Leland Stanford Junior University, or more commonly Stanford University, is a private research university in Stanford, California, and one of the world's most prestigious institutions, with the highest undergraduate selectivity and the top position in numerous surveys and measures in the United States.Stanford was founded in 1885 by Leland Stanford, former governor of and U.S. senator from California and leading railroad tycoon, and his wife, Jane Lathrop Stanford, in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford, Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was opened on October 1, 1891 as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Tuition was free until 1920. The university struggled financially after Leland Stanford's 1893 death and after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley. By 1970, Stanford was home to a linear accelerator, and was one of the original four ARPANET nodes .Stanford is located in northern Silicon Valley near Palo Alto, California. The University's academic departments are organized into seven schools, with several other holdings, such as laboratories and nature reserves, located outside the main campus. Its 8,180-acre campus is one of the largest in the United States. The University is also one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.Stanford's undergraduate program is the most selective in the country with an acceptance rate of 5.07% for the 2018 Class. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the University is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pacific-12 Conference. It has gained 105 NCAA team championships, the second-most for a university, 465 individual championships, the most in Division I, and has won the NACDA Directors' Cup, recognizing the university with the best overall athletic team achievement, every year since 1994-1995.Stanford faculty and alumni have founded many companies including Google, Hewlett-Packard, Nike, Sun Microsystems, and Yahoo!, and companies founded by Stanford alumni generate more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world. Fifty-nine Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the University, and it is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires and 17 astronauts. Stanford has produced a total of 18 Turing Award laureates, the highest in the world for any one institution. It is also one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Wikipedia.
Stanford University | Date: 2016-09-30
Apparatus, systems, and methods are provided for performing a biopsy within a patients lung using an access sheath or catheter including a distal portion sized for introduction into an airway of a lung. An ultrasound imaging device is deployable from the distal portion for imaging tissue adjacent the body lumen, and a needle or other biopsy may be advanced from the distal portion into surrounding tissue, e.g., to obtain a tissue sample.
Stanford University | Date: 2016-08-12
The present application pertains generally to medical systems and methods for creation of an autologous tissue valves within a mammalian body. In some embodiments, a system for creating an endoluminal valve from a blood vessel wall is provided. The system includes a tubular assembly having a longitudinal axis, a proximal end, a distal portion with a distal end, and a first lumen extending from the proximal end to a distal port located proximate the distal portion. The distal portion can have a supporting surface that extends in a longitudinal direction and is offset from a surface of the tubular assembly proximal the distal port. The system can further include a tissue dissection probe disposed within the first lumen.
Stanford University | Date: 2016-08-11
A brain machine interface (BMI) for improving a performance of a subject is provided. The BMI has two decoders that act in real-time and in parallel to each other. The first decoder is for intention execution of a subjects intention. The second decoder is for error detection in a closed-loop error fashion with the first detector and to improve the performance of the first detector. Embodiments of this invention may enable an entirely new way to substantially increase the performance and robustness, user experience, and ultimately the clinical viability of BMI systems.
Stanford University | Date: 2017-03-29
Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) capsid proteins are provided. Methods for generating the recombinant adeno-associated viral capsid proteins and a library from which the capsids are selected are also provided
Stanford University | Date: 2017-04-05
The invention provides delivery methods and compositions for antiviral therapeutics. Methods and compositions are provided for targeted delivery of antiviral therapeutics into cells of interest using, for example, viral vectors such as adenovirus, AAV, and replication incompetent HSV. These and other delivery systems can be used as vehicles to deliver DNA vectors encoding a nuclease or a cell-killing gene. These delivery methods can also be used to deliver naked DNA or RNA, protein products, plasmids containing a promoter that is active only in a latent viral state which drives a cell-killing gene, or other therapeutic agents.
Steinman L.,Stanford University
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2014
Eighty percent of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) initially develop a clinical pattern with periodic relapses followed by remissions, called relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). This period of fluctuating disease may last for a decade or more. Clinical relapses reflect acute inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS), composed of the brain and spinal cord. Often, different anatomic areas in the CNS are involved each time a relapse occurs, resulting in varied clinical manifestations in each instance. Relapses are nearly always followed by some degree of remission, though recovery to baseline status before the flare is often incomplete. There are nine approved drugs for treatment of RRMS. The most potent drug for inhibiting relapses, the humanized anti-α4 integrin antibody known as Natalizumab, blocks homing of mononuclear cells to the CNS. The mechanisms of action of the approved drugs for RRMS provide a strong foundation for understanding the pathobiology of the relapse. Despite substantial progress in controlling relapses with the current armamentarium of medications, there is much to learn and ever more effective and safe therapies to develop. © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Gur T.M.,Stanford University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013
Conversion of carbonaceous solid fuels in carbon fuel cells (CFC) especially those that operated at moderately elevated temperatures is of great interest as concerns about the need for efficient and sustainable energy technologies and clean environment grow in importance on the global agenda. The quest for carbon conversion in fuel cells is not new and has been pursued intermittently for nearly 150 years. Recent interest and research activity in this area is fueled in part by concerns over energy and environment but, more importantly, by the realization that CFCs potentially offer two critically important advantages, namely, significantly higher conversion efficiencies and concentrated CO2 product streams. High efficiencies and low emissions are imperative for sustainability. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy stored in the bonds of fuels into electrical energy. Electrochemical conversion offers inherently higher efficiency than is possible by chemical conversion into electrical energy.
Hartnoll S.A.,Stanford University
Nature Physics | Year: 2015
The anomalous transport of important materials such as high-temperature superconductors and other 'bad metals' is not well understood theoretically. In an incoherent metal, transport is controlled by the collective diffusion of energy and charge rather than by quasiparticle or momentum relaxation. Here, we explore the possibility of a universal bound D ≳hv2 F/(KBT) on the underlying diffusion constants in an incoherent metal. Such a bound is loosely motivated by results from holographic duality, the uncertainty principle and measurements of diffusion in strongly interacting non-metallic systems. Metals close to saturating this bound are shown to have a linear-in-temperature resistivity with an underlying dissipative timescale matching that recently deduced from experimental data on a wide range of metals. This bound may therefore be responsible for the ubiquitous appearance of high-temperature regimes in metals with T-linear resistivity. To establish this calls for direct measurements of diffusive processes and of charge susceptibilities in incoherent metals. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Fraser H.B.,Stanford University
Genome Research | Year: 2013
The molecular basis of adaptation - and, in particular, the relative roles of protein-coding versus gene expression changes - has long been the subject of speculation and debate. Recently, the genotyping of diverse human populations has led to the identification of many putative "local adaptations" that differ between populations. Here I show that these local adaptations are over 10-fold more likely to affect gene expression than amino acid sequence. In addition, a novel framework for identifying polygenic local adaptations detects recent positive selection on the expression levels of genes involved in UV radiation response, immune cell proliferation, and diabetes-related pathways. These results provide the first examples of polygenic gene expression adaptation in humans, as well as the first genome-scale support for the hypothesis that changes in gene expression have driven human adaptation. © 2013, Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Kay M.A.,Stanford University
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2011
Improvements in the gene transfer vectors used in therapeutic trials have led to substantial clinical successes in patients with serious genetic conditions, such as immunodeficiency syndromes, blindness and some cancer types. Several barriers need to be overcome before this type of therapy becomes a widely accepted treatment for a broad group of medical diseases. However, recent progress in the field is finally realizing some of the promises made more than 20 years ago, providing optimism for additional successes in the near future. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.