State Center for Health Statistics

Raleigh, United States

State Center for Health Statistics

Raleigh, United States
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Oster M.E.,Emory University | Oster M.E.,Children's Healthcare Of Atlanta | Watkins S.,Methodist University | Hill K.D.,Duke University | And 2 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes | Year: 2017

Background - Most studies evaluating neurocognitive outcomes in children with congenital heart defects (CHD) have focused on high-risk patients or used specialized, resource-intensive testing. To determine the association of CHD with academic outcomes and compare outcomes according to the severity of CHD, we linked state educational records with a birth defects registry and birth certificates. Methods and Results - We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program, North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, and North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services vital records. We performed logistic regression, adjusting for maternal education, race/ethnicity, enrollment in public pre-Kindergarten, and gestational age, to determine the association of CHD with not meeting standards on reading and math end-of-grade examinations in third grade in 2006 to 2012. Of 5624 subjects with CHD and 10 832 with no structural birth defects, 2807 (50%) and 6355 (59%) were linked, respectively. Children with CHD had 1.24× the odds of not meeting standards in either reading or math (95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.37), with 44.6% of children with CHD not meeting standards in at least one of these areas compared with 37.5% without CHD. Although children with both critical and noncritical CHD had poorer outcomes, those with critical CHD were significantly more likely to receive exceptional services compared with the noncritical group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.86). Conclusions - Children with all types of CHD have poorer academic outcomes compared with their peers. Evaluation for exceptional services should be considered in children with any type of CHD. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

Werler M.M.,Boston University | Yazdy M.M.,Boston University | Kasser J.R.,Boston Childrens Hospital | Mahan S.T.,Boston Childrens Hospital | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2014

Clubfoot, a common major structural malformation, develops early in gestation. Epidemiologic studies have identified higher risks among boys, first-born children, and babies with a family history of clubfoot, but studies of risks associated with maternal exposures are lacking. We conducted the first large-scale, population-based, case-control study of clubfoot with detailed information on maternal medication use in pregnancy. Study subjects were ascertained from birth defect registries in Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina during 2007-2011. Cases were 646 mothers of children with clubfoot without other major structural malformations (i.e., isolated clubfoot); controls were mothers of 2,037 children born without major malformations. Mothers were interviewed within 12 months of delivery about medication use, including product, timing, and frequency. Odds ratios were estimated for exposure to 27 medications in pregnancy months 2-4 after adjustment for study site, infant sex, first-born status, body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), and smoking. Odds ratios were less than 1.20 for 14 of the medications; of the remainder, most odds ratios were only slightly elevated (range, 1.21-1.66), with wide confidence intervals. The use of antiviral drugs was more common in clubfoot cases than in controls (odds ratio = 4.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.52, 11.73). Most of these results are new findings and require confirmation in other studies. © 2014 The Author 2014.

Pleasants R.A.,Duke University | Ohar J.A.,Wake forest University | Croft J.B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Liu Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 4 more authors.
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease | Year: 2014

Background: Persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or asthma have great risk for morbidity. There has been sparse state-specific surveillance data to estimate the impact of COPD or COPD with concomitant asthma (overlap syndrome) on health-related impairment. Methods: The North Carolina (NC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) was used to assess relationships between COPD and asthma with health impairment indicators. Five categories COPD, current asthma, former asthma, overlap syndrome, and neither; were defined for 24,073 respondents. Associations of these categories with health impairments (physical or mental disability, use of special equipment, mental or physical distress) and with co-morbidities (diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, arthritis, and high blood pressure) were assessed. Results: Fifteen percent of NC adults reported a COPD and/or asthma history. The overall age-adjusted prevalence of any self-reported COPD and current asthma were 5.6% and 7.6%, respectively; 2.4% reported both. In multivariable analyses, adults with overlap syndrome, current asthma only, and COPD only were twice as likely as those with neither disease to report health impairments (p < 0.05). Compared to those with neither disease, adults with overlap syndrome and COPD were more likely to have co-morbidities (p < 0.05). The prevalence of the five co-morbid conditions was highest in overlap syndrome; comparisons with the other groups were significant (p < 0.05) only for diabetes, stroke, and arthritis. Conclusions: The BRFSS demonstrates different levels of health impairment among persons with COPD, asthma, overlap syndrome, and those with neither disease. Persons reporting overlap syndrome had the most impairment and highest prevalence of co-morbidities. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Austin A.,Injury Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit | Herrick H.,State Center for Health Statistics | Proescholdbell S.,Injury Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2016

