State Hydraulic Works

Adana, Turkey

State Hydraulic Works

Adana, Turkey

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Unal S.,State Hydraulic Works
Advances in Engineering Software | Year: 2010

Air-entraining vortex at intake is an important problem encountered in hydraulic engineering. Intake submergence depth could result in formation of the air-entraining free surface vortices. Unless the dangerous air entrainment is eliminated, air entraining causes mechanical damage, vibration in pipelines and loss of pump performance. The value of the intake's submergence when the vortex starts entraining air is known as "critical submergence". In this study, the critical submergence for a circular intake pipe in still-water and open channel flow for permeable and impermeable bottom was investigated. Experimental results were used to compare with critical spherical sink surface (CSSS), radial basis function based neural network (RBNN) and general linear model (GLM). The CSSS has the same center and discharge as the intake with the critical submergence. The GLM underlies most of the statistical analyses that are used in applied research. And the RBNN is one of the most used network models. The ranking of prediction on critical submergence is obtained as RBNN, GLM and CSSS, respectively. Crown Copyright © 2009.


Agi Dagi Net Present Value Increased 240% with After-Tax IRR of 39%; Robust Initial Economics Outlined for Camyurt TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - Feb. 22, 2017) - Alamos Gold Inc. (TSX:AGI)(NYSE:AGI) ("Alamos" or the "Company") today reported results from the positive feasibility study conducted on its Ağı Dağı gold project, located in the Canakkale Province in northwestern Turkey. The study is a continuation of the pre-feasibility study completed on the project in 2012. The Company also reported results from a positive preliminary economic assessment ("PEA") completed on its Camyurt gold project, located approximately 4 kilometres ("km") from Ağı Dağı. "With the step-change improvement in Ağı Dağı's economics, we now have three of the highest return, undeveloped gold projects in the world. With Kirazlı, followed by Ağı Dağı and Camyurt, we own a pipeline in Turkey that can provide low cost production and free cash flow growth for more than a decade," said John A. McCluskey, President and Chief Executive Officer. Key Changes from the 2012 Ağı Dağı Pre-Feasibility Study A large portion of the Measured and Indicated mineral resource at Ağı Dağı has been successfully converted to an initial Proven and Probable Mineral Reserve totaling 54.4 million tonnes, grading 0.67 g/t Au and 5.4 g/t Ag, containing 1.17 million ounces of gold and 9.5 million ounces of silver. Compared with the mineral resources included within the pre-feasibility mine plan, the initial mineral reserve is slightly smaller but significantly higher grade. The mineral reserve contains 22% higher gold grades, 21% fewer tonnes and 5% lower contained gold ounces. The mine plan in the pre-feasibility study included Measured and Indicated mineral resources of 69.1 million tonnes grading 0.55 g/t Au and 3.3 g/t Ag, containing 1.23 million ounces of gold and 7.3 million ounces of silver. Of the Inferred mineral resource, approximately 74,000 ounces of gold is contained within the mineral reserve pit and treated as waste in the feasibility mine plan. This represents an opportunity to add to the mine plan with its conversion through additional infill drilling. Mineral Resources at a 0.2 g/t gold cut-off grade - Effective as of December 31, 2016 Ağı Dağı's estimated base case after-tax IRR is 39% and after-tax NPV is $298 million, using an 8% discount rate based on an economic analysis conducted as part of the feasibility study. This represents a 1.9 year payback and assumes a gold price of $1,250 per ounce and silver price of $16.00 per ounce, and incorporates only Proven and Probable mineral reserves. The project's economics are sensitive to discount rates, metal price assumptions and input costs as detailed in the tables below. The Environmental Impact Assessment ("EIA") for Ağı Dağı has been approved by the federal government. The key remaining permits are the Forestry permits which are also granted by the federal government, and the GSM (Business Opening and Operation) permit which is granted by the Canakkale Governorship. The Company has not started pursuing the Forestry or GSM permits with the current focus on completing the permitting process at Kirazlı and proceeding with its development. Incorporating the Camyurt project into Ağı Dağı would require the submission and approval of an amended EIA. The Company expects to first develop Kirazlı and then utilize cash flows from that operation to help fund development of Ağı Dağı. Following a construction decision, the Company expects a 36 month development timeline for Ağı Dağı, including approximately three months of pre-commercial production. The critical path task for the completion of the Ağı Dağı project will be the construction of the water reservoir. Conventional open pit mining methods will be utilized at Ağı Dağı with contract mining to be employed. Ağı Dağı is comprised of two deposits which form the Baba and Deli pits. Baba and Deli are located approximately 2.5 km apart. The final pit designs are based on a 5 metre ("m") bench height. A traditional drill, blast, load and haul sequence will be used to deliver ore to the crushing circuit. Waste produced over the life of the mine will be used as engineered fill for the leach pad foundation, primarily during the pre-production phase, trucked to the waste rock dump located directly north of the Deli pit, or backfilled into the pits once the ultimate pit bottoms are achieved. As with Kirazlı, an opportunity to improve the design of the pit slopes at Ağı Dağı was outlined in the 2012 pre-feasibility study and additional geotechnical work was subsequently undertaken. The geotechnical evaluation was based on core logging, point load testing and laboratory analysis of the geotechnical core holes. Based on the findings, the recommended inter-ramp/overall pit slope angles have been increased to a range of 35 to 48° depending on the sector of the pits with all but one of the sectors between 40 and 48°. This has reduced the amount of waste to be mined resulting in a lower life of mine waste-to-ore ratio of 1.03:1, from 1.16:1 in the 2012 pre-feasibility study. This has helped reduce the mining cost per tonne of ore and improved the overall economics of the project. Ağı Dağı has been designed as a 30,000 tonnes per day ("tpd") heap leach operation utilizing a multiple lift, single use leach pad. Ore will be mined from both the Baba and Deli pits and processed through two primary crushers, one located near each pit. The primary crushed ore will then be conveyed to a central secondary crushing circuit where it will be crushed to a nominal size of 26 millimetres. The secondary crushed ore will be drum agglomerated, stacked on the leach pad by conveyor stacking and processed with conventional heap leaching methods. The crushed ore will be stacked in 10 m lifts with the leach pad facility to be constructed in three phases to an ultimate height of 70 m. Phase 1 will have a capacity of 29.7 million tonnes, phase 2, a capacity of 19.8 million tonnes, and phase 3, a capacity of 24.1 million tonnes for an ultimate capacity of 73.6 million tonnes. This is approximately 19.2 million tonnes larger than the current mineral reserve of 54.4 million tonnes to accommodate future potential exploration success and the current 16.6 million tonnes of ore included within the PEA mine plan for Camyurt. The capital required for all three phases is included within the total life of mine capital estimate for Ağı Dağı. A dilute cyanide solution will be applied to the crushed ore over a 90 day leaching cycle with the pregnant solution collected and processed through the adsorption-desorption-recovery ("ADR") plant where gold and silver doré will be produced. Based on column tests conducted on the different alteration types at Ağı Dağı, gold and silver recoveries are expected to average 80% and 25%, respectively. Ağı Dağı will be supplied with power by connecting to commercial power. Overhead power lines will connect 34.5 kV, three phase and 50 Hz power system to a metering and switching substation located on site near each primary crusher. In the event of a power failure, a diesel-fired backup generator will be used to supply emergency power. Operational water will be supplied via a pipeline from a planned reservoir to be constructed by Alamos. The reservoir for Ağı Dağı will be independent of the reservoir to be constructed for the Kirazlı project. In conjunction with