State Hermitage Museum

Saint Petersburg, Russia

State Hermitage Museum

Saint Petersburg, Russia
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Kadikova I.F.,State Research Institute for Restoration | Grigorieva I.A.,State Hermitage Museum
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2016

The study of paintings' layer structure under microscope was implemented in the early XX century; since that time method of crosssection preparation as well as composition of embedded materials changed and capabilities of optical microscopy broadened. Nevertheless, until recently cross-sections were prepared only for analysis of paintings' layerspecific structure, morphological and technological features, tracks of restoration treatments. Examination of chemical composition required additional sampling as well as division of these samples layer by layer in order to determine pigments and binding media; these procedures didn't always lead to proper results. Micro-Raman and micro-FTIR spectroscopy allow carrying out investigation of painting cross-sections without any additional preliminary sampling; this is shown on example of investigation of a number of paintings. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.

Grigorieva I.A.,State Hermitage Museum | Chugunova K.S.,State Hermitage Museum | Kadikova I.F.,State Research Institute for Restoration | Khavrin S.V.,State Hermitage Museum | Pisareva S.A.,State Research Institute for Restoration
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2016

Physical and chemical methods of analysis are indispensable for restoration, study of painting techniques, examination and attribution of works of art. Development of new directions of investigations as well as improvements in sample preparation allow applying non-destructive analysis methods, minimizing amount of matter used to obtain informative spectra, preventing alteration and destruction of samples in the course of investigation. This paper observes the examples of applying optical and spectral methods, including molecular spectral analysis and electron microscopy, for study of binding media and pigments of painting and archaeological artifacts. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.

Balakhnina I.A.,University of Palermo | Brandt N.N.,Moscow State University | Valenti D.,University of Palermo | Grigorieva I.A.,State Hermitage Museum | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Spectroscopy | Year: 2017

We present a statistical model for approximation of experimental Fourier transform-IR spectroscopy (FTIR) data for paint samples from paintings of different ages. The model utilizes random variations in some parameters (initial ageing rate, degree of change in ageing rate and time at which the change occurs). We determine the parameters characterizing variation in the paint composition and the storage conditions for the paintings. The numerical calculation is qualitatively consistent with the experimental data. In the proposed model, changes in the initial composition of the paint and the storage conditions make about the same contribution to the experimentally observed scatter in the data points. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

Grigor'Eva I.A.,State Hermitage Museum | Parfenov V.A.,Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics | Prokuratov D.S.,State Hermitage Museum | Shakhmin A.L.,Peter the Great Polytechnical University
Journal of Optical Technology (A Translation of Opticheskii Zhurnal) | Year: 2017

We examine the physical and chemical processes occurring on the surfaces of copper and copper-alloy objects that are laser-cleaned using a Smart Clean 2 (El. En., Italy) pulsed YAG:Nd laser and a commercial MiniMarker2 M20 ytterbium pulsed fiber-optic laser, both with emission wavelengths of 1064 nm.We show that discoloration of the copper surface can be mitigated by performing the laser treatment in a nitrogen atmosphere. © 2017 Optical Society of America.

Pikov N.,Siberian Federal University | Rumyantsev M.,Siberian Federal University | Vishniakova M.,Siberian Federal University | Kizhner I.,Siberian Federal University | Hookk D.,State Hermitage Museum
2015 Digital Heritage International Congress, Digital Heritage 2015 | Year: 2015

Displaying collections of petroglyphs in a museum so that the exhibits inspire interest in the public can be considered an interesting task of turning the traditional exhibition space into the augmented space with exciting objects providing evidence of cultural developments in the Bronze Age. The paper discusses the workflow of acquiring, processing and displaying 3D data for a collection of petroglyphs with carved images (Okunev stones) from the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia. © 2015 IEEE.

Raghavan M.,Copenhagen University | Skoglund P.,Uppsala University | Graf K.E.,Texas A&M University | Metspalu M.,Evolutionary Biology Group | And 36 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2014

The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians, there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to. Here we sequence the draft genome of an approximately 24,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Mal'ta in south-central Siberia, to an average depth of 1×. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic European hunter-gatherers, and the Y chromosome of MA-1 is basal to modern-day western Eurasians and near the root of most Native American lineages. Similarly, we find autosomal evidence that MA-1 is basal to modern-day western Eurasians and genetically closely related to modern-day Native Americans, with no close affinity to east Asians. This suggests that populations related to contemporary western Eurasians had a more north-easterly distribution 24,000 years ago than commonly thought. Furthermore, we estimate that 14 to 38% of Native American ancestry may originate through gene flow from this ancient population. This is likely to have occurred after the divergence of Native American ancestors from east Asian ancestors, but before the diversification of Native American populations in the New World. Gene flow from the MA-1 lineage into Native American ancestors could explain why several crania from the First Americans have been reported as bearing morphological characteristics that do not resemble those of east Asians. Sequencing of another south-central Siberian, Afontova Gora-2 dating to approximately 17,000 years ago, revealed similar autosomal genetic signatures as MA-1, suggesting that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum. Our findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

