Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute

Olsztyn, Poland

Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute

Olsztyn, Poland
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Napiorkowska-Krzebietke A.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute
Journal of Elementology | Year: 2017

This article focuses on the biochemical composition and the role of phytoplankton (primary pro­ducer) as a basic nutritional source in diets of fish. In general, an aquatic classical food web comprises phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish (planktivorous and predatory ones) as predomi­nant elements, which in turn define the linear direction of an energy-flow pathway and nutritio­nal transfer. Phytoplankton provides many valuable phytonutrients and biologically active in­gredients, especially fatty acids, amino acids, sterols, organic minerals, enzymes, carotenoids, chlorophyll, trace elements, and vitamins, which are directly available for the first larval/juve­nile stages of fish or indirectly (through trophic chains) for the more mature forms. Regarding the biochemical composition of phytoplankton, the most nutritional ones are lipids, which affect the growth, health and reproduction of aquatic animals, especially fish species. In general, the freshwater and marine chlorophytes and cryptophytes, and marine diatoms provide more poly­unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA>SAFA>MUFA) than other groups, differently to fatty acids supplied by freshwater cyanobacteria (SAFA>MUFA>PUFA). Furthermore, cryptophytes have the highest n-3:n-6 ratio. A similarly high ratio is recorded in fatty acid composition of marine zooplankton with predominant PUFA. Addition of phytoplankton (e.g. Isochrysis galbana, Tetra­selmis chui and Nannochloropsis oculata) to the process of fish larval rearing shows to improve the digestive functions at the pancreatic and intestinal levels. The most essential fatty acids for all fish are EPA and DHA, and the most popular fish species containing 4.08-11.84 mg g-1 of dry weight of EPA and DHA, as the sum, can be given in following order: Anguila anguila>Rutilus rutilus>Cyprinus carpio>Esox lucius>Blicca bjoerkna>Perca fluviatilis>Abramis brama>Sander lucioperca>Tinca tinca>Carassius carassius. © 2017, Polish Society Magnesium Research. All rights reserved.

Napiorkowska-Krzebietke A.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute | Kobos J.,University of Gdansk
Water Research | Year: 2016

The biovolume of phytoplankton must be assessed accurately in order to identify the ecological status of water bodies in line with the WFD requirements. Hence, the current study has been carried out to verify and improve the precision of as well as to facilitate and accelerate estimations of phytoplankton biovolume by reviewing and rearranging the basic geometrical shapes of these organisms applied in such evaluations. The latest standards comprise 17 geometric shapes and equations suitable for estimations of cell/filament/colony biovolume and additionally include taxa-specific ‘geometric correction factors’ to fit real shapes and ‘hidden dimension factors’ to achieve data on hardly measureable dimensions. This paper also discusses possible obstacles to making correct biovolume assessments, especially when analyzing taxa of special concern, e.g. Ceratium hirundinella, C. furcoides or Pediastrum duplex and Pseudopediastrum boryanum. Our comparison of two approaches, the previous and the new one, revealed that they yield statistically significantly different biovolume results of these species. Some recommendations how to deal with the new and old methods of biovolume estimations and how to reduce the possibility of errors with overestimation and underestimation were also given. The more recent method can be said to give more precise estimates of phytoplankton biovolume. Besides, it facilitates more rapid phytoplankton analyses in most cases, which is very useful when assessing the ecological status of lakes during routine monitoring programs. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Korwin-Kossakowski M.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries | Year: 2012

The paper presents differences in the distribution of hatching gland cells, and the location of egg envelope digestion, the significance of hatching movements, and the ways larvae escape from egg envelopes. A review of the literature on the hatching orientation of 34 fish species is compared. No correlation was seen between hatching orientation and egg diameter or newly hatched larva length, nor newly hatched larvae length ratio to egg diameter. Photographs of twelve freshwater species present the moment of hatching either head first or tail first. Some differences were shown in swelling between eggs incubated in commercial hatchery and developed in natural conditions, as well as possible effect of these differences on hatching. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Korwin-Kossakowski M.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2014