the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs - State Hydraulic Works ("DSI"), a water reservoir project has been designed to supply the process water requirements of the Ağı Dağı project and clean drinking water for the nearby communities. The feasibility study on the reservoir project has been approved by DSI. Total cash costs are expected to average $374 per ounce of gold and mine-site all-in sustaining costs $411 per ounce, net of silver as a by-product credit. Similar to Kirazlı, these are both among the lowest in the industry. Total unit costs per tonne of ore processed are expected to average $6.46 per tonne. This is down from $8.85 per tonne assumed in the 2012 pre-feasibility study reflecting the depreciation of the Turkish Lira, lower unit mining costs per tonne of material, and a lower waste-to-ore ratio. Unit mining costs have decreased to $1.72 per tonne of material with the application of Turkish mining contractor rates. This compares to $3.21 per tonne assumed in the 2012 pre-feasibility study which reflected North American mining costs. Unit mining costs per tonne of material at Ağı Dağı are expected to be slightly higher than Kirazlı reflecting longer haulage distances. Approximately 60% of Ağı Dağı's operating and capital costs are denominated in Turkish Lira. Of the remaining 40%, the majority is denominated in US dollars. The breakdown of unit costs is summarized as follows. Ağı Dağı and Camyurt are subject to a Mining State Right Royalty payable to the Turkish government. It is a top line sliding scale royalty based on the price of gold with a 50% deduction to the royalty for producing doré in country. Including certain other eligible deductions available for expenses related to transportation and processing costs, the Company expects the gross royalty of 4% would be reduced to a net payable royalty of approximately 1.5% (at a $1,250 per ounce gold price). In addition to the State Right Royalty, production from Ağı Dağı and Camyurt is subject to a 2% net smelter return ("NSR") royalty payable to Franco-Nevada Corporation. Initial capital cost of $250 million is down 10% from the $278 million assumed in the 2012 pre-feasibility study primarily reflecting lower capital required for pre-stripping. With good infrastructure and the ability to connect to the commercial electricity grid, the bulk of pre-production capital will be spent on construction of the leach pad, crushing circuit, process plant facilities, water management and the reservoir. The construction workforce is expected to ramp up to a maximum of 735 personnel and average approximately 500 over the peak phase of construction. Following a construction decision, the Company expects a 36 month development timeline, including approximately three months of pre-commercial production. A breakdown of the capital requirements is detailed as follows. The statutory corporate tax rate in Turkey is 20%; however, the Company expects to benefit from tax investment incentives that have been implemented by the Turkish Government to reduce the corporate tax rate on the Ağı Dağı project to 2%. Effective June 19, 2012, the Turkish Government legislated certain tax investment incentives designed to promote investment in specific industries and regions of Turkey. The Company has evaluated these investment incentives in consultation with a recognized international accounting firm and the Turkish Government, and expects that the Ağı Dağı project will qualify for the following incentives on successful application: Under the incentive program, the Company is expected to be eligible for a reduction to the corporate tax rate, resulting in an effective corporate tax rate of 2% over the current life of the Ağı Dağı based on the gold and silver price assumptions used in the financial analysis. For the purpose of the feasibility study, the Company has only incorporated the corporate tax rate reduction into the economic analysis. The Ağı Dağı project consists of 10,514 hectares and is located in the Canakkale Province on the Biga Peninsula of northwestern Turkey. The project is located approximately 50 km southeast of Canakkale, the largest centre on the Biga Peninsula with a population of approximately 100,000. There is excellent, well-serviced infrastructure in close proximity to the project with paved roads, electricity, transmission lines, and electricity generating facilities, the most significant being a large coal-fired power plant adjacent to the nearby Town of Can, which has a population of approximately 30,000. The Camyurt project is located approximately 4 km southeast of Ağı Dağı and is expected to utilize its processing infrastructure. The Company also owns the Kirazlı development project, located approximately 25 km northwest of Ağı Dağı. Both Kirazlı and Ağı Dağı are standalone open pit heap leach projects. The PEA for Camyurt was conducted on the basis that the project will have minimal standalone infrastructure. Ore from Camyurt will be mined and trucked approximately 8 km to be processed through the infrastructure at Ağı Dağı once the Baba and Deli pits have been mined out. As more detailed economic studies are completed on Camyurt, there are opportunities to both accelerate the processing of the Camyurt ore before the end of the mine life at Ağı Dağı and build a standalone crushing circuit and leach pad facility at Camyurt which would reduce haulage and mining costs. The PEA for Camyurt is based on the Measured and Indicated mineral resource of 17.7 million tonnes grading 0.89 g/t Au and 6.1 g/t Ag, containing 0.51 million ounces of gold and 3.5 million ounces of silver. The mine plan in the PEA incorporates Measured and Indicated mineral resources of 16.6 million tonnes grading 0.92 g/t Au and 6.3 g/t Ag, containing 0.49 million ounces of gold and 3.4 million ounces of silver. The mineable ounces were determined using an optimized pit shell based on gold and silver price assumptions of $1,200 and $18.00 per ounce, respectively. An Inferred mineral resource of 55,000 ounces of gold and 298,000 ounces of silver is contained within the pit shell and treated as waste in the PEA mine plan. This represents an opportunity to add to the mine plan with its conversion through additional infill drilling. Mineral Resources at a 0.2 g/t gold cut-off grade - Effective as of December 31, 2016 Camyurt's estimated base case after-tax IRR is 253% and after-tax NPV is $86 million, using an 8% discount rate based on an economic analysis conducted as part of the PEA. This represents a 1.4 year payback and assumes a gold price of $1,250 per ounce and silver price of $16.00 per ounce, and incorporates only Measured and Indicated mineral resources. The project's economics are sensitive to discount rates, metal price assumptions and input costs as detailed in the tables below. Camyurt is not covered under the EIA that was completed and approved by the federal government for Ağı Dağı. Incorporating the Camyurt project into Ağı Dağı will require a new EIA submission or an amendment to the existing Ağı Dağı EIA. Conventional open pit mining methods will be utilized at Camyurt with contract mining to be employed as with Ağı Dağı. The final pit designs are based on a 5 m bench height. A traditional drill, blast, load and haul sequence will be used to deliver ore to the crushing circuit at Ağı Dağı. Waste produced over the life of the mine will be sent to the waste rock dump located near the Camyurt pit, or backfilled into the pit once the ultimate pit bottom has been achieved. Camyurt has been designed as a 15,000 tpd mining operation with ore to be hauled approximately 8 km to the crushing circuit at Ağı Dağı where it will be processed by primary and secondary crushing to a nominal size of 26 millimetres. The secondary crushed ore will be drum agglomerated, stacked on the leach pad by conveyor stacking and processed with conventional heap leaching methods. The crushed ore will be stacked in 10 m lifts on the Ağı Dağı leach pad facility which will be expanded in three phases and have an ultimate capacity of 73.6 million tonnes. This is sufficient to accommodate the 54.4 million tonne Ağı Dağı mineral reserve and 16.6 million tonnes of ore included in the PEA mine plan for Camyurt. A dilute cyanide solution will be applied to the crushed ore over a 90 day leaching cycle with the pregnant solution collected and processed through the ADR plant where gold and silver doré will be produced. Based on column tests conducted on the different alteration types at Camyurt, gold and silver recoveries are expected to average 76% and 48%, respectively. Total cash costs are expected to average $604 per ounce of gold and mine-site all-in sustaining costs $645 per ounce, net of silver as a by-product credit. Total unit costs