On December 1st, the results of the Antarctic Biennale Open Call for artists under 35 were announced during Art Basel Miami Beach. The first prize was an invitation to join a group of distinguished artists, researchers and visionaries of all ages on an expedition Antarctica in March 2017, to realize a proposed artwork. The winners are Sho Hasegawa (Japan) and Gustav Dusing (Germany). The decision to award the first prize to two artists, on the part of the international jury, was a surprise. The event was held with the support of the Antarctic Biennale Open Call partner BMW Group. Thomas Girst, Head of BMW Cultural Engagement and honored guest of the ceremony introduced the Antarctic Biennale project and its founder and commissioner artist Alexander Ponomarev to the international press pool. According to Mr.Girst international projects like that are important for understanding the role of art in the nearest future. The Open Call results were announced by Alexander Ponomarev. The live streamed event on the project's Facebook page gathered numerous viewers from all over the world. First announced in August 2016, the Open Call received over 500 applications from 59 countries. The most active applicant countries were the USA (72 applications), UK (45 applications) and Russia (38 applications). The top 10 active participating countries also included France, Germany, Italy, Canada, Australia, Turkey and Mexico. The winner and finalists were selected by an international jury comprising the Commissioner of the Antarctic Biennale, Alexander Ponomarev, and members of the Artistic Advisory Board: president and director of the Sharjah Art Foundation, Sheikha Hoor al-Qasimi; art critic, curator, author Hans-Ulrich Obrist; architect and artist Hani Rashid; and Antarctic Biennale Organizing Committee Member and independent curator, Nadim Samman. The winning project by Sho Hasegawa "The Winter Landscape" is an open-ended project, incorporating research from his previous expeditions and an experiment that combines drawing, ice skating and electricity. Gustav Dusing proposed 'Shelter', a temporary architectural structure made of thin ice. According to the author's description, his project builds upon research by the Swiss engineer Heinz Isler, who pioneered modern experiments with ice-building. As Nicolas Iljine, advisor to the General Director of the State Hermitage Museum, cultural consultant and member of the Antarctic Biennale Board of Trustees said - the Antarctic Biennale concept had an inspiring influence on the vision of applicants. All received projects were original and displayed a sincere attitude towards Antarctica's unique context. Throughout, proposals demonstrated sensitivity one of the key parameters of the Antarctic Biennale open call - leaving no trace behind. The intention of the Open Call competition was to give an opportunity to emerging and mid-career artists under 35 to be heard. Commissioner Alexander Ponomarev said: "We need more brave and breakthrough ideas for humanity, addressing living together in the future - sharing common spaces. Having an emerging artist join an experienced and established group during this expedition is very important for the project. It a once in a lifetime chance for the winners - and one they deserve". The biennale's final artist list is set to be announced in February 2017. A few names officially unveiled to date: Hani Rashid (Canada/USA), Matthew Ritchie (UK), Tomas Saraceno (Argentina/Germany), Paúl Rosero Contreras (Equador), Juliana Cerqueira Leite (Brazil), Julian Charrière (France/Switzerland), Zhang Enli (China). In addition to the winning artists, the names of 15 finalists were also announced at the event in Miami. These artists will be invited to exhibit their artwork at the Antarctic Pavilion during the 57th Venice Biennale of Art 2017 - Andreas Lutz (Germany), Ariel Spadari (Brazil), Bridget Steed (UK); Jacob Harper (USA), Jasmin Blasco (France), Kim Sheppard (Canada), Louise Oates (UK), Matilde Solbiati (Italy), Meadhbh O'Connor (Ireland), Stefan Laxness (Iceland), Stephanie Roland (Belgium), Sybren Renema (Netherlands), Tom Blake (Australia), Valentine Siboni (France), Winston Chmielinski (USA). The Antarctic Biennale is an international sociocultural phenomenon that incorporates artistic, scientific and philosophical methodologies, creates a supra-national platform for interdisciplinary and intercultural dialogue.The Antarctic Biennale departs from standard exhibition models. It is a creative journey, expanding the parameters of what art can be today. The Antarctic Biennale expedition aboard the research vessel "Akademik Ioffe" begins in March 2017 and will last for twelve days. It involves a hundred people from all over the world: artists, architects, researchers, and philosophers. The biennale's onboard program includes artistic and scientific discussions, performances, poetic and philosophical readings, and screenings. The Antarctic Biennale is an international sociocultural phenomenon that incorporates artistic, scientific and philosophical methodologies, creates a supra-national platform for interdisciplinary and intercultural dialogue.

