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Voth C.,Puget Sound Naval Shipyard | White N.,Stanley Consultants | Yadama V.,Washington State University | Cofer W.,Washington State University
Journal of Renewable Materials | Year: 2015

Part of a long-term goal of developing a sustainable composite panel that meets both structural and energy performance requirements in building construction applications, this study discusses the development of a thinwalled wood-strand 3D core element that shows promise for a variety of panelized construction applications, such as in a building envelope. Sandwich panels take advantage of the lightweight corrugated core sandwiched between stress skin faces acting similar to an I-beam. Specific bending stiffness of sandwich panels fabricated with ponderosa pine strands was significantly higher than average values of commercially produced composite panels of equivalent thickness (141-156% and 120-133% stiffer than oriented strand board (OSB) and 5-ply plywood respectively). Compared to OSB of equivalent thickness, sandwich panels require 40% less wood strands by weight, which also means lower usage of resin. This basic concept creates tremendous flexibility in designing panelized wall, floor and roof elements for building envelope applications. © 2015 Scrivener Publishing LLC.


Price R.,Stanley Consultants | Daniel C.,Stanley Consultants | Phipps A.,Stanley Consultants
Consulting-Specifying Engineer | Year: 2010

Several methods that are used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies to ensure good air quality are presented. One method is to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for specific pollutants and another is to set limits for specific air pollutants emitted by a facility through emission performance standards or permit conditions. NAAQS have two components that include the level and the form. The form of the standard defines the time period over which the standard is evaluated. The shorter time periods can have the effect of increasing the stringency of a standard by reducing the ability to average conditions over longer time periods. The EPA is replacing the current 24-hour and annual standards with a new short-term standard based on the 3-year average of the 99th percentile of the yearly distribution of 1-hour daily maximum SO 2 concentrations. The EPA is setting the level of the new standard at 75 ppb.

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