per tonne of ore processed are expected to average $14.03 per tonne. This is higher than Ağı Dağı reflecting higher unit mining costs per tonne of material, a higher waste-to-ore ratio and higher administration costs with Camyurt being a smaller tonnage operation. Unit mining costs of $3.31 per tonne moved are higher than that of $1.72 per tonne estimated at Ağı Dağı, primarily reflecting the longer haulage distances with ore to be trucked to the crushing circuit at Ağı Dağı. Approximately 60% of Camyurt's operating and capital costs are denominated in the Turkish Lira. Of the remaining 40%, the majority is denominated in US dollars. The breakdown of unit costs is summarized as follows. Initial capital is estimated to be $10 million. The life of mine capital, including sustaining capital and closure costs, is estimated to be $26 million. With ore to be trucked to Ağı Dağı for processing, minimal infrastructure is required. In addition, the estimated capital for Ağı Dağı includes a leach pad expansion which is expected to provide enough capacity for all ore to be processed from Camyurt in the PEA mine plan. A breakdown of the capital requirements is detailed as follows. As with Ağı Dağı, Camyurt is subject to the same Mining State Right Royalty payable to the Turkish government, and a 2% NSR royalty payable to Franco-Nevada. Given the small initial capital required to develop Camyurt, and the minimal impact of tax incentives, the Company expects it will be taxed at the statutory rate of 20% for the majority of the life of the project. The feasibility study for the Ağı Dağı project and preliminary economic assessment for the Camyurt project was consolidated by JDS Energy & Mining Inc. ("JDS"), an international engineering firm with extensive experience in both the construction and operation of mining projects, in collaboration with third party consulting firms and Alamos Gold's technical team. Chris Bostwick, FAusIMM, Alamos Gold's Vice President, Technical Services, has reviewed and approved the scientific and technical information contained in this news release. Chris Bostwick is a Qualified Person within the meaning of Canadian Securities Administrator's National Instrument 43-101 ("NI 43-101"). The Feasibility Study has been prepared by several independent Qualified Persons (QPs) along with Alamos' internal technical staff. With the exception of Mr. Cormier and Mr. Bostwick, each of the foregoing individuals are independent of Alamos Gold. They are all Qualified Persons within the meaning of NI 43-101. The Company expects to file a technical report prepared in accordance with NI 43-101 on SEDAR at www.sedar.com within 45 days of the date of this release. Alamos is a Canadian-based intermediate gold producer with diversified production from three operating mines in North America. This includes the Young-Davidson mine in northern Ontario, Canada and the Mulatos and El Chanate mines in Sonora State, Mexico. Additionally, the Company has a significant portfolio of development stage projects in Canada, Mexico, Turkey, and the United States. Alamos employs more than 1,300 people and is committed to the highest standards of sustainable development. The Company's shares are traded on the TSX and NYSE under the symbol "AGI". The TSX and NYSE have not reviewed and do not accept responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. Cautionary Note to U.S. Investors - Mineral Reserve and Resource Estimates All resource and reserve estimates included in this news release or documents referenced in this news release have been prepared in accordance with Canadian National Instrument 43-101 - Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects ("NI 43-101") and the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (the "CIM") - CIM Definition Standards on Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves, adopted by the CIM Council, as amended (the "CIM Standards"). NI 43-101 is a rule developed by the Canadian Securities Administrators, which established standards for all public disclosure an issuer makes of scientific and technical information concerning mineral projects. The terms "mineral reserve", "proven mineral reserve" and "probable mineral reserve" are Canadian mining terms as defined in accordance with NI 43-101 and the CIM Standards. These definitions differ materially from the definitions in SEC Industry Guide 7 ("SEC Industry Guide 7") under the United States Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Exchange Act. Under SEC Industry Guide 7 standards, a "final" or "bankable" feasibility study is required to report reserves, the three-year historical average price is used in any reserve or cash flow analysis to designate reserves and the primary environmental analysis or report must be filed with the appropriate governmental authority. In addition, the terms "mineral resource", "measured mineral resource", "indicated mineral resource" and "inferred mineral resource" are defined in and required to be disclosed by NI 43-101 and the CIM Standards; however, these terms are not defined terms under SEC Industry Guide 7 and are normally not permitted to be used in reports and registration statements filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). Investors are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of mineral deposits in these categories will ever be converted into reserves. "Inferred mineral resources" have a great amount of uncertainty as to their existence, and great uncertainty as to their economic and legal feasibility. It cannot be assumed that all or any part of an inferred mineral resource will ever be upgraded to a higher category. Under Canadian rules, estimates of inferred mineral resources may not form the basis of feasibility or pre-feasibility studies, except in very limited circumstances. Investors are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of an inferred mineral resource exists or is economically or legally mineable. Disclosure of "contained ounces" in a resource is permitted disclosure under Canadian regulations; however, the SEC normally only permits issuers to report mineralization that does not constitute "reserves" by SEC standards as in place tonnage and grade without reference to unit measures. This news release includes certain "forward-looking statements". All statements other than statements of historical fact included in this release, including without limitation statements regarding outcomes of the Ağı Dağı feasibility study and Camyurt PEA, gold grades, recoveries, potential mineralization, reserves and resources, exploration results, and future plans and objectives of Alamos, are forward-looking statements that involve various risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements with respect to expectations with respect to ongoing exploration, changes in mineral resources and conversion of mineral resources to proven and probable reserves, and other information that is based on forecasts of future operational or financial results, estimates of amounts not yet determinable and assumptions of management. Any statements that express or involve discussions with respect to predictions, expectations, beliefs, plans, projections, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance (often, but not always, using words or phrases such as "expects" or "does not expect", "is expected", "anticipates" or "does not anticipate", "plans", "estimates" or "intends", or stating that certain actions, events or results "may", "could", "would", "might" or "will" be taken, occur or be achieved) are not statements of historical fact and may be "forward-looking statements." Forward-looking statements are subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual events or results to differ from those reflected in the forward-looking statements. There can be no assurance that forward-looking statements will prove to be accurate and actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from Alamos' expectations include, among others, risks related to ongoing permitting requirements in Turkey, risks due to geopolitical risks of operating in Turkey, the actual results of current exploration activities, further conclusions of economic evaluations and changes in project parameters and costs as plans continue to be refined as well as future prices of gold, as well as those factors discussed in the section entitled "Risk Factors" in Alamos' Annual Information Form and other disclosures of "Risk Factors" by Alamos, available on SEDAR and EDGAR. Although Alamos has attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended. There can be no assurance that such statements will prove to be accurate as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.marketwired.com

