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Chen Y.-L.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Chen Y.-L.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco process and Function Assessment | Chen Y.-L.,Beijing Normal University | Gao J.-X.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2010

Emergy wastage of fossil energy and the emergy that agricultural residues can substitute were calculated based on the statistical data during 1953 to 2007. The emergy of agricultural residues could almost compensate for that of fossil energy consumption in the early China. However, the disparity of emergy between wastage of fossil energy and agricultural residues supply was getting huger along with the society and economic development. The emergy that supplied by agricultural residues only accounted for 10.35% of which that the fossil energy consumption in 2007. It could reduce much environmental value loss if fossil energy were substituted by bio-energy. The reduced environmental governance cost was 773.91 × 108 yuan because of reducing coal mining and the environmental value loss because of fossil energy consumption was 11311.76 × 108 yuan from 1990 to 2007. Among them, the environmental value loss because of reducing sulfur dioxide emission was the most, which accounted for 56.93%. The environmental value loss because of reducing nitrogen oxides and ash emission respectively accounted for 33.13% and 9.94%. Source


Li F.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Li F.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco process and Function Assessment | Li F.,State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment | Wu Z.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | And 11 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2014

Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of rare fungal species parasitizing the larvae of a moth of the genus Thitarodes (Hepialus), which mainly lives in the Tibetan Plateau of China (including Tibet, Qinghai, West-Sichuan, Southwest-Gansu, and Northwest Yunnan province) and the Himalayas (including India, Nepal, and Bhutan). Qinghai province is one of main yield areas of Ophiocordyceps sinensis resources in China by the statistics. Ophiocordyceps sinensis lives the most common occurrence of at an altitude of over 3000 m. Ophiocordyceps sinensis is commonly known as "yarsa gumba", also with a Tibetan name of "winter yarsa and summer gumba". Because of a highly valuable tonic in Traditional Chinese Medicine, the price of Ophiocordyceps sinensis has increased continuously from 21 RMB/ kg in 1970 to 210 RMB/ g in 2011. Ophiocordyceps sinensis has become the most important income source of local farmers and herders. Ophiocordyceps sinensis bring huge economic benefits to local farmers, herders and government. Among the stakeholders, there is a puzzled debate on conservation and sustainable commercial harvest on Ophiocordyceps sinensisis, so it is urgent to do scientific exploration and research on its biological characteristics, conditions in natural habitats, spatial distribution, product yield, and artificial cultivation to harvest timely. At present, the researches interested in Ophiocordyceps sinensis pay more attention on that with f the its medicinal function, physiology of its host insect and artificial cultivation etc. However, reports on quantitative characters and spatial patterns of Ophiocordyceps sinensis resources suitability are quite few but necessary. Herein, spatial distribution of Ophiocordyceps sinensis suitability in Sanjiangyuan region was studied based on spatial analysis of GIS. In this study, appropriate indices of eco-environment for Ophiocordyceps sinensis suitability, including landform factor, vegetation type, and soil type, were chosen according to habitat conditions. The field sampling data and questionnaires from herders were collected to verify the cartographic results. There were 18 sample plots and 54 quadrats from Zaduo county in Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Maqin county in Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, and Zeku county in Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai province. 3 sample plots were selected in each county. The each sample plots comprised 3 random quadrats of 1 m×1 m. Thereinto, 9 excavation plots had more concentrated distribution of Ophiocordyceps sinensis resources and more excavation of farmers and herders, and another 9 control plots had no excavation of Ophiocordyceps sinensis. The distance was less than 4 km between excavation plots and control plots of Ophiocordyceps sinensis resources. Additionally, a total of 373 questionnaires of farmers and herders were designed in this paper. The results showed Ophiocordyceps sinensis resources in Sanjiangyuan region were mainly distributed in central and south-eastern regions, an area of 18.45×104 km2, accounting for 50.74% of the total area. Suitability areas accounting for more than half o respective total area in Dari county, Gande county, Yushu county, Chengduo county, Maqin county, and Banma county, which are major producing areas of Ophiocordyceps sinensis resources. Suitability areas of GIS analysis were corresponded with field-measured data, which indicated that GIS-based suitability distribution for Ophiocordyceps sinensis resources was feasible. The study may provide scientific basis for comprehensive investigation, protection, rational development and utilization of Ophiocordyceps sinensis resources. Based on the aforementioned, government should further strengthen the management and protection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis resources in order to bring about the win-win benefits of the ecological and environmental protection and improving farmers and herders income. Source


Han Y.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Han Y.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco process and Function Assessment | Gao J.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Gao J.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco process and Function Assessment | And 8 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2012

Under the support of RS and GIS technology, with integrated application of the revised universal equation on soil loss, market value approach, opportunity method and alternative engineering strategy, the soil conservation function of the ecosystem of major hilly-gully eco-function areas in Losses Plateau of eastern Gansu province and its economic value were assessed in this study. The results show that from the year 1986 to 2006, the amount of soil erosion major hilly-gully eco-function areas in Losses Plateau of eastern Gansu province has gradually increased, while the amount of soil conservation and the total value of its function have obviously decreased. The amount of soil conservation were 38956 × 10 4, 37834 × 10 4, 34359 × 10 4 t in the year 1986, 1996 and 2006 respectively, with total economic value of soil conservation as 230.26 × 10 8, 223.63 × 10 8, 203.09 × 10 8 Yuan. Among the total value of soil conservation, the soil conserves potassium got the highest economic value, accounting for 96.41% of the total, while the soil conserving organic matter had the lowest economic value, only accounting for 1.52%. There was a significant spatial difference on soil conservation function in this area. In the east, most regions' soil-conservation function is more than 15000 t/(km 2·a), while in the north and southwest, the predominant parameter was under 1000 t/(km 2·a). The results can be used for the area ecosystem conservation and management. Source

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