State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex

Shanghai, China

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex

Shanghai, China

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Li Y.,Health Canada | Li Y.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | Li Y.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | Li Y.,Shanghai University of Engineering Science | Zhu J.,Health Canada
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2017

Thermal desorption (TD) GC/MS has been used for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other semi-volatile organic compounds. However, thermal desorption recovery of PAHs have not been well studied and the cause of PAH residues in a TD system has not been clearly understood. Our results showed that low volatility of PAHs can lead to their incomplete recovery in a TD system: for the PAHs with low vapour pressures, up to 10% and 3% could be lost in a two-stage (TS) TD system and a short-path (SP) TD system, respectively. Within the TSTD system, the majority of residues were found in the 4-port valve and in the spot where internal trap and the 4-port valve connects. Within the SPTD system, residues were largely confined to the tube needle connecting the sample tube and GC injection port as well as inside the injection port. Since the volatility of PAHs can represent the range typical of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), our results have a wide implication for the thermal desorption of SVOCs in general. © 2017.


Li Y.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | Li Y.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | Li Y.,Shanghai University of Engineering Science | Xian Q.,Nanjing University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2017

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in petroleum based products and are combustion by-products of organic matters. Determination of levels of PAHs in the indoor environment is important for assessing human exposure to these chemicals. A new short path thermal desorption (SPTD) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for determining levels of PAHs in indoor air was developed. Thermal desorption (TD) tubes packed with glass beads, Carbopack C, and Carbopack B in sequence, were used for sample collection. Indoor air was sampled using a small portable pump over 7 days at 100 ml/min. Target PAHs were thermally released and introduced into the GC/MS for analysis through the SPTD unit. During tube desorption, PAHs were cold trapped (−20 °C) at the front end of the GC column. Thermal desorption efficiencies were 100% for PAHs with 2 and 3 rings, and 99–97% for PAHs with 4–6 rings. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values among replicate samples spiked at three different levels were around 10–20%. The detection limit of this method was at or below 0.1 μg/m3 except for naphthalene (0.61 μg/m3), fluorene (0.28 μg/m3) and phenanthrene (0.35 μg/m3). This method was applied to measure PAHs in indoor air in nine residential homes. The levels of PAHs in indoor air found in these nine homes are similar to indoor air values reported by others. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Li Y.,Health Canada | Li Y.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | Li Y.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | Okeme J.O.,University of Toronto | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2016

The sorption capacity of a substrate serving as sampling medium can be enhanced by adding another sorbent to its surface. This is usually achieved through an impregnation process by repeated dipping of the substrate in a slurry solution containing the powder of the sorbent. Because the impregnation process only deposits the sorbent powder on the surface of the substrate, the powder could detach and fall off during field deployment. In this study, a novel approach was explored to fix the added sorbent powder to the surface of the substrate. Methylcellulose (MC) in fine crystal form was selected as the fixing agent to secure the powder of polystyrene-divinyl benzene copolymer resin (XAD-4), with its high sorption capacity, to a cellulose filter paper (CFP). The process involved first mixing XAD-4 and MC in the presence of water to form a milky slurry solution that was then painted on to the surface of the paper and then allowed to dry. The painting technique resulted in a good reproducibility of the applied amount of XAD-MC mixture with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 12% (n = 5). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the XAD-4 powder was held to the surface of the filter paper. No free XAD powder was dislodged from the coated filter paper when coated paper was flicked with a finger. For use as an indoor passive air sampler (PAS), this new sampling medium was placed in a round housing made of electronically polished aluminium material and was tested for uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and phthalic acid dialkylesters. Surface area specific uptake rates (ASUR) of PBDEs ranged from 1.14 to 2.82 m3/(dm2d), while ASUR of phthalates had a wider range from 2.74 to 5.66 m3/(dm2d). © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


Li L.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | Li L.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | An J.Y.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | An J.Y.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | And 19 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

An extremely high PM2.5 pollution episode occurred over the eastern China in January 2013. In this paper, the particulate matter source apportionment technology (PSAT) method coupled within the Comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx) is applied to study the source contributions to PM2.5 and its major components at six receptors (Urban Shanghai, Chongming, Dianshan Lake, Urban Suzhou, Hangzhou and Zhoushan) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. Contributions from 4 source areas (including Shanghai, South Jiangsu, North Zhejiang and Super-region) and 9 emission sectors (including power plants, industrial boilers and kilns, industrial processing, mobile source, residential, volatile emissions, dust, agriculture and biogenic emissions) to PM2.5 and its major components (sulfate, nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon and elemental carbon) at the six receptors in the YRD region are quantified. Results show that accumulation of local pollution was the largest contributor during this air pollution episode in urban Shanghai (55%) and Suzhou (46%), followed by long-range transport (37% contribution to Shanghai and 44% to Suzhou). Super-regional emissions play an important role in PM2.5 formation at Hangzhou (48%) and Zhoushan site (68%). Among the emission sectors contributing to the high pollution episode, the major source categories include industrial processing (with contributions ranging between 12.7 and 38.7% at different receptors), combustion source (21.7-37.3%), mobile source (7.5-17.7%) and fugitive dust (8.4-27.3%). Agricultural contribution is also very significant at Zhoushan site (24.5%). In terms of the PM2.5 major components, it is found that industrial boilers and kilns are the major source contributor to sulfate and nitrate. Volatile emission source and agriculture are the major contributors to ammonia; transport is the largest contributor to elemental carbon. Industrial processing, volatile emissions and mobile source are the most significant contributors to organic carbon. Results show that the Yangtze River Delta region should focus on the joint pollution control of industrial processing, combustion emissions, mobile source emissions, and fugitive dust. Regional transport of air pollution among the cities are prominent, and the implementation of regional joint prevention and control of air pollution will help to alleviate fine particulate matter concentrations under heavy pollution case significantly. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Li L.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | Li L.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | Cai J.-L.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | Cai J.-L.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | And 3 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2015