Net Present Value More than Doubled from 2012 Pre-Feasibility Study with Attractive After-Tax IRR of 44% TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - Feb. 15, 2017) - Alamos Gold Inc. (TSX:AGI)(NYSE:AGI) ("Alamos" or the "Company") today reported results from the positive feasibility study conducted on its Kirazli gold project, located in the Canakkale Province in northwestern Turkey. The study is a continuation of the pre-feasibility study completed on the project in 2012. "This further validates the overall attractiveness of the Kirazli project. Despite using a lower gold and silver price, Kirazli's economics have improved substantially. With its low capital and operating costs and quick payback, Kirazli is one of the highest return, undeveloped gold projects in any price environment. Kirazli represents our next phase of growth and will be a significant source of free cash flow in the coming years," said John A. McCluskey, President and Chief Executive Officer. A large portion of the Measured and Indicated mineral resource at Kirazli has been successfully converted to an initial Proven and Probable Mineral Reserve totaling 26.1 million tonnes, grading 0.79 g/t Au and 12.0 g/t Ag, containing 0.67 million ounces of gold and 10.1 million ounces of silver. This initial mineral reserve represents an increase in terms of grade and contained ounces compared to the mine plan in the pre-feasibility study, which included Measured and Indicated mineral resources of 25.6 million tonnes grading 0.75 g/t Au and 11.8 g/t Ag, containing 0.61 million ounces of gold and 9.7 million ounces of silver. The Inferred mineral resource of 0.11 million ounces of gold and 1.6 million ounces of silver contained within the mineral reserve pit is treated as waste in the feasibility mine plan. This represents an opportunity to add to the mine plan with its conversion through additional infill drilling. Mineral Resources at a 0.2g/t gold cut-off grade - Effective as of December 31, 2016 Kirazli's estimated base case after-tax IRR is 44.3% and after-tax NPV is $187 million, using an 8% discount rate based on an economic analysis conducted as part of the feasibility study. This represents a 1.4 year payback and assumes a gold price of $1,250 per ounce and silver price of $16.00 per ounce, and incorporates only Proven and Probable mineral reserves. The project's economics are sensitive to discount rates, metal price assumptions and input costs as detailed in the tables below. With the Environmental Impact Study and Forestry Permits for Kirazli approved by the federal government, the Company is pursuing the GSM (Business Opening and Operation) permit which is granted by the Çanakkale Governorship. The full 2017 development budget for Kirazli will be provided following receipt of the GSM permit. Following a construction decision, the Company expects a 24 month development timeline for Kirazli, including approximately three months of pre-commercial production. Conventional open pit mining methods will be utilized at Kirazli with contract mining to be employed. The final pit designs are based on a 5 metre bench height. A traditional drill, blast, load and haul sequence will be used to deliver ore to the crushing circuit. Waste rock will be used as engineered fill for the leach pad foundation during the early years after which the majority will be sent to the waste rock dump and be used to backfill portions of the pit as the ultimate extents are achieved. An opportunity to improve the design of the pit slopes at Kirazli was outlined in the 2012 pre-feasibility study and additional geotechnical work was subsequently undertaken. The geotechnical evaluation was based on core logging, point load testing and laboratory analysis of the geotechnical core holes. Based on the findings, the recommended inter-ramp/overall pit slope angles have been increased to a range of 40 to 48° depending on the sector of the pit. This has reduced the amount of waste to be mined, significantly lowering the life of mine waste-to-ore ratio to 1.45:1 from 1.83:1 in the 2012 pre-feasibility study. This has helped reduce the mining cost per tonne of ore and improved the overall economics of the project. Kirazli has been designed as a 15,000 tonnes per day ("tpd") heap leach operation utilizing a multiple lift, single use leach pad. Ore will be processed by primary crushing and open circuit secondary crushing to a nominal size of 26 millimetres. The secondary crushed ore will be drum agglomerated, stacked on the leach pad by conveyor stacking and processed with conventional heap leaching methods. The crushed ore will be stacked in 10 metre lifts with the leach pad facility sized with a capacity of 35 million tonnes. This is approximately 8.9 million tonnes larger than the current mineral reserve to accommodate additional ore beyond the current mineral reserves. A dilute cyanide solution will be applied to the crushed ore over a 90 day leaching cycle with the pregnant solution collected and processed through the adsorption-desorption-recovery ("ADR") plant where gold and silver doré bars will be produced. Based on column tests conducted on the different alteration types at Kirazli, gold and silver recoveries are expected to average 81% and 31%, respectively. Power will be supplied from the commercial electricity grid with a new dedicated 30 kilometre long overhead line connecting the Canakkale utility substation to the Kirazli mine substation. In the event of a power failure, a diesel-fired backup generator will be used to supply emergency power. Operational water will be supplied via a pipeline from a planned reservoir to be constructed by Alamos. In conjunction with the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs - State Hydraulic Works ("DSI"), a water reservoir project has been designed to supply the process water requirements of the Kirazli mine and clean drinking water and irrigation for the nearby communities. The feasibility and design of the reservoir project has been approved by DSI. Total cash costs are expected to average $339 per ounce and mine-site all-in sustaining costs $373 per ounce, net of silver as a by-product credit, both among the lowest in the industry. Total unit costs per tonne of ore processed are expected to average $8.49 per tonne. This is down from $12.62 per tonne assumed in the pre-feasibility study reflecting the depreciation of the Turkish Lira, lower unit mining costs per tonne of material, and a lower waste-to-ore ratio. Unit mining costs have decreased to $1.53 per tonne of material with the application of Turkish mining contractor rates. This compares to $2.97 per tonne assumed in the 2012 pre-feasibility study which reflected North American mining costs. Approximately 60% of Kirazli's operating and capital costs are denominated in the Turkish Lira. Of the remaining 40%, the majority is denominated in US dollars. The breakdown of unit costs is summarized as follows. Kirazli is subject to a Mining State Right Royalty payable to the Turkish government. It is a top line sliding scale royalty based on the price of gold with a 50% deduction to the royalty for producing doré in country. Including certain other eligible deductions available for expenses related to transportation and processing costs, the Company expects the gross royalty of 4% would be reduced to a net payable royalty of approximately 1.5% (at a $1,250 per ounce gold price). Initial capital cost of $152 million is consistent with the $146 million assumed in the 2012 pre-feasibility study. With good infrastructure and the ability to connect to the commercial electricity grid, the bulk of pre-production capital will be spent on construction of the leach pad, crushing circuit, process plant facilities, water management and the reservoir. The construction workforce is expected to ramp up to a maximum of 735 personnel and average approximately 500 over the peak phase of construction. Following receipt of the GSM permit, the Company expects a 24 month development timeline, including approximately three months of pre-commercial production. A breakdown of the capital requirements is detailed as follows. The statutory corporate tax rate in Turkey is 20%; however, the Company expects to benefit from tax investment incentives that have been implemented by the Turkish Government to reduce the corporate tax rate on the Kirazli project to 2%. Effective June 19, 2012, the Turkish Government legislated certain tax investment incentives designed to promote investment in specific industries and regions of Turkey. The Company has evaluated these investment incentives in consultation with a recognized international accounting firm and the Turkish Government, and expects that the Kirazli project will qualify for the following