State College, PA, United States
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Echemendia R.J.,State College | Echemendia R.J.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Bruce J.M.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Bailey C.M.,Case Western Reserve University | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Neuropsychologist | Year: 2012

Neuropsychological tests have become commonplace in the assessment of sports-related concussion. Typically, post-injury test data are compared to pre-injury baselines. Baseline testing can be expensive and logistically challenging, yet the usefulness of neuropsychological baseline testing has not been tested empirically. This paper examines the extent to which baseline testing is useful for detecting neurocognitive deficits following sports concussion in a college-age population. A total of 223 collegiate athletes from multiple sports who sustained concussions and had both baseline and post-injury testing using Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) were included in the study. Reliable change (RC) in scores was determined by two approaches, the Jacobson and Truax (JT) and the Gulliksen-Lord-Novick (GLN) methods. The 90% confidence interval was used for both. Classification using these methods was compared to standard normative methods that compared post-concussion performance to baseline population means. Agreement between reliable change and normative methods was examined using Cohen's Kappa scores to determine whether post-injury scores alone could identify reliable cognitive decline. Mean time from concussion to post-injury testing was 3.40 days. The percentage of athletes who declined when using the JT method was similar to the percentage that would be expected to decline due to chance alone. Although the GLN and JT methods demonstrated moderate to substantial agreement, the GLN method consistently identified more cognitively compromised athletes than the JT method. Post-injury scores alone identified a significant majority of athletes with a reliable decline on ImPACT. Although preliminary and in need of replication across age groups and instruments, these findings suggest that the majority of collegiate athletes who experience clinically meaningful post-concussion cognitive decline can be identified without baseline data. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Bassily R.,University of Maryland University College | Ekrem E.,University of Maryland University College | He X.,State College | Tekin E.,State College | And 5 more authors.
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine | Year: 2013

Wireless communications systems are particularly vulnerable to security attacks because of the inherent openness of the transmission medium. In this article, we focus on guaranteeing confidentiality against eavesdropping attacks where an unauthorized entity aims to intercept an ongoing wireless communication, and we provide a comprehensive summary of recent advances in the area of physical-layer security that guarantees confidentiality by using cooperative techniques unique to the wireless medium. These cooperative techniques consist of carefully designed coding and signaling schemes that are able to harness the properties of the physical layer and to ensure some level of information-theoretic security. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

Gombotz K.,State College | Parette R.,State College | Austic G.,Piedmont Biofuels Industrial Llc | Kannan D.,Pennsylvania State University | Matson J.V.,State College
Fuel | Year: 2012

Manganese (II) oxide (MnO) and titanium (II) oxide (TiO) solid catalysts were found to be robust catalysts for both the transesterification of triglycerides and esterification of free fatty acids. These metal oxides were shown to exhibit long life with little loss of activity. The ability to esterify free fatty acids (FFA) and handle high levels of water illustrates the potential of these catalysts to produce biodiesel from low quality feedstocks without the pretreatment operations required with the traditional process. Some soaps were produced in the presence of free fatty acids, but soaps were within tolerable levels and formed at concentrations that were orders of magnitude lower than the traditional process. This results in significant reductions in product washing. By utilizing a 2-stage process, high quality fuel (meeting ASTM specifications) and glycerol were produced. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Small A.A.,State College | Stefik J.B.,Pennsylvania State University | Verlinde J.,Pennsylvania State University | Johnson N.C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Monthly Weather Review | Year: 2011

A decision algorithm is presented that improves the productivity of data collection activities in stochastic environments. The algorithm was developed in the context of an aircraft field campaign organized to collect data in situ from boundary layer clouds. Required lead times implied that aircraft deployments had to be scheduled in advance, based on imperfect forecasts regarding the presence of conditions meeting specified requirements. Given an overall cap on the number of flights, daily fly/no-fly decisions were taken traditionally using a discussion-intensive process involving heuristic analysis of weather forecasts by a group of skilled human investigators. An alternative automated decision process uses self-organizing maps to convert weather forecasts into quantified probabilities of suitable conditions, together with a dynamic programming procedure to compute the opportunity costs of using up scarce flights from the limited budget. Applied to conditions prevailing during the 2009 Routine ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, the algorithm shows a 21% increase in data yield and a 66% improvement in skill over the heuristic decision process used traditionally. The algorithmic approach promises to free up investigators' cognitive resources, reduce stress on flight crews, and increase productivity in a range of data collection applications. © 2011 American Meteorological Society.

Okajima S.,State College | Okajima H.,Pennsylvania State University
Energy Economics | Year: 2013

This paper estimates elasticities of Japanese residential price electricity from 1990 to 2007. The first difference generalized method of moment estimator is employed to avoid dynamic panel bias, which is not considered in most previous studies. The results show that while short-run elasticities are similar to those in previous studies, long-run elasticities are significantly lower in our study. We also find that the price elasticity of Japanese residential electricity consumption is notably affected by income inequality and severe weather. Based on these results, we provide some insights to tailor environmental taxation so as to effectively attain the Kyoto Protocol. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Derstine T.,State College
Annals of clinical psychiatry : official journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists | Year: 2010

Another option for managing major depressive disorder (MDD) became available in October 2008 with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) market clearance of NeuroStar TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation) Therapy System. A panel of psychiatrists who have been treating patients with NeuroStar TMS Therapy in their clinics assembled for a virtual roundtable discussion regarding their experiences. In this supplement, the panel addresses the following issues: the FDA-cleared indication for use of NeuroStar TMS Therapy; logistic and staffing considerations in the outpatient setting; selecting the right patient for TMS Therapy; talking with patients and family about TMS Therapy. To give the overview a meaningful context, each panelist shares a personal account of a patient case, describing the treatment course and outcomes achieved with TMS Therapy.