A heavy haze pollution episode occurred in early December, 2013 in middle and eastern China, which lasted for a long period, and covered a large area. During this episode, the hourly maximum concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in Shanghai exceeded 700 μg·m-3 and 600 μg·m-3, respectively. To obtain the major air mass transportation path, trajectories reaching urban Shanghai area were analyzed using HYSPLIT model and cluster analysis. Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and Concentration-Weighted Trajectory (CWT) methods were applied to study the potential source regions and the individual contributions to PM10 in Shanghai in December, 2013. The results showed that the northwest and the north paths were the major air mass transport paths in December, among which 79.6% of the total trajectories came from mainland, while 20.4% reached Shanghai through the ocean. These were the main transportation paths causing high PM10 mass concentration in December in Shanghai. The potential regions affecting the heavy haze episode in early December in Shanghai were distributed in the Yangtze River Delta including Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui. Besides, air mass from Shandong, Hebei and Henan also had certain impact. The results showed that regional and even super-regional pollution joint control was of significant importance to reduce the frequent heavy air pollution episodes. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Zhou M.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | Zhou M.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | Qiao L.-P.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | Qiao L.-P.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | And 14 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2016

Intensive haze shrouded central and eastern parts of China in Dec. 2013. In this study, the mass concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants, and also the chemical compositions of fine particulate matters were obtained based on in-situ measurement in Shanghai urban area. The characteristics of PM2.5 were investigated during different pollution episodes, including dust, haze, fog-haze and long-rang transport episodes. The results showed that pollution was most serious during the fog-haze episode, during which the maximum daily mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 reached 536 μg·m-3 and 411 μg·m-3, respectively. During the fog-haze episode, the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 was over 76.7%, suggesting that high humidity enhanced the secondary formation of NO3 -, SO4 2- and NH4 + in PM2.5. Highest concentration of Ca2+ in PM2.5 occurred during the dust episode and the proportion of primary components in PM2.5 increased obviously. Highest concentration of SO4 2- was observed in PM2.5 during the long-rang transport episode, with a fast growth rate. Meanwhile, the trajectories reaching Shanghai urban area and cluster analysis during different pollution episodes were simulated by HYSPLIT model. Combined with observation data of PM2.5 in Shanghai urban area, chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in different clusters and potential source apportionment of various pollution episodes were also studied in this study. The result revealed that the air trajectories could be grouped into six clusters based on their spatial similarities. Among these clusters, cluster6 which moved fast was associated with clean air. Cluster2 and cluster3 originating from Mongolia region had strong correlations to dust pollution, along with low PM2.5/PM10 ratio and high concentration of Ca2+ in PM2.5. Compared with other clusters, cluster5 and cluster4 with slow moving speed were more favorable for reactions between particulate species and formation of secondary pollutants during transport. Additionally, the stagnant weather condition under these two clusters with high water vapor when passing over the East China Sea further led to the aggravation of atmospheric pollution in Shanghai. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Hong Y.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Hong Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Hong Y.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | Chen J.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | And 14 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2016

Measurement of atmospheric mercury speciation was conducted in a coastal city of the Yangtze River Delta, China from July 2013 to January 2014, in conjunction with air pollutants and meteorological parameters. The mean concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), particulate bound mercury (HgP) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) were 3.26 ± 1.63 ng m−3, 659 ± 931 pg m−3, and 197 ± 246 pg m−3, respectively. High percentages of HgP during haze days were found, due to the increase in direct emissions and gas-particle partitioning of RGM. The average gas-particle partitioning coefficients (Kp) during moderate or severe haze days (PM2.5 > 150 μg m−3) were obviously decreased. GEM and HgP were positively correlated with PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO, suggesting a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources. Elevated HgP concentrations in cold seasons and in the morning were observed while RGM exhibited different seasonal and diurnal pattern. The ratio of HgP/SO2 and Pearson correlation analysis suggested that coal combustion was the main cause of increasing atmospheric Hg concentrations. The monitoring site was affected by local, regional and interregional sources. The back trajectory analysis suggested that air mass from northwest China and Huabei Plain contributed to elevated atmospheric Hg in winter and autumn, while southeast China with clean air masses were the major contributor in summer. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Li L.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | Li L.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | An J.Y.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | An J.Y.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | And 17 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016