incentives on successful application: Under the incentive program, the Company is expected to be eligible for a reduction to the corporate tax rate, resulting in an effective corporate tax rate of 2% over the current life of the project based on the gold and silver price assumptions used in the financial analysis. For the purpose of the feasibility study, the Company has only incorporated the corporate tax rate reduction into the economic analysis. The Kirazli project consists of 1,541 hectares and is located in the Canakkale Province on the Biga Peninsula of northwestern Turkey. The project is located approximately 25 kilometres southeast of Canakkale, the largest centre on the Biga Peninsula with a population of approximately 100,000. There is excellent well-serviced infrastructure in close proximity to the project with paved roads, electricity, transmission lines, and electricity generating facilities, the most significant being a large coal-fired power plant adjacent to the nearby Town of Can, which has a population of approximately 30,000. The Company also owns the Agi Dagi development project, located approximately 25 kilometres southeast of Kirazli. Both are standalone open pit heap leach projects. A feasibility study to update the economics for Agi Dagi, as outlined in the positive 2012 pre-feasibility study, is nearing completion. A preliminary economic assessment is also being conducted on the higher grade Camyurt project located approximately 4 kilometres away from Agi Dagi. As with Kirazli, a number of significant changes including weakness in the Turkish Lira are expected to positively impact both projects' economics. The feasibility study for the Kirazli project was consolidated by JDS Energy & Mining Inc. ("JDS"), an international engineering firm with extensive experience in both the construction and operation of mining projects, in collaboration with third party consulting firms and Alamos Gold's technical team. Chris Bostwick, FAusIMM, Alamos Gold's Vice President, Technical Services, has reviewed and approved the scientific and technical information contained in this news release. Chris Bostwick is a Qualified Person within the meaning of Canadian Securities Administrator's National Instrument 43-101 ("NI 43-101"). The Feasibility Study has been prepared by several independent Qualified Persons (QPs) along with Alamos' internal technical staff. With the exception of Mr. Cormier and Mr. Bostwick, each of the foregoing individuals are independent of Alamos Gold. They are all Qualified Persons within the meaning of NI 43-101. The Company expects to file a technical report prepared in accordance with NI 43-101 on SEDAR at www.sedar.com within 45 days of the date of this release. Alamos is a Canadian-based intermediate gold producer with diversified production from three operating mines in North America. This includes the Young-Davidson mine in northern Ontario, Canada and the Mulatos and El Chanate mines in Sonora State, Mexico. Additionally, the Company has a significant portfolio of development stage projects in Canada, Mexico, Turkey, and the United States. Alamos employs more than 1,300 people and is committed to the highest standards of sustainable development. The Company's shares are traded on the TSX and NYSE under the symbol "AGI". The TSX and NYSE have not reviewed and do not accept responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. Cautionary Note to U.S. Investors - Mineral Reserve and Resource Estimates All resource and reserve estimates included in this news release or documents referenced in this news release have been prepared in accordance with Canadian National Instrument 43-101 - Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects ("NI 43-101") and the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (the "CIM") - CIM Definition Standards on Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves, adopted by the CIM Council, as amended (the "CIM Standards"). NI 43-101 is a rule developed by the Canadian Securities Administrators, which established standards for all public disclosure an issuer makes of scientific and technical information concerning mineral projects. The terms "mineral reserve", "proven mineral reserve" and "probable mineral reserve" are Canadian mining terms as defined in accordance with NI 43-101 and the CIM Standards. These definitions differ materially from the definitions in SEC Industry Guide 7 ("SEC Industry Guide 7") under the United States Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Exchange Act. Under SEC Industry Guide 7 standards, a "final" or "bankable" feasibility study is required to report reserves, the three-year historical average price is used in any reserve or cash flow analysis to designate reserves and the primary environmental analysis or report must be filed with the appropriate governmental authority. In addition, the terms "mineral resource", "measured mineral resource", "indicated mineral resource" and "inferred mineral resource" are defined in and required to be disclosed by NI 43-101 and the CIM Standards; however, these terms are not defined terms under SEC Industry Guide 7 and are normally not permitted to be used in reports and registration statements filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). Investors are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of mineral deposits in these categories will ever be converted into reserves. "Inferred mineral resources" have a great amount of uncertainty as to their existence, and great uncertainty as to their economic and legal feasibility. It cannot be assumed that all or any part of an inferred mineral resource will ever be upgraded to a higher category. Under Canadian rules, estimates of inferred mineral resources may not form the basis of feasibility or pre-feasibility studies, except in very limited circumstances. Investors are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of an inferred mineral resource exists or is economically or legally mineable. Disclosure of "contained ounces" in a resource is permitted disclosure under Canadian regulations; however, the SEC normally only permits issuers to report mineralization that does not constitute "reserves" by SEC standards as in place tonnage and grade without reference to unit measures. This news release includes certain "forward-looking statements". All statements other than statements of historical fact included in this release, including without limitation statements regarding outcomes of the Kirazli feasibility study, gold grades, recoveries, potential mineralization, reserves and resources, exploration results, and future plans and objectives of Alamos, are forward-looking statements that involve various risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements with respect to expectations with respect to ongoing exploration, changes in mineral resources and conversion of mineral resources to proven and probable reserves, and other information that is based on forecasts of future operational or financial results, estimates of amounts not yet determinable and assumptions of management. Any statements that express or involve discussions with respect to predictions, expectations, beliefs, plans, projections, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance (often, but not always, using words or phrases such as "expects" or "does not expect", "is expected", "anticipates" or "does not anticipate", "plans", "estimates" or "intends", or stating that certain actions, events or results "may", "could", "would", "might" or "will" be taken, occur or be achieved) are not statements of historical fact and may be "forward-looking statements." Forward-looking statements are subject to a variety of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual events or results to differ from those reflected in the forward-looking statements. There can be no assurance that forward-looking statements will prove to be accurate and actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from Alamos' expectations include, among others, risks related to ongoing permitting requirements in Turkey, risks due to geopolitical risks of operating in Turkey, the actual results of current exploration activities, further conclusions of economic evaluations and changes in project parameters as plans continue to be refined as well as future prices of gold, as well as those factors discussed in the section entitled "Risk Factors" in Alamos' Annual Information Form and other disclosures of "Risk Factors" by Alamos, available on SEDAR and EDGAR. Although Alamos has attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended. There can be no assurance that such statements will prove to be accurate as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.