Lozovski V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Lozovskaya O.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Mazurkevich A.,State Hermitage Museum | Hookk D.,State Hermitage Museum | Kolosova M.,State Hermitage Museum
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

The multilayer waterlogged site Zamostje 2 in Central Russia represents a unique opportunity to study the interplay of human cultural history and its environmental context over the late Mesolithic - Middle Neolithic, ca. 7900-5500BP (7000-4300BC). Compared to previous paleogeographical reconstructions made more than 15 years ago and pollen diagrams for a number of profiles from Zamostje 2, along with materials from other sites from the region, in this paper we present new data about the use of wood by ancient inhabitants of lake settlements, and the discovery of fishery constructions. These data are used to reconstruct local changes in paleo-landscape and its exploitation by ancient hunters-fishermen during a period of two thousand years. It was possible to correlate the types of fishing constructions with the water-depth of the ancient lake. The fishery economic zone of the paleo-lake always been a structural part of the settlement. New data allowed us to revise or update previous schemes of local paleo-landscape changes at the site, and the regional scheme of the Holocene vegetation development in the Volga-Oka region. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Kulkova M.,Herzen State Pedagogical University | Mazurkevich A.,State Hermitage Museum | Gerasimov D.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2016

The region of NW Russia connecting with the Baltic Sea presents a dynamic ecological system that was sensitive to environmental changes during the Holocene. Certain factors affected environmental changes in the region during the Holocene: deglaciation processes, that finally terminated about 9 cal ka BP; eustatic sea-level changes; and tectonic movements, which are basically considered in the region as isostatic uplift processes. Contextual remains of ancient human occupation sites can be the only evidence of surface stabilization in monotonous sediments, such as aquatic and subaquatic deposits. Prehistoric settlements also mark ancient shorelines. The latter is of great importance for studying the history of water oscillations and coastal-line displacements on the territory of NW Russia. The transgressive-regressive stages of the Baltic Sea (at c. 10.15 cal ka BP, the Ancylus transgression; at c. 7.6-7.0 cal ka BP, the Littorina transgression) have an impact on the positions of prehistorical sites. The complex investigations of the Stone Age archaeological settlements on the Karelian Isthmus and in the Dvina-Lovat' basin, and their altitudes below sea level, allowed us to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental changes during the Holocene, the chronology of cultural-historical processes and the adaptation strategy of ancient people to environmental conditions in this territory. © 2016 The Author(s).

Valiulina S.,Kazan Federal University | Shlykova T.,State Hermitage Museum
Periodico di Mineralogia | Year: 2015

The article represents the experience of complex research and conservation of an outstanding specimen of medieval Islamic fine wares - Iranian 12th century bowl found in archaeological excavations in Biliar, a capital of Volga Bulgaris in the 11th - beginning of the 13th centuries. Main methods of investigation are morphological, technological and semantic analyses. Chemical composition of ceramic body and glaze was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The bowl is shaped by pressing into a mold with added foot-ring. 14 lobes of the bowl are decorated with 14 differing feminine faces in headdresses (crowns?), 13 of which are adorned with paired confronted birds: doves, falcons, partridges, ducks, geese, and swans. The walls of the bowl are pierced along the edges of the faces, with tiny holes filled with transparent glaze, so the walls are translucent against the light. The bowl is coated with glaze all over except the foot-ring and adorned by underglaze splashes of cobalt. The bowl was previously treated in the field, where it was assembled of 22 fragments, and we had to deal with its full retreatment. Conservation approach was developed individually on the basis of characteristics of body and glaze, peculiarities of manufacture, damages and deterioration of ceramic and restoration materials. The whole conservation process is represented in the article. The process of edges cleaning was the most time-and effort demanding one, while desalination and loss compensation turned out to be most difficult in terms of taking correct conservation decisions. As a result of full re-treatment, the item was thoroughly investigated, its body released off excessive chloride salts and consolidated. The bowl got aesthetical appearance worth both its historical value and artistic merits and can be successfully presented on the exposition of renowned university museum on the rights of the "pearl" of its collection. © 2015, Edizioni Nuova Cultura. All rights reserved.

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