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Hurai V.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Huraiova M.,Comenius University | Milovsky R.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Luptakova J.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Konecny P.,State Geological Institute Of D Stur
American Mineralogist

We describe the first observation of primary magmatic aragonite in carbonatite and carbonated syenite, occurring as xenoliths in a Pliocene basaltic diatreme located near the Hungary-Slovakia border. The aragonite-hosting matrix consists of disordered P-rich calcite, occasionally associated with trachyte glass. We interpret the aragonite growth as evidence of supra-lithostatic overpressure in the magmatic plumbing system that connected the crustal basaltic reservoir with the partial melting zone of the lithospheric mantle, and the disordered calcite ± trachyte as quenched residual, immiscible melts, generated close to the solidus of the carbonated alkali basalt differentiated in the crustal reservoir. The quenching event was a phreato-magmatic eruption within the stability field of the low-pressure calcite; this was triggered by advective overpressure, caused by expanding gas bubbles in a quasi-incompressible silicate melt system. The high-pressure, pre-eruption origin of aragonite is indicated by enrichment in 13C compared to the associated calcite interpreted as a record of CO2 degassing at T > 500 °C. The oxygen (δ18O ranges of 22.1-24.5‰ V-SMOW in aragonite, 21.6-22.7‰ in calcite) and carbon (δ13C ranges of -4.4 to -5.9‰ V-PDB in aragonite, -11.9 to -12.7‰ in calcite) isotope signatures are consistent with a degassed carbonatite melt primarily derived from a subduction zone. Source

Fajcikova K.,State Geological Institute Of D Stur | Cveckova V.,State Geological Institute Of D Stur | Stewart A.,Liverpool John Moores University | Rapant S.,State Geological Institute Of D Stur | Rapant S.,Goethe University Bratislava
Environmental Geochemistry and Health

We undertook a quantitative estimation of health risks to residents living in the Slovak Republic and exposed to contaminated groundwater (ingestion by adult population) and/or soils (ingestion by adult and child population). Potential risk areas were mapped to give a visual presentation at basic administrative units of the country (municipalities, districts, regions) for easy discussion with policy and decision-makers. The health risk estimates were calculated by US EPA methods, applying threshold values for chronic risk and non-threshold values for cancer risk. The potential health risk was evaluated for As, Ba, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, NO3 -, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn for groundwater and As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn for soils. An increased health risk was identified mainly in historical mining areas highly contaminated by geogenic-anthropogenic sources (ore deposit occurrence, mining, metallurgy). Arsenic and antimony were the most significant elements in relation to health risks from groundwater and soil contamination in the Slovak Republic contributing a significant part of total chronic risk levels. Health risk estimation for soil contamination has highlighted the significance of exposure through soil ingestion in children. Increased cancer risks from groundwater and soil contamination by arsenic were noted in several municipalities and districts throughout the country in areas with significantly high arsenic levels in the environment. This approach to health risk estimations and visualization represents a fast, clear and convenient tool for delineation of risk areas at national and local levels. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Rapant S.,State Geological Institute Of D Stur | Rapant S.,Goethe University Bratislava | Cveckova V.,State Geological Institute Of D Stur | Dietzova Z.,11 Health | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Geochemistry and Health

In order to assess the potential impact of the geological environment on the health of the population of the Slovak Republic, the geological environment was divided into eight major units: Paleozoic, Crystalline, Carbonatic Mesozoic and basal Paleogene, Carbonatic-silicate Mesozoic and Paleogene, Paleogene Flysch, Neovolcanics, Neogene and Quaternary sediments. Based on these geological units, the databases of environmental indicators (chemical elements/parameters in groundwater and soils) and health indicators (concerning health status and demographic development of the population) were compiled. The geological environment of the Neogene volcanics (andesites and basalts) has been clearly documented as having the least favourable impact on the health of Slovak population, while Paleogene Flysch geological environment (sandstones, shales, claystones) has the most favourable impact. The most significant differences between these two geological environments were observed, especially for the following health indicators: SMRI6364 (cerebral infarction and strokes) more than 70 %, SMRK (digestive system) 55 %, REI (circulatory system) and REE (endocrine and metabolic system) almost 40 % and REC (malignant neoplasms) more than 30 %. These results can likely be associated with deficit contents of Ca and Mg in groundwater from the Neogene volcanics that are only about half the level of Ca and Mg in groundwater of the Paleogene sediments. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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