Bozkurt Y.,Mustafa Kemal University | OGretmen F.,State Hydraulic Works | Kokcu O.,Environment Conservation and National Parks Fish Production Station | Ercin U.,Gazi University
Czech Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

The mineral and organic composition of seminal plasma, physical spermatological parameters and their physiological relationships were investigated in Salmo trutta macrostigma. The seminal plasma contained 121.0 ± 0.37mM/l (Na +), 8.18 ± 0.03mM/l (K +), 7.23 ± 0.03 mg/dl (Ca 2+), 3.19 ± 0.02 mEq/l (Mg ++), 0.48 ± 0.02 g/dl total protein, 6.07 ± 0.06 mg/dl cholesterol, 6.24 ± 0.08 mg/dl triglyceride and 9.97 ± 0.39 mg/ dl urea. The following physical spermatological parameters were found out: sperm volume 13.93 ± 0.84 ml, sperm motility 80.37 ± 2.36%, movement duration 81.47 ± 4.21 s, density 6.02 ± 0.46 × 109/ml, total density 8.85 ± 6.12 × 10 9 and pH 7.53 ± 0.20. Significant positive relationships were determined between motility duration and motility (r = 0.83, P < 0.01) and also between spermatocrit and motility (r = 0.536, P < 0.05). Sperm volume and total density negatively correlated with motility (r = -0.191, P > 0.05 and r = -0.087, P > 0.05, respectively). The Na +, K + and Cl - ions correlated negatively with motility (r = -0.267, P > 0.05, r = -0.152, P > 0.05 and r = -0.461, P > 0.05, respectively). On the other hand, the Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions correlated positively with motility (r = 0.114, P > 0.05 and r = 0.040, P > 0.05, respectively). A significant negative relationship was found between motility and urea (r = -0.515, P < 0.05). These parameters should be considered when developing procedures for short-term storage or cryopreservation of the Salmo trutta macrostigma sperm.