Preservation in 30% ethanol and freezing to a temperature of -20±2° C is an appropriate method for measurement of fish eggs, larvae and juveniles. Egg diameter of the common carp Cyprinus carpio increased insignificantly by 1·32% after preservation compared with live size. The total length (LT) of 1 day post-hatching (dph) larvae as well as the standard length (LS) of 16 dph larvae of C. carpio increased significantly (2·95 and 1·50%, respectively) after preservation. Egg diameter as well as the LT of 1 dph larvae of barbel Barbus barbus increased significantly after preservation, by 1·74 and 1·96%, respectively over their original size. The standard length (LS) of 14 dph larvae of B. barbus as well as juveniles of B. barbus, crucian carp Carassius carassius, common nase Chondrostoma nasus and tench Tinca tinca decreased significantly after preservation (-0·56 to -5·54%), whereas their body mass increased significantly (11·46-18·57%). Preserved eggs of C. carpio and B. barbus were hard, round and transparent. The larvae and juveniles of examined fishes, preserved in frozen ethanol, were straight, flexible and easily measurable after 60 days. Integrity of body surface and fins, as well as preservation of colours were much better in larvae or juveniles frozen and thawed only once than in specimens frozen and thawed thrice. Cooling in 30% ethanol to a temperature of 6±2° C and freezing in water to a temperature of -20±2° C are not appropriate preservation methods for eggs and larvae of C. carpio (1 and 16 dph). © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Sikorska J.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute | Wolnicki J.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries | Year: 2010

At the onset of swimbladder inflation, Tinca tinca larvae were exposed for 24 h to cadmium or copper at 0.0 (control concentration), 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg dm-3 at 22°C. From then larvae were reared at 25°C for 9 days in un-supplemented water. Both metals resulted in a significantly reduced growth, survival, and retarded swimbladder inflation in a dose-response manner. The highest Cd and Cu concentration delayed the onset of exogenous feeding (live artemia nauplii) for 2 or 1 days, respectively, comparing to the control concentration. Our results demonstrate a highly toxic effect of Cd and Cu in the studied period of larval ontogeny, when fish seem especially sensitive. Although, at low concentrations and long exposure period, Cu is considered more toxic to fish than Cd, our study revealed the reverse effect for first-feeding larvae of both metals at high concentrations and short exposure. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Studies were carried out on the effect of initial size summer pikperch fry, Stizostedion lucioperca, (two size groups), water temperature (22 and 24°C), and food type (zooplankton or artificial feeds) upon the results of rearing in controlled conditions. Weight and total length of the fish at the beginning of the experiment amounted respectively to 0.25 ± 0.06 g and 32.9 ± 2.7 mm (group S), 0.53 ± 0.06 g 39.4 ± 1.6 mm (group L). No significant effect of the initial fish size and water temperature on fish survival and losses due to cannibalism was bserved in fish which fed on zooplankton (p > 0.05). Statistical analysis revealed significant effect of initial fish size (p = 0.0011) as well as water temperature (p = 0.0001) on the survival in the groups of fish reared on artificial food. These fish attained bigger size (body weight and length) than fish in the control group (feeding on live zooplankton) (p < 0.05). Temperature had no effect on growth rate of the fish, those reared on artificial as well as natural food.

Myszkowski L.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2013

In a 40 day experiment, barbel Barbus barbus juveniles were fed a dry diet continuously, or food was withheld for 2, 5 or 10 days, and then resumed feeding. Improved feed utilization efficiency allowed fish deprived of food for 2 or 5 days to fully compensate for body mass loss. Short-term food deprivation as a method of preventing negative effects of overfeeding in intensive rearing of juvenile B. barbus is proposed. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Napiorkowska-Krzebietke A.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute | Hutorowicz A.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute
Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies | Year: 2013