Rosamilia L.L.,State College
Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery | Year: 2016

Acne and rosacea are common inflammatory processes historically classified in the same disease category, but evolving understanding of their disparate pathophysiology and exacerbating factors have generated an enormous armamentarium of therapeutic possibilities. Patients seek over-the-counter therapies first when managing cutaneous disease; therefore, this review defines ingredients considered to be effective over-the-counter acne and rosacea products, their mechanisms, and safe formulations, including botanical components, oral supplements, and other anecdotal options in this vast skin care domain. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.

Patil N.,State College | Hwang K.,Stanford University | Goodman S.B.,Stanford University
Orthopedics | Year: 2012

The reconstruction of major acetabular bone defects during revision, conversion, and primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) is challenging. We reviewed a consecutive series of 168 THAs (108 revisions, 8 conversions, and 52 primary THAs) performed by 1 surgeon (S.B.G.) between 1997 and 2008 using impaction bone grafting for acetabular reconstruction. Autograft, cancellous allograft croutons, and demineralized bone matrix were used to fill bone defects as needed. The acetabular bone deficiency was classified according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: type I, segmental deficiency with significant rim defect; type II, cavitary defects medially or posteriorly; type III, combined cavitary and segmental deficiency; type IV, pelvic discontinuity; and type V, arthrodesis. According to this method, 56 hips had type I, 31 hips had type II, 48 hips had type III, and 27 hips had type IV deficiencies. Of the 168 patients, 19 subsequently died of causes unrelated to the THA, and 11 were lost to follow-up. All patients had at least 2 years of follow-up. Average Harris Hip Score improved from 45.5±17.9 preoperatively to 81.1±16.5 postoperatively (P<.05) for revision THAs, from 40.0±11.3 preoperatively to 85.0±12.8 postoperatively (P<.05) for conversion THAs, and from 42.3±14.9 preoperatively to 85.0±12.0 postoperatively (P<.05) for primary THAs. All impaction grafted bone (allograft, autograft, or a combination) incorporated radiographically, thus restoring bone stock. Complications included 1 early infection, which was managed successfully with debridement and liner exchange, and 2 late infections that were managed successfully with staged revision. Two revisions required subsequent re-revision for late loosening. Two hip dislocations occurred, 1 of which required surgical treatment to place a constrained liner.

Skulas-Ray A.C.,Pennsylvania State University | Kris-Etherton P.M.,Pennsylvania State University | Harris W.S.,University of South Dakota | Vanden Heuvel J.P.,Pennsylvania State University | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality at a dose of ≈1 g/d. Studies using higher doses have shown evidence of reduced inflammation and improved endothelial function. Few studies have compared these doses. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a nutritional dose of EPA+DHA (0.85 g/d) with those of a pharmaceutical dose (3.4 g/d) on serum triglycerides, inflammatory markers, and endothelial function in healthy subjects with moderately elevated triglycerides. Design: This was a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, 3-period crossover trial (8 wk of treatment, 6 wk of washout) that compared the effects of 0.85 and 3.4 g EPA+DHA/d in 23 men and 3 postmenopausal women with moderate hypertriglyceridemia (150-500 mg/dL). Results: The higher dose of EPA+DHA lowered triglycerides by 27% compared with placebo (mean ± SEM: 173 ± 17.5 compared with 237 ± 17.5 mg/dL; P = 0.002), whereas no effect of the lower dose was observed on lipids. No effects on cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL), endothelial function [as assessed by flow-mediated dilation, peripheral arterial tonometry/EndoPAT (Itamar Medical Ltd, Caesarea, Israel), or Doppler measures of hyperemia], inflammatory markers (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), or the expression of inflammatory cytokine genes in isolated lymphocytes were observed. Conclusion: The higher dose (3.4 g/d) of EPA+DHA significantly lowered triglycerides, but neither dose improved endothelial function or inflammatory status over 8 wk in healthy adults with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00504309. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.

Ulbrecht J.S.,Pennsylvania State University | Ulbrecht J.S.,State College | Ulbrecht J.S.,Diapedia, Llc | Hurley T.,Diapedia, Llc | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of in-shoe orthoses that were designed based on shape and barefoot plantar pressure in reducing the incidence of submetatarsal head plantar ulcers in people with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and a history of similar prior ulceration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Single-blinded multicenter randomized controlled trial with subjects randomized towear shape- and pressure-based orthoses (experimental, n = 66) or standard-ofcare A5513 orthoses (control, n = 64). Patients were followed for 15 months, until a study end point (forefoot plantar ulcer or nonulcerative plantar forefoot lesion) or to study termination. Proportional hazards regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: There was a trend in the composite primary end point (both ulcers and nonulcerative lesions) across the full follow-up period (P = 0.13) in favor of the experimental orthoses. This trend was due to a marked difference in ulcer occurrence (P = 0.007) but no difference in the rate of nonulcerative lesions (P = 0.76). At 180 days, the ulcer prevention effect of the experimental orthoses was already significant (P = 0.003) when compared with control, and the benefit of the experimental orthoses with respect to the composite end point was also significant (P = 0.042). The hazard ratio was 3.4 (95% CI 1.3- 8.7) for the occurrence of a submetatarsal head plantar ulcer in the control compared with experimental arm over the duration of the study. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that shape- and barefoot plantar pressure -based orthoses were more effective in reducing submetatarsal head plantar ulcer recurrence than current standard-of-care orthoses, but they did not signi fi cantly reduce nonulcerative lesions. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

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