Bozkurt Y.,Mustafa Kemal University | Ogretmen F.,State Hydraulic Works | Secer F.S.,Ankara University
Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology | Year: 2011

This study investigated the effects of environmental factors including pH and cations such as sodium (Na +), potassium (K +), calcium (Ca 2+) and magnesium (Mg 2+) concentrations on sperm motility of scaly carp (Cyprinus carpio). Sperm motility was evaluated by the duration of sperm movement and the initial percentage of motile sperm. The maximum percentage of motile sperm and total duration of sperm motility were observed in solutions containing 25 mM NaCl (95.0±16.0% and 147.0±5.27 s), 0.5 mM KCl (85.0±2.45% and 174±2.47 s), 5 mM CaSO 4 (90.0±2.27% and 95.2±3.46 s) and 10 mM MgSO 4 (80.16±2.45% and 124.56±26.42 s). In addition, maximum and minimum percentages and total durations of motility occurred at pH 8.0 and pH 6.0, respectively. The prolonged duration of movement might be caused by reactivation of sperm or gradual activation of sperm motility. Concentrations more than 50 mM of Na +, 2 mM of K +, 10 mM of Ca 2+, 10 mM of Mg 2+ and more than pH 8 had negative effects on sperm motility. The present study provides us with some basic knowledge about scaly carp spermatozoa biosensitivity to the ionic media.