Objectives. We explored the association of sexual orientation with poor adult health outcomes before and after adjustment for exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Methods. Data were from the 2012 North Carolina, 2011 Washington, and 2011 and 2012 Wisconsin Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys regarding health risks, perceived poor health, and chronic conditions by sexual orientation and 8 categories of ACEs. There were 711 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) respondents and 29 690 heterosexual respondents. Results. LGB individuals had a higher prevalence of all ACEs than heterosexuals, with odds ratios ranging from 1.4 to 3.1. After adjustment for cumulative exposure to ACEs, sexual orientation was no longer associated with poor physical health, current smoking, and binge drinking. Associations with poor mental health, activity limitation, HIV risk behaviors, current asthma, depression, and disability remained, but were attenuated. Conclusions. The higher prevalence of ACEs among LGB individuals may account for some of their excess risk for poor adult health outcomes.

Subramanian S.,Research Triangle Institute | Trogdon J.,Research Triangle Institute | Ekwueme D.U.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Gardner J.G.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 2 more authors.
Medical Care | Year: 2011

Background: To date, no study has reported on the cost of treating breast cancer among Medicaid beneficiaries younger than 65 years of age. This information is essential for assessing the funding required for treatment programs established by the Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment Act of 2000. Objective: This study assesses the incremental cost of breast cancer treatment among Medicaid beneficiaries aged below 65 years. Research design: Administrative data from the North Carolina Medicaid program linked with cancer registry data were analyzed to derive monthly Medicaid costs for cancer patients and the incremental costs of breast cancer treatment at 6, 12, and 24 months from diagnosis. We compared 848 beneficiaries diagnosed with cancer during the years 2002 to 2004 with 1696 comparison cases matched on age. Results: With the exception of in situ cancers, the cost of cancer care continued to increase beyond the initial 6-month period. The incremental costs at 6 months after diagnosis are $14,341, $24,002, and $34,469 for those with local, regional, and distant breast cancers, respectively; and these costs increased to $22,343, $41,005, and $117,033 at 24 months. Conclusions: The extended period of health care utilization, beyond the immediate 6-month period after diagnosis, indicates that Medicaid coverage may be required for many months after diagnosis to complete treatment. Continuous Medicaid coverage should be provided for an adequate time period to ensure that complete and comprehensive treatment is provided. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Harper M.A.,Mountain Area Health Education Center | Harper M.A.,State Center for Health Statistics | Harper M.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Meyer R.E.,Mountain Area Health Education Center | And 5 more authors.
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2012

Objective: To estimate the birth prevalence and 7-year case-fatality rate of peripartum cardiomyopathy for a statewide population by applying the National Institutes of Health Workshop on Peripartum Cardiomyopathy definition, including echocardiographic criteria for left ventricular dysfunction. Methods: This was an epidemiologic study of residents of North Carolina experiencing an obstetric delivery or a pregnancy-related death before delivery in 2002 through 2003 including 235,599 live births. Potential cases were identified from International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), pregnancy and cardiovascular codes followed by medical record review, and from the state pregnancy-related mortality file. Only women meeting the established definition including echocardiographic criteria for left ventricular dysfunction and women with diagnoses at autopsy were included. The state death file and the U.S. Social Security Death Index were searched for the years 2002 through 2010 for all cases. Results: A total of 740 potential cases from 70 hospitals were identified from discharge ICD-9-CM codes. The medical records for 698 (94.3%) were located and reviewed. Seventy-eight met inclusion criteria. An additional seven women had diagnoses only at autopsy. The birth prevalence was 1 case for every 2,772 live births or 3.61 cases per 10,000 live births (95% confidence interval 2.88-4.46). The 7-year case-fatality rate was 16.5% (95% confidence interval 10-25.9%). Black non-Hispanic women experienced an almost fourfold increased prevalence and fatality compared with white women. Women older than age 35 years had the highest prevalence. CONCLUSIONS:: The racial disparity in both birth prevalence and case-fatality is striking; one in six women died within 7 years. © 2012 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Herrick H.W.,State Center for Health Statistics
North Carolina medical journal | Year: 2012

Data from the North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey show that, from 2005-2010, cardiovascular disease (CVD) was approximately 3 times more prevalent among adults with disabilities than among those without disabilities. Likelihood of having multiple CVD risk factors was also increased. Early intervention to prevent CVD in people with disabilities is warranted.

