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Yang Y.,Changzhou University | Li X.,Changzhou University | Wang Q.,Beijing Normal University | Wang Q.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae

In this study, we combine the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model (IEUBK) and the Adult Lead Model (ALM) with the methods of laboratory tests, questionnaires, and documents to determine environment references of Pb in soil based on health risk by the study on the pregnant woman and child in Wenling of Zhejiang Province. The reference values were 180 mg·kg-1 and 555.6 mg·kg-1, respectively, lower than the values of Britain and other developed countries. Two kinds of model parameters were analyzed by Monte Carlo to discuss the prediction impact by changes in one factor model. The sensitivity of the lead exposure in air and drinking water of IEUBK model were 50.8%. The maximum probability of geometric standard deviation of women blood lead concentration in AIM model was -39.6%, while the sensitivity value of target blood lead concentration (n) in protection group was -19.5%. Respiratory exposure was the most significant and widespread and its impact was higher than oral exposure according to sensitivity analysis results. However, oral exposure had higher levels of digestion and absorption which caused uncertainties to the model prediction. Optimization of model parameters improved the sensitivity of the prediction results, leading to more scientific and accurate prediction results and less uncertainty. This study provided theoretical basis for the formulation of the reference value of lead in contaminated soil. Moreover, further study is needed to examine the suitability of the results to Chinese people, as the lead exposure receptors in the model are American. Source

Yu Y.J.,Beijing Normal University | Yu Y.J.,South China Institute of Environmental Sciences | Wang Q.,Beijing Normal University | Wang Q.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research

The sewage treatment industry intensively consumes energy, which results in high operating costs and aggravates the energy crisis in China to a certain extent. Therefore, the study of the energy consumption and conservation of sewage treatment processes is of high realistic significance. Domestic and overseas sewage treatment processes, their current status of energy consumption and energy audit, as well as the trend of sewage treatment processes and their energy conservation are explored to obtain theoretical enlightenment on the energy conservation, emission reduction, and sewage treatment recycling in China. The results show that the activated sludge process is mainly used in Chinese sewage treatment plants. The average energy consumption of all sewage treatments is 0.30 kWh/m3 in China. CASS achieved the lowest amount of average energy consumption at 0.24 kWh/m3. SBR obtained the largest energy consumption of 0.36 kWh/m3. The energy consumption is 0.06 kWh/m3 for sewage lifting, 0.178 kWh/m3 for sewage treatment, and 0.028 kWh/m3 for sludge treatment in China. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

Ma G.,Beijing Normal University | Ma G.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Wang Y.,Beijing Normal University | Wang Y.,China National Environmental Monitoring Center | And 7 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering

In order to study the diversity characteristic and pollution load of non-point source pollution of nitrogen and phosphorus in the Songhua River, and provide a reference for the water environment management, based on remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) technique, using the data of digital elevation model (DEM), county statistics and land use in Songhua River Basin in 2008, the space simulation and load estimation of non-point source pollution in the Songhua River Basin was conducted by export coefficient model (ECM), and the diversity of the non-point source pollution characteristics in the basin was analyzed. The results showed that the non-point source total nitrogen (TN) load was 112.99×10 4 t and total phosphorus (TP) load was 4.05×10 4 t in the Songhua River Basin in 2008 respectively. Nenjiang River sub-basin was the maximum load of TN and TP which was 52.80×10 4 t and 1.79×10 4t respectively, accounting for 46.09% and 44.14% of the total TN and TP. The maximum load intensity of TN and TP was the second Songhua River sub-basin which was 2.96 t/(km 2·a) and 0.11 t/(km 2·a) respectively. From the perspective of non-point sources, 95.92×10 4t of TN loads and 3.40×10 4t of TP loads were caused by anthropogenic activities, accounting for 83.90% and 83.94% of the total TN and TP respectively. Anthropogenic factor is the key of non-point source TN and TP of the Songhua River, natural causes should not be ignored as well. The results can provide reference for water environment management and overall understanding the non-point source pollution of the Songhua River. Source

Dong W.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Dong W.,State Environment Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco process and Function Assessment | Shu J.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Shu J.,State Environment Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco process and Function Assessment | And 4 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research

The lake carbon circle is an important part of regional carbon circle research. The lake ecosystem is the important carbon storeroom in the earth, it absorbs a mass of carbon dioxide through photosynthesis, and transforms carbon dioxide to organically carbon, and then the lake has traits of abundant carbon reserves and heavy carbon density. As the especial geographical place and upper productivity, the lake has significant role in carbon circle. By now, there is clear acquaintanceship of greenhouse effect problem, especial we have qualitative and quantificational understanding of ocean carbon circle primary. But we have a little research of lake carbon circle and carbon flux. There are many lakes in China, so it is crucial meaning to study lake carbon circle. In this paper, the improved Static Chamber and Li8100 that used to monitor soil Carbon Flux are introduced. Through continuously monitoring from July to November 2010, in northern Grass-type Lake-Baiyangdian demonstration, a series of conclusion are concluded about lake Carbon Flux : the day-variation of Carbon Fluxes chenged significantly, and varying followed time and temperature, the highest Carbon Flux is consistent to the highest temperature; the rule of day-variation is similar to aforesaid the three months(except special days), but Carbon Fluxes are not same, August>October> November. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

Wang T.-M.,Beijing Normal University | Wang T.-M.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Wang T.-M.,State Environment Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco process and Function Assessment | Wang Y.-Y.,Beijing Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis

Fluorescence characterization of soil dissolved organic matter (DOM), which is one of the most important indexes concerning study on soil organic matter, can be effected by freezing and thawing cycles. In this paper, the fluorescence characterization of black soil DOM under the effect of freezing and thawing cycles was studied, using three-dimensional excitation-emission-matrix fluorescence spectroscopic (EEM). Based on the transformation of fluorescence characterization, the influences of humification degree and active humus in black soil were analysed. The result showed, compared with untreated by freezing and thawing cycles, (1) The phenomena red-shift of UV fulvic-like was found in soil DOM. It meant that the aromatization and humification degree increased. (2) Protein-like fluorescence peak was observed in some soil samples, which meant microbial activity was enhanced. (3) Active humus and humification degree are the indexs of soil fertility. The content of TOC in the active humus rose, just the same as the value of humification degree. It meant that soil fertility was improved. (4) Compared with the ratio of UV: visible humic-like fluorescence (r(a,c)), there were positive correlations with the active humus and humification degree. It meant that r(a,c) of soil DOM was one of the indexs on active humus, humification degree and soil fertility effected by freezing and thawing cycles. Source

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