The epilimnetic and metalimnetic phytoplankton assemblages were compared in two mesotrophic lakes (L. Hańcza and L. Dejguny, northeastern Poland) and a "metalimnetic niche" is described. Phytoplankton analysis conducted during July and August 2006, 2007, and 2008 indicated that the total phytoplankton biomass in both lakes was relatively small (from 0.6 to 5.2 mg dm-3), with maximum values mainly occurring in the metalimnion. The lowest number of species and diversity indices values were usually observed in the metalimnetic layers. Lake Hańcza was dominated by diatoms (e.g. Cyclotella spp.) whereas Lake Dejguny was mainly dominated by cyanoprokaryotes (e.g. Planktothrix agardhii), with a distinct predominance of diatoms (e.g. Tabellaria flocculosa) in 2007. The common features of the phytoplankton assemblages in both lakes were a tolerance to nutrient and light deficiencies. A cluster analysis of the taxonomic patterns indicated large dissimilarities between the lakes. The phytoplankton assemblages developed under the influence of seasonal conditions, especially in Lake Hańcza. The distinction between metalimnetic and epilimnetic phytoplankton assemblages only appeared in Lake Dejguny. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.

Ciereszko A.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Dietrich G.J.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Nynca J.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Dobosz S.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute | Zalewski T.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

The goal of this study was to improve post-thaw quality of cryopreserved rainbow trout semen. Quality was assessed by measuring sperm motility and fertilization rates at the eyed, hatching, and swim-up larvae stages. We first tested how varying glucose concentrations in a methanol extender (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3. M, n= 9 different males per concentration) and different semen-extender ratios (1:3, 1:1, and 3:1, n= 3 males and in a separate experiment 1:3 and 1:5, n= 6) affected post-thaw motility. Sperm motility and fertilization rates of samples with 0.18. M glucose in 9% methanol as an extender, a 1:5 sperm-to-extender ratio, and a 15. min equilibration period then were measured at sperm-to-egg ratios of 100,000, 300,000, and 600,000:1. The optimal cryopreservation conditions were found to be 0.15. M glucose in the extender, a 15. min equilibration period, and a 1:5 semen-to-extender ratio. This combination resulted in high post-thaw motility (49.9%) and hatching rates (67.1. ±. 18.7, 78.6. ±. 17.0, and 84.4. ±. 10.0% for sperm-to-egg ratios of 100,000, 300,000 and 600,000:1, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the post-thaw fertilization ability of rainbow trout semen can be similar to that of fresh semen at a sperm-to-egg ratio as low as 600,000:1. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Napiorkowska-Krzebietke A.,Stanislaw Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute
Archives of Polish Fisheries | Year: 2014

Phytoplankton changes in canals were described in light of communities in chosen lakes of the Konin lakes system, and links were identified between these changes and water quality assessments based on different biological indexes. Seasonal phytoplankton studies were performed in the Warta-Goplo (WG) and Konin Power Plant (EK) canals. 258 and 223 taxa from six divisions were identified that comprised a maximum biomass of 13.4 mg dm-3 in the EK canal and 9.3 mg dm-3 in the WG canal. The communities in the canals were co-dominated by diatoms, cryptomonads, and chlorophytes. Blooms of the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae were only noted in the WG canal. The phytoplankton in the EK canal and Lake OElesinskie were closely similar. Consistent water quality assessments were obtained with the saprobic system (moderately polluted and good quality), while the results of the algal genus pollution index indicated there was a high degree of pollution. Classifications using the Shannon-Weaver and indexes (IT) indicated the water quality in the EK canal was good, while in the WG canal the water had low levels of pollution and was at a poor ecological potential. Classification modifications based on the Shannon-Weaver index permit assessing canal water quality analogously to the saprobity index. Using these indexes is proposed as a phytoplankton-based alternative to multi-metric assessments of ecological status or potential in small rivers, streams, and canals. The possibility of performing comprehensive, five-degree classifications was confirmed, thus, permitting the recommendation of this method for water quality assessments.

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