Vinikoor-Imler L.C.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Davis J.A.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Meyer R.E.,State Center for Health Statistics | Luben T.J.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the potential relationship between air pollution and birth defects. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) during pregnancy is associated with birth defects among women living throughout North Carolina. METHODS: Information on maternal and infant characteristics was obtained from North Carolina birth certificates and health service data (2003-2005) and linked with information on birth defects from the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program. The 24-hr PM2.5 and O3 concentrations were estimated using a hierarchical Bayesian model of air pollution generated by combining modeled air pollution predictions from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Community Multi-Scale Air Quality model with air monitor data from the Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System. Maternal residence was geocoded and assigned pollutant concentrations averaged over weeks 3 to 8 of gestation. Binomial regression was performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: No association was observed between either PM2.5 or O3 concentrations and most birth defects. Positive effect estimates were observed between air pollution and microtia/anotia and lower limb deficiency defects, but the 95% confidence intervals were wide and included the null. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study suggested a possible relationship between air pollution concentration during early pregnancy and certain birth defects (e.g., microtia/anotia, lower limb deficiency defects), although this study did not have the power to detect such an association. The risk for most birth defects does not appear to be affected by ambient air pollution. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Buescher P.A.,State Center for Health Statistics
North Carolina medical journal | Year: 2010

Health disparities for many diseases are large and long-standing in North Carolina and the nation. This study examines medical care costs for diabetes associated with health disparities among adults (age, > or =78 years) enrolled in Medicaid in North Carolina during state fiscal year (SFY) 2007-2008 (i.e., July 7, 2007, through June 30, 2008). North Carolina Medicaid paid claims and enrollment data were used to calculate the prevalence of and medical care expenditures for diabetes among adult Medicaid enrollees overall and by white, African American, and American Indian race. The impacts of racial and economic health disparities on medical care costs for diabetes were determined by first calculating the proportionate differences between the diabetes prevalence for whites, African Americans, and American Indians enrolled in Medicaid and the diabetes prevalence among all whites in North Carolina. Then it was assumed that medical care costs for white, African American, and American Indian Medicaid recipients could be reduced by the same proportion if the overall prevalence among whites was achieved. The diabetes prevalence among adult Medicaid enrollees was 75.7%, compared with 9.1% for all North Carolina adults. During SFY 2007-2008, the state Medicaid program in North Carolina spent $525 million for diabetes-related medical care and prescription drugs among adults. An estimated $225 million in diabetes-related expenditures could be saved each year by the North Carolina Medicaid program if both racial and economic disparities in the diabetes prevalence were eliminated. We did not have data on non-Medicaid paid health care expenditures for the Medicaid enrollees in our study. The costs of interventions to eliminate health disparities associated with diabetes are not included in the calculation of the potential savings. The diabetes prevalence in the Medicaid population is much greater than that for all North Carolinians, and the Medicaid costs associated with this elevated prevalence are large. North Carolina health-policy makers and health-program managers should carefully evaluate investments in interventions to reduce these race- and economic-based differences in diabetes prevalence, which could potentially reduce Medicaid costs.

Root E.D.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Meyer R.E.,State Center for Health Statistics | Meyer R.E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Emch M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2011

This study examines associations between area-level socioeconomic factors and the birth defect gastroschisis in order to further our understanding of the etiology of this condition. Specifically, this study explores how measuring socioeconomic conditions at different geographic scales affect the results of statistical models. A population-based case-control study of resident live births was conducted using data from the North Carolina Birth Defect Monitoring Program and the North Carolina composite linked birth files from 1998 through 2004. Neighborhood conditions potentially related to gastroschisis (poverty, unemployment, education, and racial composition) were measured using Census 2000 data and aggregated to several geographic scales. The Brown-Forsythe test of homogeneity of variance was used to select the neighborhood size by examining the effect of neighborhood size on variation in gastroschisis rates. To examine our assumptions about neighborhood size and neighborhood effects on gastroschisis, we estimated a series of logistic regression and multilevel logistic regression models. The Brown-Forsythe test suggested an optimal neighborhood size with a circular radius of approximately 2500 m, which was supported by the statistical analysis. Results indicate a weak association between living in a neighborhood characterized by high poverty and unemployment and an elevated risk of a gastroschisis-affected pregnancy after adjusting for individual-level risk factors. Cross-level interactions indicate that women in low poverty neighborhoods who do not rely on Medicaid have a significantly lower risk of gastroschisis. The choice of neighborhood scale influences model results suggesting that socioeconomic processes may influence health outcomes variably at different scales. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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