Yenilmez F.,Middle East Technical University | Keskin F.,State Hydraulic Works | Aksoy A.,Middle East Technical University
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth | Year: 2011

In this study, trends in selected water quality parameters in Eymir Lake over a period of 10. years are analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. Analyzed water quality parameters are dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), total suspended solids (TSS), and secchi depth (SD). In addition, trends in the yearly averages of precipitation, lake volume, and ambient temperature are examined. According to Mann-Kendall test results, precipitation, volume and ambient temperature values exhibit decreasing trends in 1998-2008. DO and TSS exhibit increasing trends while TP and SD have decreasing trends in Eymir Lake. The change in the volume of the lake has a significant impact on the trends of DO, TSS, and SD. These results indicate that, besides eutrophic conditions, water balance and drought conditions significantly impact the water quality of Eymir Lake. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Yucel I.,Middle East Technical University | Keskin F.,State Hydraulic Works
IAHS-AISH Publication | Year: 2011

Remotely-sensed precipitation estimates and regional atmospheric model precipitation forecasts provide rainfall data at high spatial and temporal resolutions with a large-scale coverage, and can therefore be potentially used for hydrological applications for making flash flood forecasts and warnings. This study investigates the performance of the rainfall products obtained from the Hydro Estimator (HE) algorithm of NOAA/NESDIS and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and their use in a hydrological model (HEC-HMS) to simulate the catastrophic flood events which occurred in the Ayamama basin in northwest Turkey during 7-12 September 2009. The WRF model is also run with three-dimensional variational assimilation to obtain improved precipitation forecasts. The precipitation estimates at 4-km from the HE and WRF model, with and without assimilation, were evaluated against raingauge and radar data. The 4-km HE and WRF-estimated rainfall showed capabilities in capturing the timing of the flood events and to some extent the spatial distribution and magnitude of the heavy rainfall. Hydrological modelling based on HEC-HMS is applied using rainfall data from raingauges, radar, HE and WRF model. By use of surface hydrographs obtained from HEC-HMS, the HEC-RAS hydrological model is used to simulate inundation extent. The extent of the inundated areas in the river basin changes according to the peak discharges of the surface hydrographs used in the HEC-RAS module. © 2011 IAHS Press.


Asikoglu O.L.,Ege University | Ciftlik D.,State Hydraulic Works
Journal of Hydrometeorology | Year: 2015

This study is intended to determine potential trends in annual rainfall serieswith the parametric Student's t test and the nonparametric Mann-Kendall, Spearman's rho, and Sneyers tests. The study includes a trend analysis of annual rainfall data from 47 rain gauges, mostly located at rural sites, in the Aegean region of Turkey. The chi-square and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests showed that the null hypothesis of normality for the majority of the data (45 out of 47 stations) is acceptable.Moreover, the serial independence assumption, based on the lag-1 sample autocorrelations, is rejected in 14 datasets.The parametric Student's t test detected significant downward trends at 15 rain gauge stations; 14 of them were also confirmed by the three nonparametric tests and by the trend-free version of theMann-Kendall test. The results of the Sneyers test revealed that the approximate start years of significant downward trends were in the early 1970s and, sometimes, in the early 1980s.Moreover, the testing found that the normalized slopes of linear downward trends were significantly dependent on the station's longitude, which meant that the farther the station was located from the coast, the smaller the decreasing trend in annual rainfall was.Additional studies carried out on the normalized regional data and on the 5-yr running means showed that a considerable portion of the detected downward trends were mainly due to interactions of the particular start and end times of a large number of stations with interdecadal fluctuations and the dry conditions over the Mediterranean region during the last 25-30 years.


Karagol F.,Atatürk University | Demirboga R.,Atatürk University | Demirboga R.,University Putra Malaysia | Kaygusuz M.A.,State Hydraulic Works | And 2 more authors.
Cold Regions Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Based on ACI 306R-10, the minimum temperature necessary for maintaining concrete hydration and strength gaining is 5. °C. If the weather becomes lower than 5. °C, some special measures should be taken in order to prevent decrease in the rate of hydration and to prevent fresh concrete from freezing. Most of the cold weather living countries spend annually plenty of money in order to facilitate concrete placing in the cold weather and to extend the construction season. It has been investigated that the behavior of fresh and hardened concrete contained calcium nitrate at different curing temperatures below freezing temperature of water and compare the results with the both control samples. For this reason, calcium nitrate is used at level of 6% by weight of cement dosage in mixes. After casting, one group of samples was cured in the different deepfreezes at -. 5. °C, -. 10. °C, -. 15. °C, and -. 20. °C for 7, 14 and 28. days, and then the same samples were cured in water at (23. ±. 1.7)°C for 7, 14, and 28. days. Calcium nitrate increased the compressive strength of concrete between 48-964, 50-721, 29-393 and 24-183%, for -. 5. °C, -. 10. °C, -. 15. °C and -. 20. °C, respectively, when compared to mixes without antifreeze admixtures. The results showed that it is possible to use calcium nitrate as an antifreeze admixture in concrete technology in cold weather concreting without additional precautions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Demirboga R.,Atatürk University | Demirboga R.,King Abdulaziz University | Karagol F.,Atatürk University | Polat R.,Atatürk University | Kaygusuz M.A.,State Hydraulic Works
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2014

Objective: The study focused on the application of urea to the cold weather concreting. One of the advantages of this method is to simplify curing after concrete placement at low temperatures; only an anti-evaporation sheet is necessary to keep fresh concrete wet until finishing of concrete curing. Method: Urea is used at level of 6% by weight of cement dosage in the mixtures. After casting, one group of concrete samples were cured in the different deep freezes at -5, -10, -15, -20 °C for 7, 14 and 28 days and then the same samples were cured in water for 7, 14 and 28 days in accordance with ASTM C 192. Compressive strength of hardened concrete was determined according to ASTM C 39. Results: At -5 °C and -10 °C the admixture's positive effect is evident but at -15 °C and -20 °C the same effect was not achieved when compared to mixes without antifreeze admixtures. As a result at cold weather concreting, urea can be an effective alternative to the other precautions up to -5 °C without any protections. In this paper Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) observations also helped to explain the effect of Urea on concrete under cold weather conditions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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