State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process

Shanghai, China

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process

Shanghai, China

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Zhang W.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Liu K.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | Liu K.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) is the major contaminant at e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs), and its potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impacts of BDE209 on the antioxidant defense system in terrestrial organisms remain vague. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed systematically on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the effects of BDE209 on the antioxidant system of earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that compared to the controls, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in all treated groups were elevated significantly after 21 and 28 days exposure; catalase (CAT) activities were much higher in all tests during the entire exposure period; peroxidase (POD) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities generally decreased and indicated contrary response trend; the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) after exposure to low level of BDE209 (1mgkg-1) was induced, whereas at 10 and 100mgkg-1 concentrations it showed suppression status; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggested that hydroxyl radicals (OH) in earthworms were significantly induced by BDE209; the changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) contents suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) might lead to cellular lipid peroxidation in earthworms. The results of these observations suggested that severe oxidative stress occurred in E. fetida, and it may play an important role in inducing the BDE209 toxicity to earthworms. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Yang X.-J.,East China University of Science and Technology | Yang X.-J.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | Xu X.-M.,East China University of Science and Technology | Xu X.-C.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 6 more authors.
Catalysis Today | Year: 2016

A heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst was used for the oxidation of Bisphenol A (BPA), which is a typical endocrine disruptor. A simple semi-empirical kinetic equation was developed to define the effects of experimental conditions (initial concentration of H2O2, initial concentration of BPA, temperature and the catalyst loading) on the reaction rate. The plausible pathway of the degradation process was proposed. A pseudo-first-order reaction rate expression with respect to BPA concentration was developed to fit all data for these experiments, and the equation of k obs (observed rate constant) was obtained with the apparent activation energy of 42.2kJ/mol. In order to reduce the operational cost, the values of parameters (temperature, initial concentration of H2O2 and pH) that optimize the catalytic performance were studied by means of a response surface methodology. Finally, a plausible mechanism was proposed on the basis of kinetics and optimization studies, which illustrates the reaction process and optimization in a microscopic view. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang W.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Liang J.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | Liang J.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and lead (Pb) are the two common contaminants at e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs). A laboratory incubation study was conducted to explore the impacts of a step and repeated BDE209-Pb exposures on accumulation and metabolism of BDE209 in earthworms Eisenia fetida for the first time. The results indicated that BDE209 concentrations in repetitively-polluted soils were clearly higher. And the existence of high-level Pb could promote the bioaccumulation of BDE209 in earthworms along the exposure time. The post-clitellum contents of BDE209 were more than the pre-clitellum during the entire incubation. Additionally, GC/MS analysis results demonstrated that BDE206, BDE208, BDE153, BDE99, BDE47 and BDE28 could be detected in Eisenia fetida throughout 28-d experiment, and BDE206 and BDE208 were predominant metabolic products. A step exposure decreased the capability to metabolize BDE209 in the presence of Pb. Average bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for a step treatment was 0.525, as well as it was more than 1.1 times that of repeated exposure (BAF = 0.48). SEM observations suggested that a step exposure mode aggravated the damage in earthworms than repeated exposure. The results and related findings will establish a useful scientific basis for soil ecological risk assessment at EWRSs. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Zhang R.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | Zhang R.,East China University of Science and Technology | Zhang W.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2016

Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are main pollutants at electric waste (e-waste) recycling sites (EWRSs), and their joint toxicological effects have received extensive attention. Frequently, soil pollution at EWRSs usually results from the occurrence of repeated single or multiple pollution events, with continuous impacts on soil microorganisms. Therefore, a laboratory incubation study was conducted to determine Pb bioavailability and microbial toxicity in repeated Pb-polluted soil in the presence of BDE209 for the first time. We evaluated the impacts of repetitive exposure trials on chemical fractions of Pb, and the results showed that repeated single Pb pollution event resulted in an increase of carbonates fraction of Pb, which was different from one-off single Pb exposure. Moreover, one-off Pb-treated groups exhibited higher IR (reduced partition index) values on day 30 and all treatments remained the same IR level at the end of incubation period. The parameters of microbial toxicity were well reflected by soil enzymes. During the entire incubation, the dehydrogenase and urease activities were significantly inhibited by Pb (P < 0.01), and BDE209 supply could weaken the adverse influence. Additionally, significant correlations between available or metastable Pb and the two soil enzymes were clearly observed (P < 0.05 or 0.01). Such observations would provide useful information for ecological effects of Pb and BDE209 at EWRSs. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Liu K.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | Liu K.,East China University of Science and Technology | Chen L.,Shanghai Fisheries Research Institute | Zhang W.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | And 4 more authors.
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2015

Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impacts on the oxidative perturbations and hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation in earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remain almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the effects of Pb in earthworms Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 through the use of several biomarkers in microcosms. The results have demonstrated that the addition of BDE209 (1 or 10 mg kg−1) decreased the enzymatic activities [superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase] and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) compared with exposure to BDE209 alone (50, 250 or 500 mg kg−1). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicated that ·OH radicals in earthworms were significantly induced by Pb in the presence of BDE209. The changing pattern of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents was accordant with that of ·OH intensity suggested that reactive oxygen species might lead to cellular lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, CAT exhibited more sensitive response to single Pb exposure than the other biomarkers, while T-AOC, ·OH and MDA might be three most sensitive biomarkers in earthworms after simultaneous exposure to Pb and BDE209. The results of these observations suggested that oxidative stress appeared in E. fetida, and it may play an important role in inducing the Pb and BDE209 toxicity to earthworms. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Zhang W.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Liu K.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | Liu K.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2015

