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Pratt I.S.,Food Safety Authority of Ireland | Anderson W.A.,Food Safety Authority of Ireland | Crowley D.,Public Health Medicine | Daly S.F.,Coombe Womens Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg -1fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g -1fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g -1fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Van Bavel B.,Örebro University | Geng D.,Örebro University | Cherta L.,Jaume I University | Nacher-Mestre J.,Jaume I University | And 15 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

The use of a new atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization source for gas chromatography (APGC) coupled with a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) system, as an alternative to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), for the determination of PCDDs/PCDFs is described. The potential of using atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) coupled to a tandem quadrupole analyzer has been validated for the identification and quantification of dioxins and furans in different complex matrices. The main advantage of using the APCI source is the soft ionization at atmospheric pressure, which results in very limited fragmentation. APCI mass spectra are dominated by the molecular ion cluster, in contrast with the high energy ionization process under electron ionization (EI). The use of the molecular ion as the precursor ion in MS/MS enhances selectivity and, consequently, sensitivity by increasing the signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). For standard solutions of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, injections of 10 fg in the splitless mode on 30- or 60-m-length, 0.25 mm inner diameter (id), and 25 μm film thickness low-polarity capillary columns (DB5MS type), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of >10:1 were routinely obtained. Linearity was achieved in the region (correlation coefficient of r2 > 0.998) for calibration curves ranging from 100 fg/μL to 1000 pg/μL. The results from a wide variety of complex samples, including certified and standard reference materials and samples from several QA/QC studies, which were previously analyzed by EI HRGC/HRMS, were compared with the results from the APGC/MS/MS system. Results between instruments showed good agreement both in individual congeners and toxic equivalence factors (TEQs). The data show that the use of APGC in combination with MS/MS for the analysis of dioxins has the same potential, in terms of sensitivity and selectivity, as the traditional HRMS instrumentation used for this analysis. However, the APCI/MS/MS system, as a benchtop system, is much easier to use. (Figure Presented). © 2015 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | Institute of Food Safety, CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research, Örebro University, State Institute for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Analytical chemistry | Year: 2015

The use of a new atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization source for gas chromatography (APGC) coupled with a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) system, as an alternative to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), for the determination of PCDDs/PCDFs is described. The potential of using atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) coupled to a tandem quadrupole analyzer has been validated for the identification and quantification of dioxins and furans in different complex matrices. The main advantage of using the APCI source is the soft ionization at atmospheric pressure, which results in very limited fragmentation. APCI mass spectra are dominated by the molecular ion cluster, in contrast with the high energy ionization process under electron ionization (EI). The use of the molecular ion as the precursor ion in MS/MS enhances selectivity and, consequently, sensitivity by increasing the signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). For standard solutions of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, injections of 10 fg in the splitless mode on 30- or 60-m-length, 0.25 mm inner diameter (id), and 25 m film thickness low-polarity capillary columns (DB5MS type), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of >10:1 were routinely obtained. Linearity was achieved in the region (correlation coefficient of r(2) > 0.998) for calibration curves ranging from 100 fg/L to 1000 pg/L. The results from a wide variety of complex samples, including certified and standard reference materials and samples from several QA/QC studies, which were previously analyzed by EI HRGC/HRMS, were compared with the results from the APGC/MS/MS system. Results between instruments showed good agreement both in individual congeners and toxic equivalence factors (TEQs). The data show that the use of APGC in combination with MS/MS for the analysis of dioxins has the same potential, in terms of sensitivity and selectivity, as the traditional HRMS instrumentation used for this analysis. However, the APCI/MS/MS system, as a benchtop system, is much easier to use.


Fiedler H.,UNEP DTIE Chemicals Branch | Abad E.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | van Bavel B.,Örebro University | de Boer J.,VU University Amsterdam | And 2 more authors.
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) established an effectiveness evaluation to assess the efficiency of measures taken by Parties under the Convention. Among these measures, a Global Monitoring Plan requires countries to analyze core matrices for POPs. To assist countries in setting up networks for these core matrices and to generate high-quality, comparable results, the United Nations Environment Program has implemented projects in 32 developing countries. The results demonstrate the worldwide presence of POPs in air and in humans, although at different scales. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Grohmann L.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety | Busch U.,Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority | Pecoraro S.,Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority | Hess N.,Institute for Hygiene and Environment | And 2 more authors.
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2011

A real-time PCR-based method for construct-specific detection of the genetically modified (GM) linseed event 'CDC Triffid' FP967 originating from Canada has been validated in a collaborative trial. The construct-specific method amplifies a 105 bp long fragment of the transgenic insertion present in FP967 spanning the junction of the terminator region of the nopalin synthase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Tnos) to a sequence region coding for the dehydrofolate reductase gene (dfr) from a class I integron from Escherichia coli. This region is characteristic for the construct used to develop FP967. A total of 11 laboratories participated in the collaborative study. For PCR analysis, each laboratory received 14 DNA samples comprising 7 double-blind DNA samples. The samples consisted of two low GM-levels of FP967 DNA (10 or 50 copies per PCR), of DNA from two different GM-positive linseed products and of DNA from GM-negative linseed, potato and rapeseed materials, respectively. All but one of the FP967-positive DNA samples were detected correctly. No false-positive results were reported. The results demonstrate that the linseed event FP967 is detectable even at low copy number concentrations. The limit of detection (LOD) determined with plasmid DNA was shown to be at 5 copies of the Tnos-dfr sequence. The data provided show that the method can be applied successfully in different laboratories and is fit-for-purpose to test for the presence of the EU-unauthorised linseed event 'CDC Triffid' FP967. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Schlumpf M.,University of Zürich | Kypke K.,State Institute for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food | Wittassek M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Angerer J.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | And 5 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

In order to assess potential risks of exposure to environmental chemicals, more information on concomitant exposure to different chemicals is needed. We present data on chemicals in human milk of a cohort study (2004, 2005, 2006) of 54 mother/child pairs, where for the first time, cosmetic UV filters, synthetic musks, parabens and phthalate metabolites were analyzed in the same sample along with persistent organochlor pollutants (POPs), i.e., organochlor pesticides and metabolites, polybrominated diphenylethers and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The two groups of chemicals exhibited different exposure patterns. Six out of seven PCB congeners and a majority of pesticides were present in all milk samples, with significant correlations between certain PCB congener and pesticide levels, whereas the cosmetic-derived compounds, UV filters, parabens and synthetic musks, exhibited a more variable exposure pattern with inter-individual differences. UV filters were present in 85.2% of milk samples, in the range of PCB levels. Comparison with a questionnaire revealed a significant correlation between use of products containing UV filters and their presence in milk for two frequently used and detected UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor and octocrylene, and for the whole group of UV filters. Concentrations of PCBs and organochlor pesticides were within ranges seen in Western and Southern European countries. For several POPs, mean and/or maximum daily intake calculated from individual concentrations was above recent US EPA reference dose values. Our data emphasize the need for analyses of complex mixtures to obtain more information on inter-individual and temporal variability of human exposure to different types of chemicals. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Wageningen University, State Institute for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food, Federal University of Minas Gerais and University of Liège
Type: | Journal: Journal of chromatography. A | Year: 2016

Recently, gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been added in European Union (EU) legislation as an alternative to magnetic sector high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the analysis of dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) in food and feed. In this study the performance of APGC-MS/MS compared to GC-HRMS is investigated and compared with EU legislation. The study includes the legislative parameters, relative intermediate precision standard deviation (S

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