Standard Research Institute of Iran

Karaj, Iran

Standard Research Institute of Iran

Karaj, Iran

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Shamsi S.R.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Piravivanak Z.,Standard Research Institute of Iran | Moslehishad M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Pooretedal Z.,Standard Research Institute of Iran
Current Nutrition and Food Science | Year: 2016

Background: Milk of camel is well-known for there health effects on human. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of fatty acids in the raw milk of one-humped camel in Iran. Methods: For this purpose, 25 samples of one-humped camel milk from 7 different places in Iran (Tehran, Qazvin, Golestan, Bushehr, Sistan-Baluchistan, Khuzestan and Semnan) were collected. Fatty acid composition of samples were determined by gas chromatography method. Results: The results of analyses of the samples showed that 26 fatty acids were identified and determined. Among the regions, Tehran had the lowest amount of butyric acids and linoleic acid (P 0.05). Bushehr had the lowest percent of myristic acid and high levels of oleic, inoleic and capric acids. Golestan had the highest amount of palmitic acid in comparison to other provinces. Also, Golestan, Khuzestan and Qazvin had the highest level of butyric acid. Milk samples obtained from Sistan-Baluchistan were rich in lauric and butyric acids, while palmitic acid was low. Conclusion: In general, one-humped camel milk had 46.74% saturated fatty acids, 44.33% mono unsaturated fatty acids, and 8.91% polyunsaturated fatty acid. The variations in the composition of fatty acids can be attributed to a grazing area. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.


Dastmalchi F.,University of Tehran | Dastmalchi F.,Standard Research Institute of Iran | Razavi S.H.,University of Tehran | Faraji M.,Standard Research Institute of Iran | Labbafi M.,University of Tehran
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was the evaluation of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contains lactobacillus (L.) casei- casei and L. reuteri on acrylamide formation and physicochemical properties of the Iranian flat bread named, Sangak, and Bread roll. Sangak and Bread roll were made with whole and white wheat flour, respectively. Whole-wheat flour had upper content of protein, sugar, ash, fiber, damaged starch and the activity of amylase than the white wheat flour. After 24 h of fermentation, the pH values of the sourdoughs made from whole-wheat flour (3.00, 2.90) were lower, in compared to sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour (3.60, 3.58). In addition, in Sangak bread, glucose, and fructose were completely utilized after fermentation, but in bread roll, the reduced sugar levels increased after fermentation and baking that represent microorganisms cannot be activated and utilized sugars. Acrylamide formation was impacted by pH of sourdough and total reducing sugar (r = 0.915, r = 0.885 respectively). Bread roll and Sangak bread were fermented by L. casei- casei contained lowest acrylamide content, in two bread types (219.1, 104.3 μg/kg respectively). As an important result, the acrylamide content of Sangak bread in all cases was lower than in the Bread roll. © 2015 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India)


Dastmalchi F.,University of Tehran | Dastmalchi F.,Standard Research Institute of Iran | Razavi S.H.,University of Tehran
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods | Year: 2016

The effect of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus fermentation, on reducing acrylamide and physicochemical properties of the Iranian flat bread named, Sangak and bulk bread were studied. Bread containing whole grain such as Sangak bread contains a high level of enzymes and nutrients related to the bran and outer layers of the grain. In this study, the activity of amylase in whole wheat flour was 19.8% higher than to white wheat flour, based on falling number analysis. Results showed after 24 h of fermentation, in similar temperature, the pH values of the sourdoughs made from whole wheat flour were higher, compared to sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour. Acrylamide formation was affected (r=0.69) by pH of sourdough. In addition, moisture and water activity of bread reversely influenced (r=-0.807 and -0.588, respectively) the formation of acrylamide in bread. As an important result, acrylamide content of Sangak bread in all cases was lower than in the bulk bread. According to a sensory analysis, Sangak and bulk bread leavened with LAB starters had the most acceptable to yeast starter. The addition of sourdough starters decreased pH of bread, which causes of enhancing the texture and sensory properties, as well as reducing of contaminants like acrylamide. © 2016 Wageningen Academic Publishers.


PubMed | Standard Research Institute of Iran and University of Tehran
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was the evaluation of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contains lactobacillus (L.) casei- casei and L. reuteri on acrylamide formation and physicochemical properties of the Iranian flat bread named, Sangak, and Bread roll. Sangak and Bread roll were made with whole and white wheat flour, respectively. Whole-wheat flour had upper content of protein, sugar, ash, fiber, damaged starch and the activity of amylase than the white wheat flour. After 24h of fermentation, the pH values of the sourdoughs made from whole-wheat flour (3.00, 2.90) were lower, in compared to sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour (3.60, 3.58). In addition, in Sangak bread, glucose, and fructose were completely utilized after fermentation, but in bread roll, the reduced sugar levels increased after fermentation and baking that represent microorganisms cannot be activated and utilized sugars. Acrylamide formation was impacted by pH of sourdough and total reducing sugar (r=0.915, r=0.885 respectively). Bread roll and Sangak bread were fermented by L. casei- casei contained lowest acrylamide content, in two bread types (219.1, 104.3g/kg respectively). As an important result, the acrylamide content of Sangak bread in all cases was lower than in the Bread roll.

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