We applied ozone source apportionment technology (OSAT) with tagged tracers coupled within the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to study the region and source category contribution to surface ozone in the Yangtze River Delta area in summer of 2013. Results indicate that the daytime ozone concentrations in the YRD region are influenced by emissions both locally, regionally and super-regionally. At urban Shanghai, Hangzhou and Suzhou receptors, the ozone formation is mainly VOC-limited, precursor emissions form Zhejiang province dominate their O3 concentrations. At the junction area among two provinces and Shanghai city, the ozone is usually influenced by all the three areas. The daily max O3 at the Dianshan Lake in July are contributed by Zhejiang (48.5%), Jiangsu (11.7%), Anhui (11.6%) and Shanghai (7.4%), long-range transport constitutes around 20.9%. At Chongming site, the BVOC emissions rate is higher than urban region. Regional contribution results show that Shanghai constitutes 15.6%, Jiangsu contributes 16.2% and Zhejiang accounts for 25.5% of the daily max O3. The analysis of the source category contribution to high ozone in the Yangtze River Delta region indicates that the most significant anthropogenic emission source sectors contributing to O3 pollution include industry, vehicle exhaust, although the effects vary with source sector and selected pollution episodes. Emissions of NOx and VOCs emitted from the fuel combustion of industrial boilers and kilns, together with VOCs emissions from industrial process contribute a lot to the high concentrations in urban Hangzhou, Suzhou and Shanghai. The contribution from regional elevated power plants cannot be neglected, especially to Dianshan Lake. Fugitive emissions of volatile pollution sources also have certain contribution to regional O3. These results indicate that the regional collaboration is of most importance to reduce ambient ozone pollution, particularly during high ozone episodes. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Li L.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | Li L.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | An J.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | An J.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | And 2 more authors.
Research of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2015

To study the PM2.5 changes after implementation of the clean air action plan in the Yangtze River Delta region, an emissions inventory for the Yangtze River Delta region in 2012 was developed, and the emissions reductions during 2013-2017 were evaluated based on measures described in the clean air action plan for Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui provinces. The WRF-CMAQ modeling system was applied to analyze the PM2.5 changes under the emission reduction scenarios. The clean air action plan is related to six areas including energy, industry and transportation, etc. Under the three emission reduction scenarios, including strong, medium, and weak measures, the total SO2 emissions will be reduced by 74.5×104, 53.8×104, and 34.4×104 t, respectively; NOx will be reduced by 108.7×104, 83.9×104 and 61.1×104 t; primary PM2.5 will be reduced by 40.3×104, 26.1×104 and 14.6×104 t; and VOCs will be reduced by 98.2×104, 57.0×104 and 23.5×104 t. Modeling assessment shows that under the weak, medium and strong emission reduction scenarios, the annual average PM2.5 concentrations at the national observational monitoring sites within the Yangtze River Delta region will decrease by (4.4±1.1), (8.1±2.4) and (12.5±3.9) μg/m3, respectively. Compared to the base year, the average PM2.5 concentration in the Yangtze River Delta region will be reduced by 8.7%±2.2%, 15.9%±4.7% and 24.3%±7.7% on average. The results show that significant emission reductions and new source controls are required to attain the 2017 air quality improvement target. © 2015, Editorial Department of Molecular Catalysis. All right reserved.


Li L.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | Li L.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | An J.-Y.,Shanghai Academy of Environmental science | An J.-Y.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of the Cause and Prevention of Urban Air Pollution Complex | And 2 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2015

The haze pollution caused by high PM2.5 concentrations has become one of the major environmental issues restricting urban and regional sustainable development in China in recent years. Therefore, the diagnosis of the pollution sources of PM2.5 and its major components in a scientific and efficient way is of great significance both scientifically and theoretically. A rare heavy haze pollution event occurred in Shanghai and the surrounding Yangtze River Delta in early December, 2013, that the hourly PM2.5 concentration reached 640 μg·m-3. In this study, we analyzed the three typical episodes that occurred in Shanghai during this period. The particulate matter source apportionment technology (PSAT) was applied to study the source contributions to PM2.5and its major components. Results showed that NO3 2.5 - were mostly contributed by industrial boilers and kilns, transportation and power plants. Comparatively, most of the SO4 2.5 2- came from industry and transport sectors. During the three episodes including haze, foggy haze and transport, local emissions contributed 35.3%, 44.8%, 22.7%, while super-regional transport accounted for 42.0%, 41.1% and 59.8% to PM2.5, respectively. In the YRD modeling domain, fugitive dust, industrial processing, volatile source, industrial boilers and kilns and transport were the major contributors to high concentrations of PM2.5, with the average contributions of 25.1%, 14.9%, 15.8%, 13.7% and 15.9%, respectively. Results showed that the very heavy haze pollution is usually not caused by a single city, the regional joint pollution control is of great importance to relieve the pollution level. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

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