Lead (Pb) and BDE209 (decabromodiphenyl ether) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impact on earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the uptake and toxicity of Pb in the presence of BDE209 to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results have demonstrated that the presence of BDE209 facilitated the release of Pb into soil porewater. Compared with exposure to Pb alone, simultaneous exposure to BDE209 significantly enhanced the Pb uptake rate at the level of p<0.05, while decreased the depuration rate, ultimately resulting in a larger bioaccumulation factor (BAF) value. Additionally, BDE209 addition reduced the antioxidant enzymatic activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione-. s-transferase (GST)] and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). The decline trend in antioxidant enzymatic activities and T-AOC might explain an increase in lipid peroxidation reflected by the observed augment in malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Moreover, a biomarker of the lysosomal membrane stability, measured by neutral red retention time (NRRT), was also investigated. The NRRT obviously declined in the joint presence of BDE209, indicating a distinct time-response relationship. The results of these observations have provided a basic understanding of the potential eco-toxicological effects of joint heavy metal and BDE209 exposure on terrestrial invertebrates in a multi-contamination context of ecosystems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Zhang W.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Li J.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | Li J.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) is easily absorbed by soil particles but barely degraded over time. Its potential ecological risk has received extensive attention. Here we supplemented natural soil with three different levels of BDE209 (1, 10 and 100mgkg-1 dry weight (i.e., dw)) to focus on the behavior and toxicological effects of BDE209 in a soil-earthworm system. Results demonstrated that earthworms accumulated BDE209 quickly, followed by biphasic elimination. The uptake rate constant (ku) values ranged from 0.156 to 0.232 mgsoil kg-1wormd-1, while the depuration rate (kd) values ranged from 0.228 to 0.239d-1. Biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) was also calculated in the present study, and the BSAF values for BDE209 ranged from 0.074 to 0.123. Throughout 28-d exposure, the concentrations of BDE209 among soil, worm casts and earthworms reached steady-state equilibrium. BDE209 content in worm casts might be a good indicator of actual concentration in soil. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) was also conducted to assess the lysosomal membrane stability, and it declined during the uptake phase when BDE209 gradually accumulated in earthworms, indicating a good dose-response relationship. These observations provide new insights into the potential ecological effects of BDE209 in a model soil-earthworm system. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process and Shanghai Academy of Environmental science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are main pollutants at electric waste (e-waste) recycling sites (EWRSs), and their joint toxicological effects have received extensive attention. Frequently, soil pollution at EWRSs usually results from the occurrence of repeated single or multiple pollution events, with continuous impacts on soil microorganisms. Therefore, a laboratory incubation study was conducted to determine Pb bioavailability and microbial toxicity in repeated Pb-polluted soil in the presence of BDE209 for the first time. We evaluated the impacts of repetitive exposure trials on chemical fractions of Pb, and the results showed that repeated single Pb pollution event resulted in an increase of carbonates fraction of Pb, which was different from one-off single Pb exposure. Moreover, one-off Pb-treated groups exhibited higher I R (reduced partition index) values on day 30 and all treatments remained the same I R level at the end of incubation period. The parameters of microbial toxicity were well reflected by soil enzymes. During the entire incubation, the dehydrogenase and urease activities were significantly inhibited by Pb (P<0.01), and BDE209 supply could weaken the adverse influence. Additionally, significant correlations between available or metastable Pb and the two soil enzymes were clearly observed (P<0.05 or 0.01). Such observations would provide useful information for ecological effects of Pb and BDE209 at EWRSs.


PubMed | State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ecotoxicology (London, England) | Year: 2015

Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impacts on the oxidative perturbations and hydroxyl radical (OH) generation in earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remain almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the effects of Pb in earthworms Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 through the use of several biomarkers in microcosms. The results have demonstrated that the addition of BDE209 (1 or 10mgkg(-1)) decreased the enzymatic activities [superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase] and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) compared with exposure to BDE209 alone (50, 250 or 500mgkg(-1)). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicated that OH radicals in earthworms were significantly induced by Pb in the presence of BDE209. The changing pattern of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents was accordant with that of OH intensity suggested that reactive oxygen species might lead to cellular lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, CAT exhibited more sensitive response to single Pb exposure than the other biomarkers, while T-AOC, OH and MDA might be three most sensitive biomarkers in earthworms after simultaneous exposure to Pb and BDE209. The results of these observations suggested that oxidative stress appeared in E. fetida, and it may play an important role in inducing the Pb and BDE209 toxicity to earthworms.


PubMed | State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2015

Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the main pollutants at electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites (EWRSs), and their potential toxic effects on soil organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impact on soil microorganisms of joint exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed to explore the adverse impacts of Pb and BDE209 on soil microbial activities and chemical transformation for the first time. The results have demonstrated that BDE209 was barely degraded in all treated groups, indicating that the presence of Pb hardly affected BDE209 dissipation. The fractions analysis according to Tessier suggested that Pb gradually transformed towards more stable fractions in the slightly alkaline soil, thus reducing the bioavailability of Pb. Additionally, increased Pb doses caused significantly higher bioavailability (p<0.05), and the same trend was clearly observed after simultaneous exposure to BDE209. Generally, single Pb or BDE209 exposure markedly inhibited (p<0.05 or 0.01) soil microbial biomass C (C mic), while soil basal respiration (SBR) indicated the opposite response trend (inhibition or stimulation for BDE209 or Pb alone, respectively). Compared to the controls, Pb dramatically (p<0.01) facilitated soil metabolic quotient (qCO2) during the incubation period. After joint exposure to Pb and BDE209, C mic generally declined with increasing exposure concentration, following certain dose-response relationships. However, SBR and qCO2 were highly significantly stimulated (p<0.01), and more doses of Pb and BDE209 resulted in higher values. The results of these observations have provided a basic understanding of the potential ecological risk of Pb and BDE209 in soil at EWRSs.

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