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Kong S.,Nankai University | Kong S.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory | Kong S.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Ji Y.,Nankai University | And 12 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are produced in large amounts throughout the world and are excessively used in various industries, which have posed a serious threat to human health and the environment. An investigation of six major PAEs congeners in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 was synchronously conducted at seven sites belonging to different functional zones in spring, summer and winter in Tianjin, China in 2010. Results showed that the average concentrations of DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP and DOP in PM10 were 0.88, 0.73, 12.90, 0.15, 98.29 and 0.83ngm-3, respectively, and in PM2.5, they were 0.54, 0.30, 8.72, 0.08, 75.68 and 0.33ngm-3, respectively. DEHP and DBP were the predominant species. The industrial site exhibited highest PAEs values as 135.9±202.8ngm-3. In winter, the detected percentages for DOP were low. The other five PAEs concentrations were higher in winter than those in spring and summer, which may be related to the influence of emission sources, meteorological parameters and the chemical-physical characteristic of themselves. Except for DOP, other PAEs were negatively correlated with ambient temperature and the relationships were the best fitted as exponential forms. Significant positive correlations were found for PAEs in PM2.5 and PM10, indicating common sources. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios (0.53-0.70) for the six PAEs concentrations suggested that they were preferentially concentrated in finer particles. Principal component analysis indicated the emission from cosmetics and personal care products, plasticizers and sewage and industrial wastewater may be important sources for PAEs in atmospheric particulate matter in Tianjin. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Cheng Z.,Tsinghua University | Wang S.,Tsinghua University | Wang S.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory | Jiang J.,Tsinghua University | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2013

Haze pollution caused by heavy particulate matter (PM) loading brings significant damage in eastern China. Long-term monitoring from 1980 to 2011 and 1-year field measurement in 2011-2012 are used for investigating visibility variation and the impact of PM pollution for the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). It was found that visual range in the YRD endured a sharp reduction from 13.2 km to 10.5 km during 1980-2000. Average mass extinction efficiency (MEE) for inhalable PM (PM10) is 2.25 m2/g in 2001-2011, and extinction coefficient due to PM10 is 207 Mm-1, accounting for 36.2% of total extinction coefficient. MEE of PM2.5 and PM 2.5-10 are 4.08 m2/g and 0.58 m2/g, respectively. Extinction coefficient due to PM2.5 and PM 2.5-10 is 198 Mm-1 (39.6%) and 20 Mm-1 (4.0%) in 2011-2012. Maximum daily concentration of PM10 and PM 2.5 is estimated to be 63 μg/m3 (RH: 73%) and 38 μg/m3 (RH: 70%) to keep visual range above 10 km. Fine particulate matter is the key factor for haze pollution improvement in the YRD area. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kong S.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory | Kong S.,Nankai University | Ji Y.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory | Ji Y.,Nankai University | And 11 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

A total of 120 fugitive dust samples were collected to acquire chemical source profiles of PM10 in Fushun including 27 soil dust samples, 32 road dust samples, 19 construction dust samples, 13 coal storage pile samples, 2 cement production samples, 13 coal-fired power plant fly ash samples, 5 fly ash samples from iron smelt plant and 9 samples from industrial raw material and production piles. The samples were classified as 20 subtypes. The dust samples were dried, sieved, resuspended and sampled through a PM10 inlet onto filters, and then chemically analyzed. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, ion chromatograph and thermal/optical reflectance methods were adopted for analyzing twenty elements including Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb and Hg and nine ions including Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, F-, Cl-, NO3- and SO42- as well as OC and EC, respectively. The chemical compositions were compared for 20 subtypes. Si and Ca were the most abundant elements in all the fugitive dust profiles. Enrichment factors of elements in fly ashes compared to raw coal were calculated with Fe as reference element. The highest enriched elements were Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. Significant difference existed among PM10 profiles with the coefficient of divergence values ranging from 0.28 to 0.78. Profiles were compared with others. Si exhibited lower content in this study for soil and road dust while EC and Cr showed much higher content compared to others indicating the influence of coal mining and industries activities in Fushun. This was validated by source signatures analysis which indicated almost all the fugitive dust were relative to coal and may also be influenced by metallurgy. The ratios of Mn/V, V/Ni, Zn/Pb and Zn/Cd were calculated for source identification. Elemental ratios may vary widely even for the same source types with different processing courses. Chemical profiles of fugitive dust should be established based on characteristic sources for a specific region and updated timely. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Li Z.,Nankai University | Li Z.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory | Kong S.,Nankai University | Kong S.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory | And 13 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

