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Tarapoulouzi M.,State General Laboratory of Cyprus | Papachrysostomou C.,State General Laboratory of Cyprus | Constantinou S.,State General Laboratory of Cyprus | Kanari P.,State General Laboratory of Cyprus | Hadjigeorgiou M.,State General Laboratory of Cyprus
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

A limited number of substances are authorised for the treatment of bees. Maximum residue limits (MRLs) are set for tetracyclines in several matrices, but not for honey. Nevertheless, tetracycline antibiotics may be used in order to prevent bacterial diseases and the loss of honey bee populations. In this study, a sensitive multi-residue LC-MS/MS method was developed and optimised for the quantitative and qualitative determination of tetracycline residues in honey. Homogenisation of samples under acidic conditions was performed and solid-phase extraction was carried out. The eluate was evaporated under nitrogen and dissolved in an aqueous methanol solution prior to filtration. A mobile phase composed of acetic acid-water and acetic acid-acetonitrile was used. Separation of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxytetracycline was achieved by using gradient elution on a C18 chromatography column. The analytical method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC by the analysis of spiked samples around the recommended concentration of 20 μg kg-1 by EURL Guidance Paper, December 2007. A matrix effect was observed, so quantification was based on an external matrix calibration curve. Calculated decision limits (CCα) were lower than 10 μg kg-1 for all tetracyclines. Good linearity, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility were achieved. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis.

van der Fels-Klerx H.J.,Wageningen University | Klemsdal S.,Norwegian Institute for Agricultural And Environmental Research Bioforsk | Hietaniemi V.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Lindblad M.,National Food Agency | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2012

This study aimed to investigate mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commodities for feed and food production in North Western Europe during the last two decades, including trends over time and co-occurrence between toxins, and to assess possible effects of climate on the presence of mycotoxins. For these aims, analytical results related to mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commodities, collected in the course of national monitoring programmes in Finland, Sweden, Norway and the Netherlands during a 20-year period, were gathered. Historical observational weather data, including daily relative humidity, rainfall and temperature, were obtained from each of these four countries. In total 6382 records, referring to individual sample results for mycotoxin concentrations (one or more toxins) in cereal grains were available. Most records referred to wheat, barley, maize and oats. The most frequently analysed mycotoxins were deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and zearalenone. Deoxynivalenol had the highest overall incidence of 46%, and was mainly found in wheat, maize and oats. Mycotoxins that showed co-occurrence were: deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol in oats; deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in maize and wheat; and T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in oats. The presence of both deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in wheat increased with higher temperatures, relative humidity and rainfall during cultivation, but the presence of nivalenol was negatively associated with most of these climatic factors. The same holds for both nivalenol and deoxynivalenol in oats. This implies that climatic conditions that are conducive for one toxin may have a decreasing effect on the other. The presence of HT-2 toxin in oats showed a slight decreasing trends over time, but significant trends for other toxins showed an increasing presence during the last two decades. It is therefore useful to continue monitoring of mycotoxins. Obtained results can be used for development of predictive models for presence of mycotoxins in cereal grains. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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