing cows. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were highest around calving in high fat-mobilizing cows. Plasma triglycerides were highest in the medium group and plasma cholesterol concentrations were lowest in the high group at calving. During early lactation, the decrease in plasma glucose concentrations was greatest in the high group, and plasma insulin concentrations postpartum were highest in the low group. The revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index values decreased during the transition period and postpartum, and were highest in the medium group. Plasma cortisol concentrations during the transition period and postpartum period and plasma leptin concentrations were highest in the medium group. In conclusion, cows adapted differently to the metabolic load and used variable strategies for homeorhetic regulation of milk production. Differences in fat mobilization were part of these strategies and contributed to the individual adaptation of energy metabolism to milk production. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.


Weber C.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Losand B.,State Institute of Animal Production | Tuchscherer A.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Rehbock F.,State Institute of Animal Production | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

Dry period (DP) length affects energy metabolism around calving in dairy cows as well as milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of the study was to investigate milk production, body condition, metabolic adaptation, and hepatic gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in Holstein cows (>10,000. kg milk/305. d) with 28- (n. = 18), 56- (n. = 18), and 90-d DP (n. = 22) length (treatment groups) in a commercial farm. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum adjusted for far-off (not for 28-d DP) and close-up DP and lactation. Milk yield was recorded daily and body condition score (BCS), back fat thickness (BFT), and body weight (BW) were determined at dry off, 1. wk before expected and after calving, and on wk 2, 4, and 8 postpartum (pp). Blood samples were taken on d -56, -28, -7, 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56 relative to calving to measure plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Liver biopsies (n. = 11 per treatment) were taken on d -10 and 10 relative to calving to determine glycogen and total liver fat concentration (LFC) and to quantify mRNA levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase. Time course of milk yield during first 8. wk in lactation differed among treatment. Milk protein content was higher in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Milk fat to protein ratio was highest and milk urea was lowest in 90-d DP cows. Differences in BW, BFT, and BCS were predominantly seen before calving with greatest BW, BFT, and BCS in 90-d DP cows. Plasma concentrations of NEFA and BHBA were elevated during the transition period in all cows, and the greatest increase pp was seen in 90-d DP cows. Plasma glucose concentration decreased around calving and was greater in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Dry period length also affected plasma concentrations of urea, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Plasma insulin concentration decreased around calving in all cows, but insulin concentration pp was greater in 28-d than in 56-d DP cows. Hepatic glycogen concentration decreased and LFC increased after calving in all cows, and LFC was greater pp in 90-d DP than in 28-d DP cows. Hepatic PC mRNA abundance pp tended to increase most in 90-d DP cows. Changes on glucose metabolism were more balanced in cows with a reduced DP, whereas cows with extended DP and elevated body condition indicated greatest metabolic changes according to lipid and glucose metabolism during the transition period. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.

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