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Bertoldo J.G.,State Foundation of Agricultural Research | Coimbra J.L.M.,Santa Catarina State University | Guidolin A.F.,Santa Catarina State University | de Andrade L.R.B.,Santa Catarina State University | Nodari R.O.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Scientia Agricola | Year: 2014

Plant breeding efficiency relies mainly on genetic diversity and selection to release new cultivars. This study aimed to identify landraces with favorable characteristics that can be used as parents of segregating populations in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding programs. Firstly, ten bean genotypes were selected because they showed promising agronomic performance, and the following seven adaptive traits of four commercial bean cultivars were evaluated: i) plant height; ii) diameter of the stem; iii) height of the insertion of the first pod; iv) pod number per plant; v) grain number per pod; vi) weight of a thousand grains and vii) grain yield. The accessions BAF 07, BAF 44, and BAF 45 are promising in terms of increasing plant height, and accession BAF 01, in terms of reducing plant height. The accession BAF 07 was also the most promising in terms of a plant ideotype that combines higher plant height, maximum height of the insertion of the first pod, and increment in grain yield. Moreover, the selection can be made between and within accessions, because genetic variability is also present within landraces. Source


Martins-Junior H.A.,University of Campinas | Pinaffi F.L.V.,University of Sao Paulo | Simas R.C.,University of Campinas | Simas R.C.,Sao Paulo State University | And 8 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2014

The plasma levels of corticosteroids and sex steroids during pregnancy are key indicators of mammalian placental function and the onset of parturition. Steroid hormones are believed to be disturbed in pregnancies produced using assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) due to placental dysfunction and the frequently observed lack of parturition signals. To elucidate the plasma steroid dynamics, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and used to determine the levels of corticosteroids (corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and cortisol) and their direct precursors (progesterone and 17α-OH-progesterone) as well as sex steroids (androstenedione, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol) in bovine plasma. The levels of these 10 steroids in recipient cows carrying naturally conceived (control), in vitro fertilized (IVF), or cloned (somatic cell nuclear transfer) conceptuses were compared during late-term pregnancy (30 days before parturition), during near-term pregnancy (1 day before parturition),and on the day of parturition (day 0). Significant differences were observed among the corticosteroid levels: higher levels of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and cortisol were detected in cloned pregnancies at day 30; lower levels of corticosterone were observed in ART-derived pregnancies at days 1 and 0; and estrone and estradiol levels were higher in IVF pregnanciesthroughoutthefinaldevelopment. These results suggested an upregulation of the P450C11 and P450C21 enzymes 30 days before parturition in somatic cell nuclear transfer pregnancies and an overactivation of the aromatase enzyme in IVF pregnancies. Taken together, the monitoring of multiple steroid hormones revealed that the pregnancies obtained using ART exhibited plasma steroid concentration dynamics compatible with the dysregulation of steroidogenic tissues. Copyright © 2014 by the Endocrine Society Source


Trindade J.K.D.,State Foundation of Agricultural Research | Neves F.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Pinto C.E.,Company of Agricultural Research and Rural Extension of Santa Catarina State | Bremm C.,State Foundation of Agricultural Research | And 5 more authors.
Rangeland Ecology and Management | Year: 2016

We investigated the hypothesis that not only forage allowance but also sward structure affects daily forage intake by beef heifers on natural grasslands of the Pampa Biome (southern Brazil). We used data from a long-term experiment, which has been managed by forage allowance levels since 1986. The objective was to investigate sward management targets that maximize daily forage intake. During January and December 2009, we evaluated the effect of forage allowance on forage mass, sward height and tussock frequency, and its consequences on dry matter intake (DMI). The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with two replicates. Treatment was level of daily forage allowance (4, 8, 12, and 16 kg dry matter [DM] per 100 kg of animal body weight [BW]). Data were analyzed using regression, principal component analysis, and descriptive analyses from three-dimensional contour graphs with the data of sward structure, DMI, and DMI rate. Results demonstrated that DMI was positively correlated to forage allowance. However, higher levels of forage allowance can cause lower intake rates of forage and nutrients. We concluded that sward targets which promoted higher DMI and DMI rate were: daily forage allowance of ∼ 12 kg of dry matter per 100 kg of the animal's body weight, forage mass between 1 800 and 2 300 kg DM·ha-1, sward height between 11.5 and 13.4 cm, and tussock frequency lower than 30% of occurrence in the pastures. Within these targets, a high intake of nutrients was obtained, indicating the potential use of sward structure as a tool for managing natural grasslands in order to promote high intake of forage and nutrients by cattle. © 2016 Society for Range Management. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Simonetto P.R.,State Foundation of Agricultural Research | Anzanello R.,State Foundation of Agricultural Research | Fogaca C.M.,State Foundation of Agricultural Research | Junges A.H.,State Foundation of Agricultural Research
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

About one third of all Brazilian Japanese plum orchards are in Rio Grande do Sul State, in southern Brazil. In the early 1980s a new research and extension program to increase plum production was introduced by the State Foundation of Agricultural Research (FEPAGRO) at the Veranópolis research station in southern Brazil. Since then several new cultivars of plum have been introduced and currently 'Fortune' and 'Leticia' are the most planted cultivars. Although there is a potential for increased production of plum in Brazil, factorssuch as adverse weather conditions, and especially infestation by Xyllela fastidiosa, cause inconsistent productivity and have limit expansion. More research and extension activities are needed so solve critical production issues to realize the full potential of plum production in southern Brazil. Source

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