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Ahtola T.,Geological Survey of Finland | Eilu P.,Geological Survey of Finland | Karkkainen N.,Geological Survey of Finland | Tiainen M.,Geological Survey of Finland | And 24 more authors.
Special Paper of the Geological Survey of Finland | Year: 2012

Forty-seven metallogenic areas have been identified in Finland. Of these, 10 areas are dominantly potential for ferrous metals (Fe, Ti, V, Cr), 11 for precious metals (Au, Pd, Pt), 11 for nickel, 8 for copper, zinc and/or lead, 4 for metals mostly used in advanced technologies ('hightech metals' Be, Li, Nb, REE, Ta), and 3 for uranium. Many of the metallogenic areas are potential for more than just one major group of metals. The Finnish metallogenic areas include more than 30 different genetic types of metal deposits. By past production and present resources, the most significant deposit types include: mafic intrusion-hosted Ti-Fe-V (e.g., Mustavaara deposit at Koillismaa), mafic to ultramafic hosted Cr (Kemi), IOCG-style Fe±Cu,Au (Hannukainen deposit in the Pajala-Kolari area), magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE (Portimo, Koillismaa, Hitura and Kotalahti areas, and Kevitsa and Sakatti deposits), orogenic gold (Kittilä, and VMS (Vihanti-Pyhäsalmi). Highly significant are also the unique deposit types of Outokumpu Cu-Co and Talvivaara Ni-Zn-Cu-Co. Most of the known metal endowment of Finland was formed during the Palaeoproterozoic Era, during 2.45-1.92 Ga multi-stage rifting and the 1.9-1.8 Ga Svecofennian orogeny. Detected metal endowment in the Archaean is relatively low with minor komatiite-related Ni (Kuhmo) and orogenic gold deposits (Ilomantsi). Carbonatite-hosted Nb-REE at Sokli, dated to ca. 365 Ma, is the main post-Svecofennian metal deposit known from Finland. Source

Korsakova M.,State Company Mineral | Krasotkin S.,State Company Mineral | Iljina M.,Geological Survey of Finland | Lauri L.,Geological Survey of Finland | Nilsson L.P.,Geological Survey of Norway
Special Paper of the Geological Survey of Finland | Year: 2012

There are 40 major metallogenic areas within the Russian part of the Fennoscandian shield. Of these, 14 areas show potential dominantly for ferrous metals (Fe, Mn, Ti, V, Cr), 12 for precious metals (Au, Pd, Pt), 6 for nickel, 5 for metals mostly used in modern, advanced technologies ('high-tech metals' Li, Nb, REE, Sn, Ta, Zr), but only 3 for copper, zinc and/or lead. However, a number of the areas are potential for more than one major group of metals. More than 20 genetic types of metal deposits are known from the area. By past production and present resources, the most significant deposits and areas include: BIF (Kostomuksha), carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion associated rare metal (Kola Province), and the mafic intrusion-hosted Ti-Fe±V, Cr and Ni-Cu-PGE (Pechenga, Zaimandrovskaya, Burakovka). Nearly all known deposits are either Archaean (especially the BIF), Palaeoproterozoic or Devonian (Kola and Northern Karelia) in age. There also is a large number of gold-potential metallogenic areas, some with geology largely similar to that in significant gold mine camps else where in the world, whereas very little gold mining has so far taken place. This suggest that, with more exploration, also the Russian part of Fennoscandia may eventually emerge as a significant gold producer. The situation may be similar from a few other metals, too. Source

Eilu P.,Geological Survey of Finland | Nurmi P.A.,Geological Survey of Finland | Tontti M.,Geological Survey of Finland | Boyd R.,Geological Survey of Norway | And 4 more authors.
Special Paper of the Geological Survey of Finland | Year: 2012

The earliest indications of mining in Fennoscandia are from Sweden and Norway where exploitation of bog and bedrock iron deposits started more than 2000 years ago. Signs of prehistoric mining have been detected also from Finland. Sweden and Norway also record the first underground mining in the region, at about 11th and 12th centuries. Mining grew extensively in the 16th and 17th centuries in Sweden and Norway, both in the number of operations and in metals mined. In addition to iron, copper and silver, later also nickel, zinc and cobalt become significant products. Underground mining probably started in the 17th century in Finland and in the 18th century in NW Russia. Mining in modern industrial scales started in the region about 100 years ago with the extension of old mines and opening of new mines. This also resulted in globally substantial development in mining and ore processing technology in the whole region. A large number of mines were closed during the 20th century. On the other hand, there has been a huge increase in the size of individual operations in Fennoscandia since the end of the Second World War. Presently, mining is in increase with extension and reopening of old mines and with opening of new, dominantly very large mines. The present metals production is dominated by iron, titanium, copper, nickel and zinc, but also production of gold, cobalt, vanadium, uranium, lithium, and the REE are projected to significantly increase in the near future. Source

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