A total of 82 surface soil samples collected from central urban sites, surrounding rural sites, coastal sites and background sites in Tianjin were analyzed for 84 PCB congeners. The mean values of total PCBs concentrations for surrounding rural sites, central urban sites, coastal sites, background sites and the whole Tianjin region were 4.45, 3.20, 12.65, 1.96 and 4.02ngg -1, respectively. No "urban fractionation effect" was found in Tianjin, which reflected the influence of local emission sources for PCBs such as industries and township enterprises in surrounding rural sites. In contrast, a "primary fractionation effect" was found in Tianjin region. The PCBs concentrations for whole Tianjin region showed a strong east-west gradient and the percentages of lighter molecular weight PCBs homologs (sum of di- to tetra-PCBs) to the total PCBs concentrations increased from east to west. The seven indicator PCBs concentrations were well correlated with the total PCBs concentrations with the correlation coefficients as 0.76 for Tianjin region and 0.74 for central urban sites, respectively. Predominant PCB homolog groups were penta- and tri-PCBs for Tianjin region. 10 dioxin-like PCBs concentrations were well correlated with total PCBs concentrations for all the sampling sites (R=0.79, P<0.0001). The TEQ concentrations for 10 dioxin-like PCBs were 5.3424 ngkg -1 for Tianjin region and showed a strong east to west gradient. The spatial distribution of PCBs levels, homolog composition patterns and TEQ concentrations were all obviously influenced by local emission sources for PCBs in the east part of Tianjin region. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Li J.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory | Li J.,East China University of Science and Technology | Zhang W.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory | Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2015

BDE209 and Pb are ubiquitous contaminants at e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs). This study aimed to determine acute and sub-acute toxicity to earthworm Eisenia fetida induced by BDE209 and Pb in natural soil. Results demonstrated that the inhibition of Pb on growth and reproduction of earthworms followed a dose-dependent pattern. Earthworms exposed to 100 mg kg-1 of BDE209 displayed avoidance responses, while the soil indicated a more obvious decline of habitat function with the increase of Pb level. Comet assay suggested that increasing concentrations of Pb exposure resulted in a gradual increase in the tail length and olive tail moment, which meant that the degree of DNA damage was promoted. BDE209 addition could reduce the damage; therefore the joint effects of both chemicals showed antagonistic. These results revealed that joint exposure (BDE209-Pb) could elicit pronounced biochemical and physiological responses in earthworms, and the DNA damage might be potential molecular biomarker of the two pollutants. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kong S.,Nankai University | Kong S.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory | Han B.,Nankai University | Han B.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory | And 8 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) were sampled synchronously during three monitoring campaigns from June 2007 to February 2008 at a coastal site in TEDA of Tianjin, China. Chemical compositions including 19 elements, 6 water-solubility ions, organic and elemental carbon were determined. principle components analysis (PCA) and chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) were applied to determine the PM sources and their contributions with the assistance of NSS SO42-, the mass ratios of NO3- to SO42- and OC to EC. Air mass backward trajectory model was compared with source apportionment results to evaluate the origin of PM. Results showed that NSS SO42- values for PM2.5 were 2147.38, 1701.26 and 239.80ng/m3 in summer, autumn and winter, reflecting the influence of sources from local emissions. Most of it was below zero in summer for PM10 indicating the influence of sea salt. The ratios of NO3- to SO42- was 0.19 for PM2.5, 0.18 for PM10 and 0.19 for TSP in winter indicating high amounts of coal consumed for heating purpose. Higher OC/EC values (mostly larger than 2.5) demonstrated that secondary organic aerosol was abundant at this site. The major sources were construction activities, road dust, vehicle emissions, marine aerosol, metal manufacturing, secondary sulfate aerosols, soil dust, biomass burning, some pharmaceutics industries and fuel-oil combustion according to PCA. Coal combustion, marine aerosol, vehicular emission and soil dust explained 5-31%, 1-13%, 13-44% and 3-46% for PM2.5, PM10 and TSP, respectively. Backward trajectory analysis showed air parcels originating from sea accounted for 39% in summer, while in autumn and winter the air parcels were mainly related to continental origin. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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