Zhang L.,Nankai University |
Zhang L.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient |
Wang F.,Nankai University |
Ji Y.,Nankai University |
And 11 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014
In this study, filter samples of six Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were collected from thirteen homes in Tianjin, China. The results showed that the concentrations of σ6PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were in the range of 13.878-1591.277ngm-3 and 7.266-1244.178ngm-3, respectively. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was the most abundant compounds followed by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5. Whereas DBP and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were the predominant compounds in indoor air (gas-phase+particle-phase), the median values were 573.467 and 368.364ngm-3 respectively. The earlier construction time, the lesser indoor area, the old decoration, the very crowded items coated with plastic and a lower frequency of dusting may lead to a higher level of PAEs in indoor environment. The six PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were higher in summer than those in winter. The daily intake (DI) of six PAEs for five age groups through air inhalation in indoor air in Tianjin was estimated. The results indicated that the highest exposure dose was DBP in every age group, and infants experienced the highest total DIs (median: 664.332ngkg-bw-1day-1) to ∑6PAEs, whereas adults experienced the lowest total DIs (median: 155.850ngkg-bw-1day-1) to ∑6PAEs. So, more attention should be paid on infants in the aspect of indoor inhalation exposure to PAEs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.